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Unit 4 – The Executive Branch Unit 4 – The Executive Branch

Presidential Roles – the President wears many hats n n n Chief Executive – Presidential Roles – the President wears many hats n n n Chief Executive – puts laws into effect Chief of State – ceremonial speaker for U. S. Chief Legislator – leadership role in Congress Commander-in-chief – control over military Chief Diplomat – negotiates foreign policy Chief Politician – head of political party

Formal Qualifications n n n Natural Born Citizen of the U. S. 35 years Formal Qualifications n n n Natural Born Citizen of the U. S. 35 years old 14 year residence in the U. S. (not necessarily consecutive)

Informal Qualifications n n n male White (with one exception) Protestant (Kennedy was Catholic) Informal Qualifications n n n male White (with one exception) Protestant (Kennedy was Catholic) wealthy families college educated

Salary/benefits n n n n $400, 000/yr. since 2001 $100, 000/yr. travel account $50, Salary/benefits n n n n $400, 000/yr. since 2001 $100, 000/yr. travel account $50, 000/yr. expense account residence at White House – pool, tennis, gym, bowling alley, movie theater personal staff – 400 -500 people Camp David – vacation/weekend getaway on 180 acres in Maryland Air Force One Retirement - $151, 800/yr plus $150, 000 staff/office plus secret service protection

Powers of the President n n Domestic Powers – authority over what happens inside Powers of the President n n Domestic Powers – authority over what happens inside the U. S. Foreign Powers – authority over the U. S. role in activities outside the country

Executive Powers – carrying out the laws passed by Congress n n executive order Executive Powers – carrying out the laws passed by Congress n n executive order – a rule to ensure that a law is being carried out – carries the force of law appoints federal officials – today most government jobs are filled through civil service

Legislative Powers – a leadership role in what laws are passed by Congress n Legislative Powers – a leadership role in what laws are passed by Congress n n n recommending legislation – State of the Union – President sets priorities approving or vetoing legislation – through pocket veto (President does nothing and Congress adjourns without the bill being signed) or by simply stamping veto on it. Call special sessions of Congress

Judicial Powers – President has some authority in judicial matters n n n grant Judicial Powers – President has some authority in judicial matters n n n grant reprieves – a delay in punishment grant pardons – a release from punishment grant amnesty – a “blanket pardon” for an entire group of people

Spending Powers – Congress controls the government’s spending the President does have some authority Spending Powers – Congress controls the government’s spending the President does have some authority in how money is spent n n emergency funding – President can declare Emergency Disaster Areas impoundment – President can refuse to spend money budgeted by Congress

Diplomatic Powers – the President speaks for the U. S. n n n appoints Diplomatic Powers – the President speaks for the U. S. n n n appoints diplomatic representatives – ambassadors are highest ranking diplomats recognizing foreign governments treaty making – treaties are formal agreements between countries

Military Powers n n n Commander-in-chief of the armed forces – supreme command over Military Powers n n n Commander-in-chief of the armed forces – supreme command over the U. S. military Conflict over military powers with Korea, Vietnam, Persian Gulf. Following Vietnam, Congress passed the War Powers Act. Troops can be sent in to a hostile situation only if: Congress declares war Congress makes a law authorizing such an action In case of national emergency

Executive Office of the President n n n Bureaucracy – non-elected officials who carry Executive Office of the President n n n Bureaucracy – non-elected officials who carry out specific government functions The Administration – President, his staff, The Cabinet – heads of 15 executive departments White House office – Chief of Staff, Press Secretary, Congress liaisons National Security Council – V. P. , Secretary of State, Sec. of Defense, National Security Advisor, CIA Director, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff – advises the President on security matters Council of Economic Advisors – advises the President on economic matters Office of Management and Budget – advises the President on budget matters

The Cabinet n n n n Agriculture Commerce Defense Education Energy Health and Human The Cabinet n n n n Agriculture Commerce Defense Education Energy Health and Human Services Homeland Security Housing and Urban Development Interior Labor State Transportation Treasury Veteran’s Affairs Justice n n Under President Obama, the following have been accorded cabinet-level rank EPA administrator OMB director National Drug Control Policy director n U. S. Trade Representative n White House Chief of Staff Ambassador to UN CEA Chairman Small Business Administrator n n n

Management style n n Circular Pyramid Management style n n Circular Pyramid

Independent Regulatory Commissions – agencies that make rules and regulations to protect the public Independent Regulatory Commissions – agencies that make rules and regulations to protect the public n n Examples: Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Independent – bipartisan (made up of members of both parties) Commissioners – appointed by the President Deregulation – cutting back on regulations

EOP continued n n Government Corporations – provide services which private industry is unwilling EOP continued n n Government Corporations – provide services which private industry is unwilling or unable to provide Examples: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), U. S. Postal Service, AMTRAK Executive Agencies – serve specific functions Examples: NASA, GSA

Skills and qualities needed to lead the country n n n understanding the public Skills and qualities needed to lead the country n n n understanding the public ability to communicate sense of timing openness to new ideas ability to compromise political courage

Presidential Style – James David Barber n n Active-Positive – active as president, positive Presidential Style – James David Barber n n Active-Positive – active as president, positive feelings for the job. Ex. FDR, JFK, Truman Active-Negative – active as president, did not like the job. Negative feelings. Ex. LBJ, Nixon Passive-Positive – relaxed attitude toward job and enjoy it. Ex. Taft, Reagan Passive-Negative- relaxed attitude without enjoying it. Ex. Coolidge, Eisenhower

Popularity – more popular a president is, the more influential he is n n Popularity – more popular a president is, the more influential he is n n In times of crisis, president’s popularity goes up If the economy is bad, popularity goes down

Two-term tradition n George Washington set the tradition; FDR broke the tradition 22 nd Two-term tradition n George Washington set the tradition; FDR broke the tradition 22 nd Amendment – limits presidents terms to two, if a president serves more than two years of the previous president’s term, he can only be reelected once. 20 th Amendment – moved inauguration to Jan. 20

Succession n n Succession – V. P. , Speaker of the House, President Pro Succession n n Succession – V. P. , Speaker of the House, President Pro Tempore, Cabinet Heads – State, Treasury, Defense 25 th Amendment – Presidential disability, Vice-President and majority of cabinet can discharge a president of duties

Campaigns for President – 4 step process n n Announcement Obtaining delegates – representatives Campaigns for President – 4 step process n n Announcement Obtaining delegates – representatives to party’s convention Conventions Final Campaign

Announcements n n n Candidates select carefully where they announce their candidacy. The announcement Announcements n n n Candidates select carefully where they announce their candidacy. The announcement is the end of the precampaign period – raising enough money to run. Candidates usually need these things to run: high profile position (job), name recognition, time, ambition, funds.

Delegate Selection n n The two political parties nominate candidates for President and V. Delegate Selection n n The two political parties nominate candidates for President and V. P. Nominations are the formal endorsements by the political parties. Two methods for selecting delegates – primaries and caucuses. Three types of primaries – closed primaries – only members of the party can vote in that party’s primary open primary – you can vote in either party’s primary blanket primary – you can vote in both parties’ primaries

Conventions – not much action anymore, nominee is known long before and conventions have Conventions – not much action anymore, nominee is known long before and conventions have become staged T. V. events n n Day one – speeches, keynote speech Day two – platform – statement of party’s beliefs Day three – vote (roll call), selection of the nominee Day four – President and V. P. candidates’ speeches

Financing campaigns n n $2500 limit per individual $5000 limit per PAC candidates themselves Financing campaigns n n $2500 limit per individual $5000 limit per PAC candidates themselves Matching Funds – to qualify for government money you must raise $5000 (with $250 maximum individual contributions) in a minimum of 20 states

The Electoral College n n The Founding fathers wanted to separate voters from the The Electoral College n n The Founding fathers wanted to separate voters from the election of the president, feared direct popular participation. The Electoral College is a method for selecting the president through indirect popular participation. Each state has a specified number of electoral votes = number of Senators and number of House members in that state. For example: North Carolina – 13 House members + 2 Senators = 15 Electoral votes United States – 435 House members + 100 Senators = total of 538 electoral votes (Where did the extra 3 come from? ) The candidate who receives a plurality (more votes than any other candidate) wins ALL of that state’s electoral votes. You must win a majority of the total to win election = 270. For this reason, it is very possible (ex. 2000) that the candidate that receives the most popular votes may not win the Presidency. If no candidate receives a majority, the House of Representatives selects the President.

Who votes? n n n Whites vote more than minorities Wealthy vote more than Who votes? n n n Whites vote more than minorities Wealthy vote more than poor Older vote more than younger More educated vote more than less educated Gender – no difference

How do we vote? n n n Political socialization – from where do we How do we vote? n n n Political socialization – from where do we get our political beliefs family/parents friends education job church