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Unit 4 AOS 2 AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN POLICY
Some Key Areas Change in Historical Background Orientations and Goals of AFP Security & Alliance Regional Relationships Economic Dimension The Role of Internationalism Recent Changes in AFP Debate About National Interest
The historical background to Australian foreign policy
UNDERLYING THEMES IN AFP ü Protection of its own physical security and ultimately its own survival as a white Anglo-Saxon society - based on large land mass huge coast line and small population “fear”. Examples “White Australian” Policy. We are “the frightened country”. David Hunter Deakin University. ü Distrust in our nearest neighbours. -”Yellow Peril”, not like us ü Threat mentality – we are at danger of being invaded because of our land, resources, wealth etc. . ü A need for a Great & Powerful Friend - to defend us as we could not defend ourselves need help and help from who we trust the most.
FOREIGN POLICY 1900 - 1945 Well into the 20 th century Australian FP was a matter decided by the national interests of the British Commonwealth. Grey (1990) has referred to this policy of securing our defence through contributions to the British empire’s defence as an “expeditionary force mentality”. Strong desire to show are capability to help and support the British Empire. Fought in Boer War, WW I and WW II. Note language used: see Firth pp 8 -9 WW I Australian casualties: 215, 585 casualties of the 331, 781 total troops who fought at a very high rate of 64. 98% In fact Australia did not have its own Department of Foreign Affairs until 1936! No separate source of information, opinion or voice was deemed to be necessary. But Australia did take control of Papua in 1906, 1911 saw the establishment of the Australian Navy, & the Australian Imperial Forces (1914) In 1941 Prime Minister Curtin declared that “Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the UK”. UK however, could do little to help us once Singapore fell in 1942. Therefore we shifted our focus to gaining support from the USA. Still needed a “GPF”.
THE COLD WAR Establishment of ANZUS alliance in 1951. Navel communication base in WA in 1963. Finally abolished the ‘White Australia Policy’ in 1972 under Whitlam. SEATO – South East Asia Treaty Organisation (1954) was established in order to oppose further communist gains in Asia. Never really effective and was dissolved in 1975. Rearming and rebuilding of Japan to counter the spread of communism in North Asia. Adoption of ‘Forward Defence’ principle Vietnam (1962 -72) 46, 000 troops but much criticism over Australia’s willingness to “fight other people’s wars”. It did provide excellent opportunities to exchange & share military defence & technology. Fear of “red peril” & the ‘domino theory’ in the Australian mindset. Supported the US policy of containment.
The ALP had been in opposition since 1949 until the election of Gough Whitlam as PM ushered in one of he most transformative periods of AFP ever. In just three years the Whitlam government: Recognised East Germany and the PRC Abolished conscription and withdrew troops from South Vietnam Raised Australia’s criticism of colonial powers in Africa Took France to the ICJ over its nuclear bomb testing in the South Pacific Abolished the last remnants of the WAP Condemned US bombing missions into North Vietnam Accepted the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975 Chose to accept the existence of US bases on Australian soil Asserted a more independent stance for AFP than all previous Australian governments…. making ‘enemies’ along the way.
Like Whitlam, Malcolm Fraser took a very active approach to the formulation of AFP, but with a more traditional pro-US focus: ü ü ü He distrusted the USSR but chose to not respond to the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and accepted Australia’s participation in the 1980 Moscow Olympics Developed stronger relations with many African developing states to diminish racism and boost fairness in global trade Supported the embargo on South Africa because of its apartheid policies Encouraged a shift towards Asian immigration into Australia. Actively encouraged Australians to look toward Asia without the bias and prejudices of the past.
This was an era of dramatic changes in the focus and purpose of AFP. In this period there were not only significant events to deal with but also a wide range of initiatives taken up by F. M. ’s Hayden and later on Evans. ü Globalisation of Australian financial markets ü Created DFAT in 1987 ü Established the Cairns Group to campaign for global trade reform ü Signed the CER with NZ ü Helped create the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ü Encouraged a more Asian focus on trade and regional relationships ü Reiterated the importance of the US alliance especially after NZ left ANZUS in 1985. . ’Together forever’ (Hawke). Creation of AUSMIN ü Enthusiastically sent two frigates to the blockade of Iraq in Gulf War ü Maintained strong ties with Indonesia despite the issue of East Timor Take Brief Notes: pp 42 -48
Security and alliance relationships
ALLIANCES An alliance is a form of marriage or liaison for certain purposes, with all problems of compatibility, pride, shared interest & varying expectations that relationships bring. Alliances offer participants many things, depending on the nature of the alliance itself & its particular provisions. ‘For Australia, the ANZUS alliance is the basic document underlying a range of bilateral agreements and treaties which support an intense military, scientific and intelligence collaboration. ’ K. Beazley Australia’s ambassador to the US February 2011
The key focus or essence of Australia’s foreign policy has been its very special relationship with the USA. The relationship forged in World War 2, has been remarkably strong and resilient and survived every issue and crisis to date… Namely the Vietnam War, when Australia continued to support the US when other allies did not and the recent War on Terror and the invasion of Iraq, as an enthusiastic member of the ‘Coalition of the Willing’.
Australia’s expectations of the alliance have always been the same, are part of its overall priority of military and economic security. The USA expected Australia to part of the general western alliance providing economic and military security for the USA. With changes in government there have been different expectations and relations with the USA. e. g. Menzies, Whitlam, Fraser, Hawke, Keating, Howard, Rudd and now Gillard. The Australian-US relationship covers far more than the formal military agreements that have been entered into. The relationship covers a whole range of areas, trade, cultural exchange, intelligence sharing, information, (about other states).
A mere 800 words……….
ANZUS We have developed relations with the US due to the following FP priorities: • • WW 2 & ANZUS Alliance Vietnam War – “all the way with LBJ” Gulf War Iraq War – “coalition of the willing” /deputy sheriff Many Australians support the US alliance because: • • We have similar political systems A belief in individualism The common aspects of our cultures The diversity & pluralism in our societies Shared interests in the Asia-pacific region US helped Australia to defeat the Japanese in WW 2 Underlying belief that USA would save us if invaded Defence spending can be lowered assuming USA will help us.
KEY SECURITY ISSUES & AGREEMENTS Today Australia’s security depends largely on developing stronger security ties with our near neighbours. Political instability, global terrorism & fundamentalism are all on the rise in the Asia-Pacific region are the main influences! Today Australia’s security relies on maintaining key strategic partnerships for example: • • • APEC – Asia Pacific Economic Corporation ASEAN – Association of South East Asian Nations ANZUS - Alliance (w/o New Zealand) AUSMIN – Bilateral consultations with the USA FPDA – Five Power Defence Arrangements ARF – ASEAN Regional Forum EAS – East Asia Summit PIF – Pacific Islands Forum Arms Controls – Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Convention on the Banning of Cluster Bombs & the Ottawa Treaty (Land Mine Ban)
US MILITARY BASES Pine Gap, Geraldton & North West Cape The arguments for the bases: Commitment to ANZUS & so increase the likelihood of the US assisting Aust in any military/security crisis Loyalty & future bargaining power Australia contributes to the global balance of power Share military intelligence Arguments against the bases: Australia a target for security threats Sovereignty is compromised Contribute to instability in the region
ATTITUDES TO THE ALLIANCE 1. Essentially bipartisan- main elements are agreed upon by both of the major parties. 2. But differences do exist. Generally speaking the ALP is more critical of aspects – loss of sovereignty; too locked into the US global security position; denies internationalist positions. On the other hand the Coalition – tend to believe in the totality of the whole alliance – have to accept it all; can’t pick and choose one or two aims and ignore the rest.
3. 4. 5. 6. The difference is mainly one of priority with the ALP – US alliance for direct defence, and a greater reliance on independence and different regional positions Lib/National – more inclined to threat perceptions and hence to support the alliance in total US alliance is a delicate balance of cost – benefits Note the ‘Howard Doctrine’ – was new form of Australia’s alignment with the US.
HOWARD DOCTRINE 1996( BUT REALLY 2001) TO 2007 ü National interest equation – countries in the region that are most able to provide Australia with security & economic growth potential ü National security – strengthening and refocusing on ANZUS, war on terrorism, (Howard in USA on 9/11) Iraq conflict, East Timor – “forward defence”. Tension with Indonesia ü Trade and economic interests. Increase commodity-based export markets. Advance globalisation – China, US Free Trade Agreement, Korea, Indonesia. Cairns group. Malaysia sees Australia as a “bully”. ü Role as a global citizen – peacekeeping in East Timor & Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Cambodia, & aid to Pakistan, Vietnam, Mongolia, Mozambique & Tsunami-torn countries. But reputation in jeopardy as we refused UN agreement on women, asylum seekers &anti-terror legislation ü Global environment – no Australian ratification of the Kyoto protocol but signed Valdivia group
HOWARD’S COMMITMENT 1996 Joint Security Declaration with the USA ANZUS being evoked for the first time, by Aust following the 9/11 bombings. Howard was in US at the time Sending of troops to aid the war on terrorism in Afghanistan Australia being the only state in the region to sign up military for the invasion of Iraq Support for the US’s pre-emptive strikes even suggested Australia would use them as well. Howard taking five days to deny that he said Australia was “America’s deputy” in the Asia-Pacific
RUDD & GILLARD POST 2007 As has been the case in Australian politics since the early 1950’s there is broad bi-partisan support for ANZUS and the broader US alliance. Very much steady as always but clearly without the effusive rhetoric that PM Howard was famous for. Rudd withdrew Australian combat troops from Iraq and increasing our commitment in Afghanistan, which sat better with many in Australia as Afghanistan is a UN/NATO mission which Iraq is not and never was. Casualties however, are on the rise 28 service personnel have been killed as at 8/8/2011. Seven in 2011 alone.
USA ALLIANCE ALWAYS POPULAR The Lowy Institute's 2009 survey of the nation's views on a range of foreign policy issues has revealed that 83% of Australians trust the USA to act responsibly in the world - up from 60% in 2006. President Obama has revived Australians' optimism about their relationship with the USA, with 85% now saying it was important for Australia's security.
ALLIANCE QUESTIONS 1. Define ‘security’ as it related to the study of international relations. 2. Explain one specific way the Australian Government has tried to achieve security since 1999. What is the ANZUS agreement? The ANZUS treaty was signed nearly 60 years ago. Why is it still a relevant factor in Australian foreign policy decision making? Describe two arguments for and argument against the ANZUS agreement from Australia's point of view. What does ANZUS require any of the parties to do in the event that one of them is attacked? What was the 'Howard Doctrine'? Why do you think the alliance with America is viewed favourably by the majority of the Australian population? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
The role of Internationalism
GOOD GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP Success in this area is measured by Australia’s willingness to tackle particular issues such as human rights, terrorism, third world debt, drug problems, & environmental issues How we tried to achieve these objectives? • • Membership of the UN trying to get elected to the SC in 2013 -14 Foreign Aid – aims are political stability, pro-Western stance, national economic interest & size of the aid. Examples – Vietnam, Pakistan, natural disaster devastated states. Formal Agreements – WTO & APEC & WHO Peacekeeping – Solomon Islands, East Timor, Middle East & Afghanistan But problems do exist … Human Rights – Aboriginal rights Refugee Issues mandatory detention, ‘Tampa’, Malaysian solution Environmental Issues – Took a lot of years to sign Kyoto Protocol Conduct as the ‘South-Pacific Superpower’
OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) Australia’s aid to the Asia-Pacific region included: Promoted improved governance Assisting countries to access & maximise benefits from trade & new information technologies Supporting improved delivery of basic services, Strengthening regional security Promoting sustainable resource management. Specific examples in recent years include: $1 b to Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction & Development Funding to the Pacific $463 million $600 million to HIV/AIDS strategy $170 million to humanitarian, emergency & refugee funding $6. 5 million to tackle chronic food shortages in Indonesia $55 million to help Burma in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis $2 million to aid China’s earthquake victims in 2008 $5 million aid to assist Pakistan in coping with devastating floods in August 2010
WHO RECEIVES AUSAID?
THE FOREIGN AID BUDGET In the 2008 -09 Federal Budget the government increased foreign aid to $3. 7 b or 0. 31% of GNI. In the 2011 -12 Federal Budget the government plans to increase aid to $4. 8 b or 0. 35% of GNI The Gillard government’s longer term aim was to raise ODA to $8 billion (0. 5% of GDP) by 2015 -16 however this has been revised downwards to just 0. 4% by 2013 -14 well short of previous Rudd government’s target and the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) standard of 0. 7% of GNI.
Source: 2009/10 Budget Papers
Australia’s aid program is traditionally focused on the Asia-Pacific region. Aus. Aid itself says that: ”Two-thirds of the world’s poor live in Australia’s region- out of our twenty nearest neighbours, eighteen are developing countries. Many of these countries are also important trading partners. We export almost $90 b in goods and services to the major countries where Australian aid is delivered”.
AUSTRALIA & THE UN UN website: “Australia is firmly committed to the UN system. As a middle-sized nation, our interests are served by functioning, effective mechanisms for multilateral cooperation that compliment our bilateral & regional relationships. The UN’s importance to Australia can be seen in core areas, such as international peace & security (including arms control & disarmament) & the development of international legal instruments & norms. It is also found in the work of the UN’s programs & technical agencies which deal with issues such as women and children, & protection of the environment & sustainable development”.
A SEAT ON THE UNSC In March 2008, then PM Rudd announced that Australia would stand for election for a two-year term as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in 2013 -14. Not having served on the Security Council since 1986, Rudd was especially keen to have Australia have a term on the world’s pre-eminent security body. Ideally Australia sees itself being able to play a role as an independent, constructive member of the SC. Anticipated cost of project, $40 million. Critics has said the government is simply wasting money and has no chance of succeeding
AUSTRALIAN PEACEKEEPERS AS AT MAY 2011 Operation Location Numbers Purpose Astute & Tower Timor Leste 404 Restore Peace Mazurka Egypt 25 Support UN Azure Sudan 25 Restore Peace Kruger Iraq 35 Restore Peace & Combat Paladin West Bank 12 Restore Peace Slipper Afghanistan 2352* Restore Peace, Training & Combat Anode Solomon Is 80 Restore Peace Resolute EEZ 400 Protect
Historically Labor governments have been strong supporters of the UN. Since 2007 they have: Signed the Kyoto Protocol ü Campaigned for a comprehensive treaty at Copenhagen in 2010 ✘ Abandoned a promised ETS in 2010 ü Promised a Carbon Tax to commence on July 2012 ü Increased its commitment to the ISAF mission in Afghanistan ü Campaigned heavily for a seat on the UNSC ü Strongly supported the rise of the G 20 as a body best suited to coordinate responses to global economic instability since 2008 ü Signed treaties such as the one banning cluster bombs ✘ Established an off shore asylum detention centre in Malaysia and PNG ✘ Increased ODA commitments but will not achieve MDG standard in 2015 ü
INTERNATIONALISM QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is foreign aid? Name two countries that receive the bulk of Australian foreign aid. Give a reason why Australia provides this aid. What is meant by "enlightened self-interest" in relation to foreign aid? State 3 ways Australia fulfils its responsibilities as a global citizen. What is the United Nations? Explain three involvements Australia has with the United Nations What is a treaty? Name two economic treaties and one military treaty to which Australia is a party. Analyse the argument that Australia should attach specific conditions to the foreign aid it provides to other countries.