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Unit 3: Religion History of Religion Part 3 Mr. Young Sociology Unit 3: Religion History of Religion Part 3 Mr. Young Sociology

Characteristics of United States religious groups n n About 65% of Americans belong to Characteristics of United States religious groups n n About 65% of Americans belong to a church, mosque, or synagogue Before 1990, 87% of Americans considered themselves to be Christian, that has fallen to 76% in 2008

1) Diversity n More than 300, 000 congregations, the United States has no dominant 1) Diversity n More than 300, 000 congregations, the United States has no dominant religions

2) Pluralism and Freedom US Government ensures that you have the freedom to worship 2) Pluralism and Freedom US Government ensures that you have the freedom to worship as you please n Anyone can start a religion n

3) Competition and Recruitment n n Religious groups compete for clients Some groups will 3) Competition and Recruitment n n Religious groups compete for clients Some groups will modify their message to reach a more extensive audience

4) Commitment Americans are a religious people, and about 39% attend a religious service 4) Commitment Americans are a religious people, and about 39% attend a religious service every week n Americans donate about 85 billion to religious causes n

5) Toleration 1. 2. 3. All religions have a right to exist—as long as 5) Toleration 1. 2. 3. All religions have a right to exist—as long as they don’t try to or hurt anyone With all religions to choose from, how can anyone tell which one—if any—is true? Each of us may be convinced about the truth of our religion—and that is the goal—but don’t be obnoxious by trying to convince others that you have the exclusive truth

6) Fundamentalist Revival n n More mainstream churches are losing members People are evangelizing 6) Fundamentalist Revival n n More mainstream churches are losing members People are evangelizing with the people they associate with

7) The Electronic Church n Just like everything else church is also becoming a 7) The Electronic Church n Just like everything else church is also becoming a big tv and internet phenomenon

6 Major World Religions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confucianism (5. 9 6 Major World Religions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confucianism (5. 9 million) Judaism (14 million) Buddhism (360 million) Hinduism (820 million) Non-Religious (1. 1 Billion) Islam (1. 2 billion) Christianity (2 billion)

World Religions Video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Bd 5 hv. Xg I_b. Q n World Religions Video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Bd 5 hv. Xg I_b. Q n Religions timeline n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=_l. Fps. Az 5 BPk n Start at 2: 32 n

World Religions Video https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=m 6 d. Cx o 7 t_a. World Religions Video https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=m 6 d. Cx o 7 t_a. E n Ted Ed (12 min) n

Confucianism n n n Founder: K’ung Fu. Tsu Date: 500 B. C. E Original Confucianism n n n Founder: K’ung Fu. Tsu Date: 500 B. C. E Original Location: China

Confucianism Cont. Means “Family of Scholars” n Developed a system of moral principles based Confucianism Cont. Means “Family of Scholars” n Developed a system of moral principles based on peace, justice, and universal order n His teachings were incorporated into writing called Analects n

Cont Believed that humans were by nature good and learn best by a good Cont Believed that humans were by nature good and learn best by a good role model, which he called junzi n Main principle is to maintain jen, sympathy or concern for other humans n Key to jen: sustain right relationships, being loyal and placing morality above selfinterest n

Cont Established foundation for social hierarchy n “Confucius Golden Rule”- treat those who are Cont Established foundation for social hierarchy n “Confucius Golden Rule”- treat those who are subordinate to you as you would like to be treated by people superior to yourself n Due authority is not automatic: it must be earned n Taught the “middle way”, avoid extremes n

Cont Five Constant Relationships: ruler-subject, husband-wife, elder brother-younger brother, elder friend-junior friend, father-son n Cont Five Constant Relationships: ruler-subject, husband-wife, elder brother-younger brother, elder friend-junior friend, father-son n Heaven and Earth are not separate places, but death is a promotion to a more honorable estate n

Judaism Videos n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=5 W_Py. V h. OJTs&feature=relmfu Judaism Videos n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=5 W_Py. V h. OJTs&feature=relmfu

Judaism n n n Founder: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Date: 2000 B. C. E Judaism n n n Founder: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Date: 2000 B. C. E Original Location: Israel

Cont First religion based on monotheism n The Jews consider themselves God’s chosen people Cont First religion based on monotheism n The Jews consider themselves God’s chosen people n They reside in about 134 different countries today n Based on the teachings of the Old Testament and the Torah, first 5 books of the Bible n

Cont. Abraham would leave the Middle East for the promised land (modern day Israel) Cont. Abraham would leave the Middle East for the promised land (modern day Israel) n Israelites would find themselves Egypt where Moses would lead them out n Moses will get the 10 commandments from God on Mount Sinai, laws that the people should live by n

Cont Jews worship in a synagogue and are led by a rabbi n Observe Cont Jews worship in a synagogue and are led by a rabbi n Observe the Sabbath by not working from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday n Believe the Messiah will appear in Jerusalem and bring redemption to the nation n

Cont. Two of the most important things to a Jew 1. Passover (Exodus) when Cont. Two of the most important things to a Jew 1. Passover (Exodus) when God saved the Israelite infants from dying 2. Keeping the Jewish laws (of which there are 613) n

Cont n 1. 2. 3. Judaism has three key components God (deity) Torah (God’s Cont n 1. 2. 3. Judaism has three key components God (deity) Torah (God’s teachings) Israel (community or holy nation)

Buddhism n n n Founder: Siddhartha Gautama Date: 500 -600 BCE Original Location: India Buddhism n n n Founder: Siddhartha Gautama Date: 500 -600 BCE Original Location: India

Cont. n n 1. 2. 3. 4. Buddha means Enlightened One Based on Four Cont. n n 1. 2. 3. 4. Buddha means Enlightened One Based on Four Noble Truths Existence is Suffering The Origin of suffering is desire Suffering ceases when desire ceases The way to end desire is to follow the Eightfold Path to Nirvana

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Right Belief (view) Right Intent Right 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Right Belief (view) Right Intent Right Speech Right Conduct (action) Right livelihood (occupation) Right Effort Right mindfulness (contemplation Right Concentration (ecstasy)

Hinduism Videos n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=jes. Iql. Dk Kd. Y Hinduism Videos n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=jes. Iql. Dk Kd. Y

Hinduism n n n Founder: No Specific Date: 1500 BCE Original Location: India Hinduism n n n Founder: No Specific Date: 1500 BCE Original Location: India

Cont. n n One of the world’s oldest current religions Has no canonical doctrine Cont. n n One of the world’s oldest current religions Has no canonical doctrine Believe in many gods Brahma created the universe

Cont. n n n Central belief is karma, spiritual progress No final judgment, reincarnated Cont. n n n Central belief is karma, spiritual progress No final judgment, reincarnated based on your moral progress in previous life When you reach spiritual perfection, you have attained nirvana

Islam n n n Founder: Muhammad Date: 600 CE Original Location: Saudi Arabia Islam n n n Founder: Muhammad Date: 600 CE Original Location: Saudi Arabia

Cont. Started with Abraham’s son Ishmael n Prophet Muhammad Received revelation from God that Cont. Started with Abraham’s son Ishmael n Prophet Muhammad Received revelation from God that he wrote in the Qur’an n Split into two branches: Shi’ite (who believe that the modern world is threatening the original faith) and Sunni (generally more liberal and accepting of social change) n

Cont 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Believing that there is no god but Allah Cont 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Believing that there is no god but Allah Participating in five periods of prayer each day Paying taxes to help support the needy Fasting during the daylight hours in the month of Ramadan Making at least one pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah in Mecca

Cont. n n Believe in jihad, meaning struggle Western world means holy war Greater Cont. n n Believe in jihad, meaning struggle Western world means holy war Greater Jihad is the internal struggle against sin within a person’s heart Lesser Jihad, external struggle that takes place in the world

Christianity Video n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=N 1 DWEi g. Ee_c&feature=relmfu Christianity Video n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=N 1 DWEi g. Ee_c&feature=relmfu

Christianity Founder: Jesus n Date: 1 st Century BCE n Original Location: Israel n Christianity Founder: Jesus n Date: 1 st Century BCE n Original Location: Israel n

Cont. n n Believe that Jesus is the promised Messiah from God Was born Cont. n n Believe that Jesus is the promised Messiah from God Was born of the virgin Mary in Bethlehem Started his ministry at age 30 Had 12 apostles

Cont. n n n Died on a cross, and is interpreted as a blood Cont. n n n Died on a cross, and is interpreted as a blood sacrifice for the sins of the world Their doctrine is the Holy Bible Believe in a Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

Cont. Believe in baptism by water and baptism by the Holy Spirit n Believe Cont. Believe in baptism by water and baptism by the Holy Spirit n Believe there is only way to Heaven, through Jesus n

Cont. n n n Teachings were opposite those of the worlds Taught that to Cont. n n n Teachings were opposite those of the worlds Taught that to be greatest you must be least Humble yourself that you may be exalted Taught his disciples to love everyone, even your enemies n Only faith will get you into Heaven, not works n