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Unit 3 Chapter 9: Expanding Markets and Moving West Common Finals Terms Rohr/Iverson Unit Essays Common Essays
The Market Revolution (9. 1) • US Markets Expand – Market Revolution in which people buy and sell goods rather than making them for their own use. – Entrepreneurial Spirit: Capitalism = Economic System of private businesses and individuals control production: factories, machines, and land to earn profits. – New Inventions: • Telegraph – Samuel F. B. Morse • Vulcanized Rubber – Charles Goodyear • Sewing Machine – Elias Howe – Foot treadle – I. M. Singer – Impact on House hold economy: Inventions allow mass production lowering time and money to make product. People now buy more for lower cost and buy for comfort not just for necessity.
The Market Revolution (9. 1) • The Economic Revolution – Impact on Communication • Telegraph allows instant communication between cities and in Rail Road Industry – Impact on Transportation • Steam boats – Robert Fulton’s Clermont – first to travel against currents. • Increased building of canals to connect water ways – Emergence of Railroads • More expensive but could run in winter, were faster, and traveled in land!
The Market Revolution (9. 1) • New Markets Link Regions – Southern Agriculture • Remained with crops like cotton, tobacco, and rice. Looked upon industrialization in North as “filthy, overcrowded, licentious factories. ” – Northeast Shipping and Manufacturing • Becomes the center of Am. Commerce linking southern goods to European Markets – N. Y. – Midwest Farming • John Deere – first steel plow • Cyrus Mc. Cormick – mechanical reaper to harvest crops does the work of 5 hired hands.
Manifest Destiny (9. 2) • The Frontier draws Settlers – American Mission: to stretch westward creating an “empire for liberty with room enough for our descendants to the thousandth and thousandth generation. ” – Thomas Jefferson. “Manifest Destiny” to spread U. S. control of the land to the pacific ocean. – Attitudes Toward the Frontier: Offers a fresh start for those suffering economic hardships.
Manifest Destiny (9. 2) • Settlers and Native Americans – The Black Hawk war: pushing of the Sauk and Fox people west of the Mississippi River. – Middle Ground: As long as Whites need N. A. as trading partners and guides, relationships could be beneficial. – Fort Laramie Treaty: provided land east of the Rocky Mountains to be controlled by several N. A. Nations: Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, Crow, etc.
Manifest Destiny (9. 2) • Trails West – The Santa Fe Trail: Independence Missouri to Santa Fe, N. M. busiest avenue for trading. – The Oregon Trail: Independence Missouri to Portland Oregon – provided promise of new future, fertile soil, etc. – The Mormon Migration: from Fayette N. Y. to Salt Lake City Utah. Brigham Young successor of Joseph Smith to Mormon church – Resolving Territorial Disputes: James K. Polk presidential platform: Annexation (permanent acquisition of a territory into the United States) of Oregon territory
Expansion in Texas (9. 3) • Americans Settle in the Southwest – The Mission System: Mexico wins independence from Spain and tries to convert N. A. to Catholicism. – The Impact of Mexican Independence: Mexico has troubles governing the new territory/land so they look to North to create better relationships to benefit their economy. – Mexico Invites US Settlers: Land grants given to Anglo settlers if they agree to follow Mexican laws the official Roman Catholic Church. – Austin In Texas: Stephen F. Austin established a colony between Brazos and Colorado rivers. • John Quincy Adams offered to buy Texas for $1 mill. • Andrew Jackson later offers $5 mill. • Mexico refused and begins to regret hospitality to Anglo immigrants
Expansion in Texas (9. 3) • Texas Fights for Independence – Come to Texas: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Mexican President hears petition from Austin for greater self-gov. of Texas. Santa Anna has him imprisoned for in sighting a revolution. – Remember the Alamo! Santa Anna tries to take the Alamo but is driven out by Austin’s people. He returns and destroys small American garrison in the Alamo. – The Lone Star Republic Sam Houston, and followers defeat Santa Anna @ Battle of San Jacinto. The establish the Republic of Texas Sam Houston as president. – Texas Joins the Union: Sam Houston invites US to annex Texas. James K. Polk, eventual president favors annexation of Texas.
The War with Mexico (9. 4) • Polk Urges War: Sides with Texas that southern border should reach Rio Grande not stop at the Nueces River. – Slidell’s Rejection: Polk sends Spanish speaking John Slidell to purchase California, N. M. , and extend boarder. – Sectional Attitudes Toward War: • South to increase southern power slave states • Abolitionists no in favor of Annexation of Texas due to slavery issue. • The War Begins – Kearny Marches West: Polk orders Colonel Stephen Kearny to march to N. M. , who fell to US w/o a shot. Kearny then heads to California. – The Republic of California: Settlers lead by Fremont seized Sonoma Cal. And started the Republic. They joined with Kearny when he arrived. Mexico gave way to US’s control of California – The war in Mexico: Led by Captain Robert E. Lee, Captain Ulysses S. Grant, General Winfield Scott “Old Fuss and Feathers” and General Zachary Taylor “Old Rough and Ready”.
The War with Mexico (9. 4) • America Gains the Spoils of War – The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: Mexico agrees to Rio Grande boarder and ceded N. M. and California to US. Cost $15 mill. – Gadsden Purchase Established the current borders of the lower 48 states. Cost $10 mill authorized by President Franklin Pierce. – Taylor’s Election in 1848: Zachary Taylor Whig nomination wins over democrats Lewis Cass and Martin Van Buren. • The California Gold Rush: James Marshall carpenter on John Sutter’s property discovered gold. – The Rush Begins: Migration to California Sky rockets 49 -ers prospectors who flocked to California in search of gold in 1849. – Impact of Gold Fever: People from east coast and eastern countries move west in hopes of riches (Asia, South America, and Europe). – Gold Rush Brings Diversity: by 1849 California’s population exceeded 100, 000. Largest immigrant group – Chinese. California out-lawed slavery and then petitioned to join the Union. Won statehood in 1850.