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Unit 2: PSY 6450 Traditional Performance Appraisal Performance Measurement Performance Assessment Task Clarification 1 Unit 2: PSY 6450 Traditional Performance Appraisal Performance Measurement Performance Assessment Task Clarification 1

Unit 2: Schedule Monday and Wednesday: Lecture Monday, 9/23: Exam 2 Unit 2: Schedule Monday and Wednesday: Lecture Monday, 9/23: Exam 2

Unit 2 l l l Aamodt: traditional performance appraisal Daniels chapter: measurement & performance Unit 2 l l l Aamodt: traditional performance appraisal Daniels chapter: measurement & performance matrix Pampino et al. article: great example of performance assessment, multiple component intervention, and social validity assessment. Only problem is the short-term nature of the study. Anderson et al. article: great example of task clarification and importance of feedback Komaki: Tool to assess effective supervisors and managers from an operant perspective 3

Additional Readings, NFE l l l Abernathy article – performance assessment and improvement techniques Additional Readings, NFE l l l Abernathy article – performance assessment and improvement techniques Komaki et al. – skippers in an actual sailboat regatta; one of my favorites Komaki et al. – summary of research on her operant leadership model, assessment of leadership skills, and training leadership skills La. Fleur et al. – excellent example of using Gilbert’s BEM as an assessment instrument and an exquisite article overall Doll et al. – excellent example of using Daniels’ PIC/NIC as an assessment instrument Major Take-Home Points in SOs – the World According to Alyce l Hopefully this will help tie the material together for you 4

SO 1: Why it is important to determine the reason for evaluation l l SO 1: Why it is important to determine the reason for evaluation l l Performance is assessed for a number of reasons (administrative reasons, performance improvement) Various performance appraisal methods are appropriate for some purposes, not for others. l l Employee comparison methods such as forced choice and ranking: good for administrative purposes, not good for performance improvement 360 -degree evaluation: good for performance improvement, not good for administrative purposes (Start with traditional performance appraisal: two very good articles in the 2011 JOBM IO/OBM special issue: De. Nisi and Gravina & Siers administrative – pay increases, promotions, termination) 5

Traditional Performance Appraisal: Who does it? l l 90% of appraisals are done by Traditional Performance Appraisal: Who does it? l l 90% of appraisals are done by supervisors Others, however, may also participate in the appraisal l l Peers Subordinates/Direct reports (upward feedback) Customers Employee himself or herself (rather rare) 28% of large companies use some form of multisource evaluations (start with some data re the source of the appraisal; that is who actually does the appraisal) 6

SO 2: Different results l There is often little agreement when different sources evaluate SO 2: Different results l There is often little agreement when different sources evaluate an employee l l l Supervisors and peers: . 34 correlation Supervisors and subordinates: . 22 correlation Supervisors and the employee: . 22 correlation Peers and subordinates: . 22 correlation Peers and the employee: . 19 (start with some data re the source of the appraisal; not subordinates, more commonly called direct reports, ) 7

SO 2: Two reasons why results may differ l Those groups see different aspects SO 2: Two reasons why results may differ l Those groups see different aspects of the person’s performance l l l The supervisor may see the results, but not see how the person interacts with peers, direct reports and customers The employee may interact very differently with the supervisor than with peers and subordinates This is why we have our current graduate students evaluate our applicants to our graduate programs (why are the evaluations so different? , to get an accurate evaluation, tap into different sources) 8

SO 3: Peer assessments l 3 A. In general, when peers are similar and SO 3: Peer assessments l 3 A. In general, when peers are similar and know the person well peer ratings have good reliability and validity l l l Reliability - different peers rate the employee the same way; Inter-observer agreement Validity - predict future success of employees 3 B. However, employees react worse to negative feedback from peers than from supervisors/experts 9

SO 4: Main obstacle to peer assessments l Acceptance by employees - we don’t SO 4: Main obstacle to peer assessments l Acceptance by employees - we don’t like to do this l WMU faculty merit system: Union vs. admin. l Not enough money to go around; many just split $$ How would you like to be given the responsibility for evaluating your peers - the other students advised by your faculty advisor - and have rewards (i. e. , assistantships, grades in classes, opportunities for practica and projects) based on that? 10

SO 5: Ratings by subordinates l l 5 A. Not surprisingly, accurate subordinate ratings SO 5: Ratings by subordinates l l 5 A. Not surprisingly, accurate subordinate ratings can be hard to obtain. Why? Employees fear a backlash, particularly if there are only a few of them and the supervisor is likely to be able to identify them. 5 B. Data also indicate that feedback/ratings from subordinates brings about the greatest performance change when compared to feedback/ratings by supervisors and peers (quite interesting!) (used in 360 degree feedback programs; quite popular right now; however, subordinate rating systems are not common or well-regarded by managers. ; same problem with getting evaluations of faculty advisors) 11

360 degree feedback (NFE) l A manager/supervisor l l l Rates himself Is rated 360 degree feedback (NFE) l A manager/supervisor l l l Rates himself Is rated by his manager/supervisor Is rated by his peers Is rated by his subordinates What percentage of managers saw themselves as others saw them? Only 10%! l Overrating was most noteworthy on what scale? People 12 (NFE, devastating, but why is this good news for us? ; use for administrative purposes is increasing, but there are some problems with this – Aamodt advised, it is best used for development purposes; coaching with a coach who is not the manager’s supervisor)

SO 6 Self-assessment l 6 A: Main problem? l l 6 B: Self-ratings correlate SO 6 Self-assessment l 6 A: Main problem? l l 6 B: Self-ratings correlate l l Inflation: we think we are better than we are only moderately with actual performance poorly with subordinate ratings poorly with management ratings NFE, but interesting cross-cultural data l l Ratings of Japanese, Korean, & Taiwanese workers suffer from strictness (modesty) Ratings from workers in the US, mainland China, India, Singapore, and Hong Kong suffer from leniency 13 (Dr. Oah, deadlines)

SO 6 Self-assessments, cont. l 6 C: Little agreement between supervisory and selfassessments. What SO 6 Self-assessments, cont. l 6 C: Little agreement between supervisory and selfassessments. What are the important implications of this from a behavioral perspective? If employees believe they are performing better than the supervisor believes, then they will not get the rewards they feel they deserve from the supervisor. Thus, employees will not believe that rewards are contingent upon their performance. Because of that, it is likely to hurt performance, cause dissatisfaction, and cause strained relations with the supervisor. 14

Common types of appraisal methods (NFE) l Employee comparison methods l l l Evaluate Common types of appraisal methods (NFE) l Employee comparison methods l l l Evaluate employees by comparing them against each other rather than against a standard Objective performance Ratings l l l Graphic rating scales, most common Behavioral checklists Less common in Appendix (due to complexity): (a) behaviorally anchored rating scales, (b) forced choice rating scales, (c) mixed standard scales, (d) behavioral observation scales 15 (Aamodt does a superb job of presenting the different types and discussing strengths and weaknesses of each)

SO 8: Why use employee comparisons? l To reduce leniency l l Forces variance SO 8: Why use employee comparisons? l To reduce leniency l l Forces variance or variability into the ratings With graphic scales, not uncommon for a supervisor to rate employees pretty much the same: everyone is a 5 or a 6 on a 7 point scale, making it difficult to make personnel decisions. 16 (rank order, paired comparison, and forced distribution)

SO 9: Forced distribution l l A predetermined percentage of employees are placed in SO 9: Forced distribution l l A predetermined percentage of employees are placed in each rating category More than 20% of Fortune 1000 companies use this type of system l l General Electric, former CEO Jack Welch l Rank and yank: required that the bottom 10% be fired Be careful! l l Two major lawsuits because minority groups were disproportionately ranked in the low category Ford and Goodyear dropped them (unfortunately, you have probably experienced this in some of your classes: 10% get As, 20% get Bs, 40% get Cs, 20% get Ds and 10% get Es; how do you feel about that system? ) 17

SO 9: Now the problem with forced distribution l l Assumes that the performance SO 9: Now the problem with forced distribution l l Assumes that the performance of employees is normally distributed Probably not the case (if it is, the organization is doing something very wrong) l l Selection system is good Poor performers have been fired Good management system My undergraduate class distribution l l Fall grade distribution tends to be better than my spring grade distribution: Oops, only the top 10% in fall get an A, when in reality typically 20% of students earn 92% of the points or better? And, those who take the class in fall could do just as well as students in spring, but get a lower grade. 18 (assumes 10% are performing great, 20% good, 40% are average, etc. )

SO 10: What’s the problem with employee comparisons? l May create a false impression SO 10: What’s the problem with employee comparisons? l May create a false impression that differences between individuals are actually larger than they are because you do not get actual performance data Six employees, rank ordered 1. Jan 2. Shakira 3. Paul 4. Mike 5. Susan 6. John Actual performance difference between Jan and Mike or even Susan may be very small, yet look big. Can affect salary increases, promotions, etc. (limited $ for merit increases, promotions - across depts – Is #3 in one dept. comparable in performance to #3 in another? Also, competitive systems; only one person can be #1; sabotage or at least decrease willingness to cooperate/help ) 19

SO 11: Main problem with graphic rating systems l Leniency and halo l l SO 11: Main problem with graphic rating systems l Leniency and halo l l Leniency: supervisors rate employees better than they should Halo: a rating in one area of performance affects ratings in other areas l Person has good social skills, supervisor rates him/her higher on performance than the supervisor should (in general, rating errors, but the two most common: pressures on raters: how would you like to be the supervisor who gives one of your direct reports a poor evaluation, placing the employee in jeopardy of being fired, given MI’s unemployment 20 rate right now? )

SO 12: Behavioral checklists l l Behavioral checklists and scales are assumed to be SO 12: Behavioral checklists l l Behavioral checklists and scales are assumed to be more accurate because they are less vague, and target “objective” behaviors that are readily observable but they are not more accurate Why? l l l Still are based on subjective judgments Completed once a year That is also why we should not consider them adequate from a behavioral perspective l l Objective measures of behavior/performance Over time as behavior/performance occurs on the job (only 5% of variance between individuals when rated is due to the type of performance appraisal – That means, the type of performance appraisal format really does not matter; one form is not better than another, people just think they are) 21

SO 13: Which method is better? l Research suggests that none is better than SO 13: Which method is better? l Research suggests that none is better than another Methods that are complicated and time consuming to develop have only occasionally been found to be better than uncomplicated, inexpensive graphic rating scales. Known this for years: Landy & Farr, 1980. (this is important; reasons – still once a year, still subjective) 22

Dissatisfaction with performance appraisal (NFE) l Companies tend to switch frequently from one type Dissatisfaction with performance appraisal (NFE) l Companies tend to switch frequently from one type of form to another l l l Recall performance appraisal was the third-ranked topic addressed in JAP IBM abandoned employee ranking in favor of graphic scales, then returned to ranking a few years ago l Made the front page of the Wall Street Journal: ranking was THE way to go Why do you think IBM may have made the switch? (nothing to do with reliability or validity) 23

Main problem with performance appraisals (NFE) l l Inflation of ratings Main assumption about Main problem with performance appraisals (NFE) l l Inflation of ratings Main assumption about the cause of errors l l l Design of the form (hence why so much time and money is spent redesigning forms - “design out” rating errors Lack of knowledge on the part of supervisors/managers - training Rarely are the consequences for ratings examined or considered 24 (Director of Personnel, WMU, ranks among the worst problems she had - fire/good ratings)

Consequences for inflated ratings (NFE) l No rewards for accuracy; no sanctions for inaccurate Consequences for inflated ratings (NFE) l No rewards for accuracy; no sanctions for inaccurate ratings (how does the organization know if the ratings are accurate or inaccurate - a problem) l Most common reason High ratings are necessary to get salary increases, promotions and other rewards for employees and now even more importantly, to prevent employees from losing their jobs l l Avoids aversive interactions with subordinates Ratings of subordinates reflect the competence of the supervisors as a supervisor/manager 25

SO 14: Legal issues (NFE) l l Performance appraisals are subject to federal and SO 14: Legal issues (NFE) l l Performance appraisals are subject to federal and state EEO laws, and more cases are being filed. Protected classes under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and females. (on click; Aamodt gives a very nice list of the factors that will increase the likelihood that you will “win” a legal challenge – note those well – but too many for you to memorize; but, next slide) 26

SO 15: Legal issues l Conservative courts l Validity and accuracy of the appraisal SO 15: Legal issues l Conservative courts l Validity and accuracy of the appraisal (technical merits) l l l Does the company have data that indicates that the appraisals are related to job performance? Does the company have data indicating that raters assess performance accurately? Liberal courts l Fairness and due process issues l l l How are underrepresented individuals rated in comparison to white majorities Are employees given a chance to appeal the appraisal? etc. 27 (what factors influence how courts will rule? )

For your entertainment only: Actual statements l l l His men would follow him For your entertainment only: Actual statements l l l His men would follow him anywhere, but of morbid curiosity I would not allow this employee to breed Works well when under constant supervision and cornered like a rat in a trap He would be out of his depth in a parking lot puddle This young lady has delusions of adequacy This employee is depriving a village somewhere of an idiot 28

What some others say* l l l “By only infrequently rating personnel we only What some others say* l l l “By only infrequently rating personnel we only infrequently demotivate them” (Blogger, 2008) A 1994 survey by the Society for Human Resource Management found that 90% of appraisal systems were not successful (Shellhardt, 1994) “The best way to double the effectiveness of the typical annual performance appraisal is to do it once every two years” (Daniels, 2009) *All taken from Daniels, A. (2009). Oops! 13 management practices that waste time and money (and what to do about them). Atlanta: Performance Management Publications. 29

Part 2: Unit 2 Performance Matrix Functional Assessment Task Clarification 30 Part 2: Unit 2 Performance Matrix Functional Assessment Task Clarification 30

Skip to SO 19 Performance Matrix l l Of SOs 16 -18, only SO Skip to SO 19 Performance Matrix l l Of SOs 16 -18, only SO 16 is for the exam I am not going to cover that in lecture - unless someone has a question about it 31

SO 19: Performance Matrix Daniels 1 l Based on Felix & Riggs l l SO 19: Performance Matrix Daniels 1 l Based on Felix & Riggs l l l Abernathy l l Balanced Scorecard Created as a measurement tool Performance Scorecard Unique feature: performance indexing (weighting/prioritizing of multiple measures and sub-goals) Performance Matrix power point slides: © 2006 AUBREY DANIELS INTERNATIONAL, INC. FOR USE EXCLUSIVELY BY EDUCATORS IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS. 1 32

Sample Matrix Why 4 -12 for columns, with 5=baseline and 10=goal? Below Baseline Behaviors Sample Matrix Why 4 -12 for columns, with 5=baseline and 10=goal? Below Baseline Behaviors or Results 4 5 Above goal 6 Raw Score 7 8 9 10 11 12 Points 100 Sub-goals Baseline (not current) Performance Weight Total Pts. Goal © 2006 AUBREY DANIELS INTERNATIONAL, INC. FOR USE EXCLUSIVELY BY EDUCATORS IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS. 33

Sample Matrix: Postal Worker Behaviors or Results Appropriate Greeting Number of Bins Sorted Till Sample Matrix: Postal Worker Behaviors or Results Appropriate Greeting Number of Bins Sorted Till Correct Number of Complaints 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Points 98% 59%60%65%70%75%80%85%90% 3 4 5 6 91%92%93%96% 6 5 4 7 8 9 10 12 97%98%99%100 % 3 2 1 0 100 Sub-goals Baseline Performance 1 Note: Weight Raw Score Total Pts. Goal number of complaints, less is better 34

Sample Matrix Distribution=100 Behaviors or Results Appropriate Greeting Number of Bins Sorted Till Correct Sample Matrix Distribution=100 Behaviors or Results Appropriate Greeting Number of Bins Sorted Till Correct Number of Complaints 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 98% 59%60%65%70%75%80%85%90% 3 4 5 6 91%92%93%96% 6 5 4 Points 35 10 12 25 97%98%99%100 % 3 2 1 0 30 7 8 9 10 100 Sub-goals Baseline Performance Weight Raw Score Total Pts. Goal © 2006 AUBREY DANIELS INTERNATIONAL, INC. FOR USE EXCLUSIVELY BY EDUCATORS IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS. 35

Sample Matrix: What would the points be? Actual performance Behaviors or Results Appropriate Greeting Sample Matrix: What would the points be? Actual performance Behaviors or Results Appropriate Greeting Number of Bins Sorted Till Correct Number of Complaints 4 5 6 7 Weight Raw Score Points 35 70% ? 10 12 25 9 ? 97%98%99%100 % 3 2 1 0 30 95% ? 10 1 ? 8 9 10 11 12 98% 59%60%65%70%75%80%85%90% 3 4 5 6 91%92%93%96% 6 5 4 7 8 9 100 Sub-goals Baseline Performance Total Pts. Goal © 2006 AUBREY DANIELS INTERNATIONAL, INC. FOR USE EXCLUSIVELY BY EDUCATORS IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS. 36

Link to rewards: Use points to determine level of reward Points Reward 700 -799 Link to rewards: Use points to determine level of reward Points Reward 700 -799 $10 gift card 800 -899 extra 1/2 hour for lunch 900 -999 gift certificate for favorite store or restaurant 1000 -1200 1/2 day off on Friday Could also use, of course, different monetary bonuses *Group contingency: If everyone reaches 750, the whole office goes to lunch on the boss © 2006 AUBREY DANIELS INTERNATIONAL, INC. FOR USE EXCLUSIVELY BY EDUCATORS IN ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS. 37

Skipping to SOs 21&22: Lecture study objectives, intro l l l The Pampino et Skipping to SOs 21&22: Lecture study objectives, intro l l l The Pampino et al. article used a functional assessment (the Performance Diagnostic Checklist by Austin) to determine what interventions were needed Functional assessments have received more attention lately, although most practitioners and, many researchers have used some type of assessment to determine what their interventions should be The term “functional assessment” comes from Iwata’s work in DD and autism - determination of what is controlling self-injurious behavior l What are the functional causes of the behavior? 38

Functional Assessment, intro l In OBM, the term has become more transparent due to Functional Assessment, intro l In OBM, the term has become more transparent due to Austin’s PDC and Wilder’s recent publications, but these type of analyses have existed for many years in both OBM and I/O - just not called “functional assessment” l l l An “ABC” analysis is a functional assessment Mager & Pipe, 1970, flowchart to determine whether a performance problem was a training problem or a consequence problem Petrock, 1978, balance of consequences l l l Brown, 1982, included balance of consequences in his book Daniels & Rosen, 1982, modified it into “PIC/NIC” These all focused on the consequences of behavior, without expanding the analysis to management and organizational level systems analysis l Brethower was the first to do that in his 1972 systems analysis book with his Total Performance System diagram and concept - but it “didn’t catch on until years later 39

SO 21: Three types of functional assessment l Informant l l Interviews, questionnaires, rating SO 21: Three types of functional assessment l Informant l l Interviews, questionnaires, rating scales or some other “indirect” (verbal) method: a bit suspect as are all verbal reports Descriptive l Direct observation of the employees: generally considered to be more reliable than informant l Functional analysis (note, not assessment) l Experimental analysis - the systematic manipulation of specific antecedents and consequences that may affect the target behavior: most reliable, but often difficult in organizational settings l Good example, Pampino, Wilder, & Binder (2005) to determine why foremen were entering wrong job codes l In OBM, most common is to combine informant and descriptive 40

SO 22: Three popular functional assessment procedures in OBM l Gilbert’s Behavioral Engineering Model, SO 22: Three popular functional assessment procedures in OBM l Gilbert’s Behavioral Engineering Model, 1978 l l Binder’s Six Boxes l l l (very nice workshop Cal. ABA, 2013) Directly derived from Gilbert, but copyrighted Gives Gilbert credit, by the way Austin’s Performance Diagnostic Checklist l l Earliest one that “caught on” and is still very popular Based on expert consultant analyses of case studies (his dissertation); interesting how similar it is to Gilbert’s NFE Rummler’s Human Performance System l Very similar to Gilbert’s BEM 41 (all systems oriented, that is they don’t just target the antecedents and consequences of behavior, but also look at systems variables)

Gilbert’s BEM (nfe) Information Instrumentation Motivation Resources Incentives l. Tools l Knowledge Capacity Motives Gilbert’s BEM (nfe) Information Instrumentation Motivation Resources Incentives l. Tools l Knowledge Capacity Motives l. Training l. Work l. Assessment Environmental Data l. Relevant & frequent Supports feedback l. Descriptions of what is expected l. Clear and relevant guides Person’s Repertory of Behavior for exemplary performance l. Placement and materials designed to match human factors scheduling for peak performance l. Prosthesis l. Selection Adequate contingent $$ incentives l Nonmonetary incentives l Career development of motives to work l. Recruitment of people to match job 42

Binder’s Six Boxes Gilbert’s BEM (NFE) Information Environmental Data l. Relevant & frequent Expectations Binder’s Six Boxes Gilbert’s BEM (NFE) Information Environmental Data l. Relevant & frequent Expectations Supports feedback & l. Descriptions of what Feedback is expected Instrumentation Motivation Resources Incentives l Adequate and Tools Consequences contingent $$ materials designed & human & incentives to match Resources Incentives l Nonmonetary factors l. Tools l. Clear and relevant guides 1 Person’s Repertory of Behavior 2 incentives l Career 3 development Knowledge Capacity Motives for Skills exemplary & performance Knowledge l. Placement l. Work scheduling Selection & for peak Assignment performance “Capacity” l. Prosthesis l. Assessment l. Training l. Selection 4 5 of Motives & motives to work Preferences l. Recruitment of “Attitudes” people to match job 6 43 (click for binder)

Austin’s Performance Diagnostic Checklist (NFE) l Four areas that are assessed l l Antecedents Austin’s Performance Diagnostic Checklist (NFE) l Four areas that are assessed l l Antecedents and Information Equipment and processes Knowledge and skills - training Consequences (A lot of overlap among all of these) 44

NFE: Comparison of Assessment Procedures l l l To my knowledge, no one has NFE: Comparison of Assessment Procedures l l l To my knowledge, no one has compared the relative effectiveness of different types of assessment procedures There have been studies published focusing on the use of, in particular, the PDC to determine barriers to performance, but none of these compared the use of the PDC to any other procedure or determined whether its use resulted in a better or more efficient determination of the barriers than even an “arm chair” analysis My guess is none is going to be found to be better than the others, given that most of them do target the same variables (which is a good thing; that shows we have consensus on what those variables are) 45 (cont. on next slide)

NFE: Comparison of Assessment Procedures l l However, I would suggest that from an NFE: Comparison of Assessment Procedures l l However, I would suggest that from an organizational/systems perspective, the assessment tools that include an analysis of processes, would be better than those that don’t include such an analysis And, I would like to see someone use/develop an assessment tool that is based on the systems analysis that Bill Abernathy first presented at ABAI in 2005 and later published in articles below. l The seven employee drivers or organizational success: expense control, productivity, sales, cash flow, regulatory compliance, customer satisfaction, and special projects l Profit driver map Abernathy, W. B. (2010). A comprehensive performance analysis method. Performance Improvement, 49(5), 5 -17. Abernathy, W. B. (2013). Behavioral approaches to business and industrial problems: Organizational Behavior Management. In G. Madden (Ed. ), APA Handbook of behavior analysis, Vol. 2 (pp 501 -521). (profit driver map, next slide – just FYI; it’s exquisite) 46

Profit Driver Map Profit Driver Map

Pampino et al. SOs 23, 24, 25 A, & 26 on your own In Pampino et al. SOs 23, 24, 25 A, & 26 on your own In other words, I am only going to cover 25 B! 48

SO 25 B intro: Lotteries l l Pampino et al. used a monthly lottery SO 25 B intro: Lotteries l l Pampino et al. used a monthly lottery where each of 5 employees had an opportunity to win $20. 00 based on the number of lottery tickets they earned for each shift (U 5) Gaetani et al. used state lottery tickets to decrease cash shortages in a retail beverage chain (U 8) Green et al. used a lottery to increase extent to which human service staff conducted scheduled training with consumers in residential facility for individuals with DD and profound handicaps (U 8) Green et al. used a lottery for staff to make supervisory observations of performance more acceptable for both the staff and supervisor (lotteries have been used in a number of studies; appear effective; benefit? Cost effective Which certainly has advantages in human service settings – several articles in this class demonstrating effectiveness of lotteries; in fact one of the very first articles in OBM, Pedalino & Gamboa used a lottery system to increase attendance – based on the best poker hand – really cool study! 1974, JAP ) 49

SO 25 B What influences the effectiveness of lotteries? What factors could influence how SO 25 B What influences the effectiveness of lotteries? What factors could influence how effective a lottery is? 1. Amount of money/strength of reward 2. Frequency of lottery 3. Number of eligible employees (affects chances) (clearly, however, be careful – “gambling” issue”; bible belt: SO 28, on your own) 50

Anderson et al. Task Clarification Task clarification improves performance moderately When combined with feedback, Anderson et al. Task Clarification Task clarification improves performance moderately When combined with feedback, much better! 51 (really should come as no surprise; task clarification is an antecedent intervention)

Anderson et al. article, one of Hantula’s first studies l Fun study, because it Anderson et al. article, one of Hantula’s first studies l Fun study, because it was done in a student-run university bar “Cleaning was an ancillary requirement and also preempted time that could be spent with peers or studying. The result was a conspicuous, pervasive accumulation of grease and various sticky materials on virtually every surface. Garbage areas were strewn with debris. ” University officials said the bar had been a nearimpossible management situation for years, and the State Board of Health threatened closure. 52 (again, I am just going to go over a few selected SOs)

Anderson et al. overview l l l 30 student employees 11 work areas, each Anderson et al. overview l l l 30 student employees 11 work areas, each with a separate task list Each task list had 5 -10 Yes/No items on it Assistant managers scored the cleanliness of each area after line employees finished work Task clarification: checklists were posted in relevant areas Feedback: Individual line graphs, coded by number, were publicly posted 53

SOs 28 and 30: Effects of task clarification and task clarification plus feedback l SOs 28 and 30: Effects of task clarification and task clarification plus feedback l l Task clarification increased task completion 13% over baseline Task clarification plus feedback increased task completion 62% over baseline (last slide on this study, not covering SO 29 in lecture) 54

Komaki The OSTI: Operant Supervisory Taxonomy & Index 55 Komaki The OSTI: Operant Supervisory Taxonomy & Index 55

Intro: Komaki’s Operant Supervisory Taxonomy & Index (OSTI) l l This is the only Intro: Komaki’s Operant Supervisory Taxonomy & Index (OSTI) l l This is the only supervisory/managerial assessment tool based on behavioral principles that is available in the literature Komaki and colleagues published a series of three articles and a book containing research results from field studies l First article – development and psychometric soundness of the OSTI l Second article – the one I have assigned l Third article – the one I mention in the SOs as one of my all time favorite articles; sailboat regatta (companies, consulting firms, have own assessment questionnaires, but proprietary; research; Judi is now retired, but was one of the best field researchers in OBM) 56

Intro: Komaki’s OSTI l l Most recent article, JOBM 2011, summarizes all of the Intro: Komaki’s OSTI l l Most recent article, JOBM 2011, summarizes all of the research, discusses an in-basket assessment procedure, and then the results of a training program for managers/supervisors Full reference is in the study objectives In my personal opinion, this should be required reading for all students who study OBM Finally, also the book: Komaki, J. L. (1998). Leadership from an operant perspective. London: Routledge. I chose to use one of Komaki’s earlier study that provides more detail about the actual assessment tool for this class 57

Intro: Komaki’s OSTI l l Leadership consists of more than supervisory behavior but clearly Intro: Komaki’s OSTI l l Leadership consists of more than supervisory behavior but clearly one function of a leader is to be an effective supervisor As I indicate in the SOs, many non-behavioral theories exist l l Trait theories: general traits that make a person an effective supervisor (see Aamodt, chapter 12) Situational theories: factors that interact with the traits/characteristics of the person (see Aamodt, chapter 12) 58

Intro: Komaki’s OSTI l Komaki’s analysis is based on the extent to which supervisors: Intro: Komaki’s OSTI l Komaki’s analysis is based on the extent to which supervisors: l l l Provide antecedents (task clarification and clear expectations for performance) Monitor performance (measure and collect information about the performance of direct reports) Provide consequences for performance 59

Komaki’s Taxonomy Supervisory Behaviors Solitary Activities Interactions Nonwork Related Work Related Not About Performance Komaki’s Taxonomy Supervisory Behaviors Solitary Activities Interactions Nonwork Related Work Related Not About Performance About Own Performance About Other’s Performance Antecedents Performance Monitors Performance Consequences 60

Summary of Komaki article l Will the following three categories of supervisory behavior distinguish Summary of Komaki article l Will the following three categories of supervisory behavior distinguish between effective and marginally effective supervisors with respect to motivating others? l l l Providing antecedents Monitoring performance Providing consequences 61

Summary of Komaki article l Hypotheses l Providing antecedents: No l l l Monitoring Summary of Komaki article l Hypotheses l Providing antecedents: No l l l Monitoring performance: Yes l l Antecedents do not reliably affect performance All managers provide far more antecedents and monitors and consequences, thus there won’t be any difference Monitoring is a prerequisite to providing contingent consequences Providing consequences: Yes l l Behavior is a function of its consequences Effective managers will indicate knowledge of subordinate performance, whether positive, negative, or neutral 62 (Antecedents, SO 33; Monitoring, SO 32)

Komaki article method l Participants l l 24 managers at a medical insurance firm Komaki article method l Participants l l 24 managers at a medical insurance firm Design l Extreme or contrasted groups design l l l Identification of Effective and Marginal Managers l l 12 managers in the top 28% of managers at the firm 12 managers in the bottom 28% of managers at the firm Division VPs ranked and rated all managers on how well they motivated others Identification of Knowledgeable and Marginal Mgrs. l Division VPs ranked and rated all managers in terms of technical expertise (knowledge ranking/rating really cool – were supervisory behaviors NOT related to technical expertise; they shouldn’t be; supervisory skills and technical expertise are different) 63

Komaki results l Managers spent only ~13% of their time dealing with the performance Komaki results l Managers spent only ~13% of their time dealing with the performance of others (SO 36)* l l This is important to remember when we intervene – managers have many other responsibilities, thus time management and the labor-intensiveness of our interventions becomes an important issue Effective managers monitored performance significantly more than marginal managers (SO 31) l Effective managers used work sampling rather than selfreport or a secondary source (i. e. , “is Mary doing the accounts well? ”) when monitoring performance *In other studies, bank managers spent ~15% of their time dealing with the performance of others; newspaper managers spent ~14% 64

Komaki results l Performance monitoring was not related to technical expertise (as predicted) (SO Komaki results l Performance monitoring was not related to technical expertise (as predicted) (SO 37) l l Implication: Just because you are an expert in your field doesn’t mean you are a good manager Performance consequences did not distinguish between effective and marginal supervisors l l Results may mean that it is not the number of consequences provided, but whether contingent consequences are provided, which performance monitoring makes possible Performance monitoring may be an establishing operation for employees that makes consequences more reinforcing or punishing (more on this next unit) (if a supervisor monitors your performance, it makes his/her consequences more effective) 65

Results, subsequent studies, NFE Performance l l l When performance monitoring was sufficient, consequences Results, subsequent studies, NFE Performance l l l When performance monitoring was sufficient, consequences did distinguish between effective and marginal managers In a sailboat regatta, both performance monitoring and consequences by skippers were significantly related to race results In an Australian police force, both performance monitoring and consequences by patrol sergeants were significantly related to higherperforming teams Attitudes and perceptions l l In a national movie theater management company, managers who monitored work were perceived as more fair Workers rated managers as more positive and less negative when they monitored work and provided consequences than when managers only monitored work or only provided consequences (simulated study in a post office) 66

THE END Questions? 67 THE END Questions? 67