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Unit 2, PSY 4600 Schedule Tuesday, 1/23 and Thursday, 1/25: Lecture Tuesday, 1/30: Exam Unit 2, PSY 4600 Schedule Tuesday, 1/23 and Thursday, 1/25: Lecture Tuesday, 1/30: Exam Monday, 1/29: 7: 00 -9: 00 p. m. , Instructional Assistance 1 st Floor Wood Hall Lounge Topics: Basic behavioral principles Behavioral enrichment in zoos Hero. RATs 1

Last unit: Respondent Behavioral Relations S--->R US--->UR CS--->CR This unit: Operant Behavioral Relations MO: Last unit: Respondent Behavioral Relations S--->R US--->UR CS--->CR This unit: Operant Behavioral Relations MO: SD/S∆: R--->Sc Focus on operant consequences and SDs and S∆s 2

SO 2: Basic Behavioral Principles 1. Reinforcement A. Positive B. Negative (difference between pos SO 2: Basic Behavioral Principles 1. Reinforcement A. Positive B. Negative (difference between pos & neg? ) 1. Escape (alarm clock, safety harness after chime) 2. Avoidance (safety harness before chime; child plays quietly) 2. Punishment A. Positive B. Negative (difference between pos & neg? ) 1. Response cost (taking token away for aggressing) 2. Time out (throwing biscuit, removal from dinner table; taking truck away, assuming you give it back) (Exam: examples, positive and negative reinf, positive and negative punishment, extinction. 4 -5; Correctly identify types of, bonus pt, but must all be correct; terminates or avoids, e-aversive stim that comes before, TV screen clears, food reinforcement, avoid vs. pun, Decrease to avoid conseq – not correct; student asks question, professor says; pun dec; avoid incr; Dr. Malott calls punishment penalty, and I am sympathetic; No consistent 3 definitions of the two types of negative punishment – I have elected to use Dr. Malott’s for those; awkward – time out was developed as a procedure)

SO 2: Basic Behavioral Principles 3. Operant Extinction ( reinf. withheld, not withdrawn) (significant SO 2: Basic Behavioral Principles 3. Operant Extinction ( reinf. withheld, not withdrawn) (significant other provides attention for whinning, complaining, now withholds attention Examples and sample exam questions on page 21 of the Study Objectives 4

SO 2: Some Examples (in SOs) • Rafael gets a muscle cramp. He massages SO 2: Some Examples (in SOs) • Rafael gets a muscle cramp. He massages the muscle and the cramp immediately decreases in severity. As a result, when Rafael gets a muscle cramp in the future, he massages it more often than he had done in the past. • A student wants to make a copy. She inserts her Bronco Card into a copy machine and pushes the button. No copies are made. The student pushes and pushes the button, but still no copies are made. As a result, the student pushes the copy button on that machine less often. 5

SO 2 (Examples, cont. ) • Barbara calls her little sister a scardy cat SO 2 (Examples, cont. ) • Barbara calls her little sister a scardy cat and the little sister immediately begins to cry. As a result, Barbara calls her sister a scardy cat more often in the future. • A worker is standing around with co-workers and puts on her hard hat before entering the construction area. Her supervisor sees this and immediately says “Hey, that’s great, Grace! Thanks for making safety first a reality!” As a result, Grace puts on her hard hat less often in the future. (effect on behavior, can’t just look at the conseq; teachers and elementary school children , criticism, attention) 6

SO 2: Final Examples • Jake gets bitten by bugs when he walks in SO 2: Final Examples • Jake gets bitten by bugs when he walks in the woods. One day, he puts on a new kind of bug repellant and does not get bitten by bugs. As a result, in the future, he puts on that new kind of bug repellant before he walks in the woods more often. • Suzie is a 5 -year old who loves the beach – playing in the sand, running around, splashing in the water. She throws sand in the face of her two cousins and her parents immediately require her to sit on the beach blanket for 5 minutes. As a result, Suzie doesn’t throw sand at her cousins as often in the future. (examples, Tas can use examples from your exams; however notice that I have changed how I am teaching this – examples are still relevant, but only + and – reinf/punishment. For punishment, RC or TO) 7

SO 3: Abbreviations: Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Unconditioned Reinforcer SR NOT UR UR=Unconditioned Response SO 3: Abbreviations: Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers Unconditioned Reinforcer SR NOT UR UR=Unconditioned Response Conditioned Reinforcer Sr NOT CR CR=Conditioned Response (-1 on all future exams) 8

SO 4 -5: Introduction Chance’s material starts with animal training, focus of this unit SO 4 -5: Introduction Chance’s material starts with animal training, focus of this unit – Dolphin training, e. g. , Shedd Aquarium, San Diego Sea World, Georgia Aquarium – Behavioral enrichment in zoos, e. g. , Honolulu Zoo, Atlanta Zoo, Brookfield Zoo, Disney Land Disney World, Busch Gardens-Orlando – Animal training (dogs, cats, horses, etc. ), Karen Pryor (Don’t shoot the dog), Mary Burch & Jon Bailey (How dogs learn), Mary Burch, (Citizen Canine – AKA), Gillette Obedience Training (Galesburg, MI), Applied animal training practicum (WMU, UMN-Duluth) – “Clicker/Tag Training”: Clicker as an Sr (athletes) (: animal training; Gulf oil spill dogs and turtle eggs; Binti Jua – Brookfield zoo, Otto Fad, Ken Ramirez) 9

SO 4: The Aggressive Bull Elephant San Diego Zoo: Intro • An aggressive elephant SO 4: The Aggressive Bull Elephant San Diego Zoo: Intro • An aggressive elephant • Husbandry includes cutting off calluses on feet, otherwise, eventually they can’t walk • G. Priest established a “click” as an Sr • Shaped the elephant to walk to a wall with hole in it, put its foot through the hole, and stand patiently while the vet cut off the calluses. 10

SO 4: Advantage of Srs vs. SRs When shaping, the delivery of the consequence SO 4: Advantage of Srs vs. SRs When shaping, the delivery of the consequence must follow the appropriate behavior (the successive approximation to the target behavior) as immediately after the behavior as possible. Otherwise, some other inappropriate behavior may be reinforced. If an SR, such as food, is used, it is going to be hard to: • deliver it immediately after the appropriate behavior e. g. , tossing a carrot in the cage of the elephant - by the time you react, the elephant has emitted a new behavior • the animal is going to stop and eat the food, which halts the shaping process (or behavioral sequence) • It also prevents satiation (a) Srs can often be delivered more immediately than SRs, (b) Srs don’t interfere with the behavioral sequence as SRs may (c) Srs prevent satiation of the reinforcer 11

SO 5: Development and Testing of an Sr Development When food deprived (MO): NS SO 5: Development and Testing of an Sr Development When food deprived (MO): NS (click) / SR (carrot) (no behavior is necessary!) NS becomes an Sr Critical features: • The NS is paired with an SR (or Sr) (NOT a US!) • The NS precedes the SR when pairing takes place • No behavior is necessary • The NS becomes an Sr (NOT a CS!) (How trainers made click; all in SOs, click, crticial features on slide - not for the exam need to test) 12

SO 5: Development and Testing of an Sr Testing When food deprived (MO): R SO 5: Development and Testing of an Sr Testing When food deprived (MO): R (any response) ----> Sr (click) *If R increases in frequency, the NS has become an Sr Critical features: 1. The Sr follows the response (operant relation) 2. The Sr is presented alone (not with the SR) 3. The R must increase in frequency in the future 4. The Sr must occasionally be paired with the SR (*essential - if the R doesn’t increase, no reinforcer, click critical features) 13

SO 5: Sample test question Assume that a direct care worker wants to use SO 5: Sample test question Assume that a direct care worker wants to use the sound of a bell as an Sr to increase the extent to which an autistic child touches a toy. A. Diagram what the staff member should do to make the bell into an Sr, labeling all parts of your diagram with the correct behavioral terms. To solve: 1. What is the NS? 2. What do you pair it with? 14

SO 5: Sample test question Assume that a direct care worker wants to use SO 5: Sample test question Assume that a direct care worker wants to use the sound of a bell as an Sr to increase the extent to which an autistic child touches a toy. B. Now diagram what the staff member should do to make sure the bell is an Sr, labeling all parts of your diagram with the correct behavioral terms. To solve: 1. What is the response? 2. What is the Sr? 3. Do Srs come before or after responses? 4. To prove a stimulus is a reinforcer, what must happen to the response? (another example is in the SOs) 15

SO 6: Difference Between Respondent Conditioning and Development of an Sr The confusion: Both SO 6: Difference Between Respondent Conditioning and Development of an Sr The confusion: Both involve pairing an NS with another stimulus Difference: Respondent Conditioning: NS/US, or NS/CS Development of an Sr: NS/SR, or NS/Sr (Respondent conditioning: NS becomes a CS-->CR; Sr NS becomes Sr; R-->Sr) 16

SO 7: Respondent Conditioning & Development of an Sr Elephant: Click became an Sr SO 7: Respondent Conditioning & Development of an Sr Elephant: Click became an Sr When food deprived: NS (click)/SR (carrot) Click became an Sr Respondent conditioning: Click is also going to become a CS NS (click) does not elicit salivation US (carrot) UR (salivation) yes, elephants salivate NS (click)/US (carrot) UR (salivation) CS (click) CR (salivation) (Although separate and distinct, there are times when they occur together) 17

SO 8: When both respondent conditioning & development of an Sr will occur together SO 8: When both respondent conditioning & development of an Sr will occur together • When the NS is paired with a stimulus that is both a US and SR (or a CS and an Sr) • Example of when it won’t happen: Bright light which elicits pupillary constriction A. Bright light is a US UR B. NS (click)/US UR C. Click will become a CS, but not an Sr 18

Behavioral Enrichment in Zoos, intro • Behavioral interventions designed to improve the well being Behavioral Enrichment in Zoos, intro • Behavioral interventions designed to improve the well being and health of captive animals • Hal Markowitz started this work in the 1970 s • Zoos have a very important function: protection of endangered species, education of public – keep humans from destroying natural habitats – keep humans from killing off species of animals (ivory tusks or furs) – protect and preserve species that are endangered due to disease, natural disasters (back to an extension of animal training: mother nature ain’t kind – Poling story) 19

Zoos • Many of us cringe when we think about zoos – animals in Zoos • Many of us cringe when we think about zoos – animals in prison • But over the years, zoos have been attempting to make life better for the animals (but most zoos have come a long way. . ) 20

SO 9: Two popular* things zoos have tried to make life better for animals SO 9: Two popular* things zoos have tried to make life better for animals • Make the enclosures more naturalistic • Add toys, boomer balls *popular, but ineffective Neither – terrifically effective – naturalistic enclosures first) 21

SO 10: What’s the problem, even when enclosures are naturalistic? • Naturalistic enclosures sometimes SO 10: What’s the problem, even when enclosures are naturalistic? • Naturalistic enclosures sometimes do have some benefits for the animals • Certainly make us more comfortable 22

SO 10: What’s the problem, even when enclosures are naturalistic? • Fail to include SO 10: What’s the problem, even when enclosures are naturalistic? • Fail to include the behavioral contingencies in the wild that reinforce species typical (and active) behavior • Much of the behavior of free-ranging animals involves getting food (the only one mentioned by Chance), fighting off or fleeing predators, natural migration, securing mates and mating, establishing social hierarchies, etc. • It’s the consequences of those behaviors that maintain much of the active behavior of wild animals – some behavior is, of course, genetic – over the years, they have discovered, however, that many behaviors that were once considered inherited are learned (most groups, dominant male: stallions, mares; gorillas; ducklings following Mom closeness to object, following in the natural environment, bird’s songs) 23

SO 10: What’s the problem, even when enclosures are naturalistic? • In zoos, food SO 10: What’s the problem, even when enclosures are naturalistic? • In zoos, food is provided usually in the same place at the same time each day, animals are completely protected from predators, certainly cannot migrate to different locations, and are not subjected to threats of their domination from outside animals • There is “no reason” for animals to be active • Behaviorally the reason to be active: R (species typical behaviors) SR (food or other reinforcers) • What happens if behaviors are not followed by reinforcement? (in a zoo, no one wants to see an antelope/Bambi killed, mauled, and eaten by a hyena) 24

Great enclosures, but no reinforcement for active behaviors Toys and boomer balls, but no Great enclosures, but no reinforcement for active behaviors Toys and boomer balls, but no reinforcement for playing with them 25

SO 11: Examples of Behavioral Enrichment • Servals (Who can’t love a face like SO 11: Examples of Behavioral Enrichment • Servals (Who can’t love a face like this? Click…Servals swim in the wild; naturalistic enclosures included ponds – servals didn’t’ swim. Guess what was missing? ) 26

Enrichment for Servals: Honolulu Zoo Species typical behavior: swimming with same reinforcement as in Enrichment for Servals: Honolulu Zoo Species typical behavior: swimming with same reinforcement as in the wild, fish (not squirmish about dead fish; only dead mammals; click; 5 -gallon ice, cross-species) 27

Enrichment for Elephants: Honolulu Zoo Species typical behavior: manipulating objects with trunk with the Enrichment for Elephants: Honolulu Zoo Species typical behavior: manipulating objects with trunk with the same reinforcement as in the wild, food (variation on the same theme: elephant keggers; not beer! Details!) 28

Enrichment for Langur Monkeys: Honolulu Zoo Species typical behavior: grooming and foraging with reinforcement, Enrichment for Langur Monkeys: Honolulu Zoo Species typical behavior: grooming and foraging with reinforcement, food, but in this case fruit loops (mop head on bungee cord, laced with fruit loops, again, details! last slide on this) 29

Markowitz Article: SDs and S∆s • Definitions: SDs and S∆ (not for the exam) Markowitz Article: SDs and S∆s • Definitions: SDs and S∆ (not for the exam) • My definition of an SD for this class (in SO 14): A stimulus that precedes a response and evokes that response because that particular response has been reinforced in its presence and not in its absence. • Malott’s definition: A stimulus in the presence of which a response has been reinforced or punished. • Pietras’ definition: An event that precedes an operant and sets the occasion for the behavior. They change the probability of behavior based on a history of differential reinforcement. 30

SO 15: Development and Testing of an SD Development/Training: dolphin to jump and back SO 15: Development and Testing of an SD Development/Training: dolphin to jump and back flip immediately after seeing a hand signal but not in its absence SD (hand signal): R (jump and back flip) --->SR (food) S∆ (no hand signal): R (jump and back flip) --->Ext (no food) Testing: After repeated SD and S∆ training above, will the dolphin jump and do a back flip ONLY after the hand signal? SD (hand signal): R (jump and back flip) S∆ (no hand signal): NO R (does not jump/back flip) (both SD and S∆ training necessary; reinforcing behavior after SD; MO must be present both) (Testing done under extinction; Note carefully no ext in s∆ testing) 31

SO 15: Sample test question • Sample test question is at the end of SO 15: Sample test question • Sample test question is at the end of SO 15 • Answer is at the end of the study objectives for this unit 32

SO 16: SDs precede responses, not other stimuli • Traffic light: A yellow light SO 16: SDs precede responses, not other stimuli • Traffic light: A yellow light is not an SD for a red light. • Railroad crossing: The flashing red lights and bells are not an SD for the crossing gates coming down. 33

SOs 18 & 19: Markowtiz • Markowitz was the behavior analyst who started behavioral SOs 18 & 19: Markowtiz • Markowitz was the behavior analyst who started behavioral enrichment in zoos • It has taken almost 40 years for this to gain traction • Altered the entire animal training field – Husbandry – Behavioral enrichment for health and exercise – Conservation (SO 17 on your own) 34

SOs 18 & 19: Markowtiz • Dept. of Biology San Francisco State • Behavioral SOs 18 & 19: Markowtiz • Dept. of Biology San Francisco State • Behavioral Enrichment in Zoos (1982) – Launched global movement to improve conditions of captive animals in zoos, aquariums, and biomedical facilities (Died 2012, 78 years old) (one of his mentees, David Bocian is VP animal care, wellness initiative) 35

SOs 18 & 19: Review of Behavioral Chains • Sequence of stimuli and responses: SOs 18 & 19: Review of Behavioral Chains • Sequence of stimuli and responses: SD 1: R 1 Sr/SD 2: R 2 Sr/SD 3: R 3 Sr/SR • The stimulus that follows each R is an Sr for that response and an SD for the next response SD 1: R 1 Sr/SD 2: R 2 • Each stimulus-response-reinforcer “unit” is called a link – The last link is called the terminal link • In the above chain it would be SD 3: R 3 Sr/SR 36

Simple Chain with Rat SD 1 (light on): R 1 (press lever) Sr/SD 2 Simple Chain with Rat SD 1 (light on): R 1 (press lever) Sr/SD 2 (buzzer): R 2 (pull chain) SR (food) • • Identify one link in this chain. What is the terminal link in this chain? What is the reinforcer for the lever press? What is the SD for pulling the chain? The buzzer is an Sr for what behavior? The buzzer is an SD for what behavior? The buzzer has also become a CS: For what behavior? (last 5 questions the same ones I ask about the diana monkey chain in SO 18) (TAs may confirm your answers, but they cannot tell you what the answers are; and we will not answer any questions about this right before the exam) 37

Simple Chain with Rat SD 1 (light on): R 1 (press lever) Sr/SD 2 Simple Chain with Rat SD 1 (light on): R 1 (press lever) Sr/SD 2 (buzzer): R 2 (pull chain) SR (food) • What behavior is reinforced when SD 1 is present? • What is the reinforcer for pressing the lever? • Given the answer above, how would you extinguish the lever press when the light is on? • When there is an SD 1, there must be an S∆1 – What is it? – What behavior was extinguished when S∆1 was present? – How was the behavior extinguished? (Now, I am going to ask the same questions I ask in SO 19 re mandrill I want to play game; how/why does the buzzer become an Sr? ) 38

SO 18: Diana Monkey Token Economy 39 SO 18: Diana Monkey Token Economy 39

SO 18: Diana Monkey Token Economy Top Platform SD 1: Light on top platform SO 18: Diana Monkey Token Economy Top Platform SD 1: Light on top platform and top light on at middle platform R 1 Pull chain Sr/SD 2: Bottom light on middle platform ______ Middle Platform R 2 Pull chain Sr/SD 3: Token delivered _________ Bottom Platform R 3 Put token in slot SR Food ________ (why light on middle platform as SD 1? Two chain pulls: specify platform, questions on Sos? ) 40

SO 18: Diana Monkey Token Economy, Interesting Family Dynamics (NFE) • Family group: 16 SO 18: Diana Monkey Token Economy, Interesting Family Dynamics (NFE) • Family group: 16 -year old momma, Beulah; 8 -year old dad, Rocky; adolescent and infant • Beulah never learned how to exchange the tokens for food • Rocky would regularly share food with Beulah and would let her sit on the platform with him when he exchanged tokens for food but…. would “unceremoniously” knock the youngsters off the platform AHHH • Beulah: to earn food she would “encourage” the others to work and would occasionally pull the chain that resulted in the token (after another one had pulled the top chain), but would always give the token to one of the others – however, then she would successfully “steal” the food most of time. 41

SO 19: Mandrill Game 42 SO 19: Mandrill Game 42

SO 19: Mandrill Reaction Time Game • Zoo patrons could push a “I want SO 19: Mandrill Reaction Time Game • Zoo patrons could push a “I want to play button” and then insert a dime to start the game • The computer lit a “I want to play button” for the mandrills to push on a random schedule if enough zoo patrons didn’t start the game, and the computer would play with the mandrills • One of three square reaction-time lights would randomly light on the monkey’s console and on the zoo patron’s console • The contestant that touched the lighted square first won that round • The contestant that won three rounds was the victor • If the mandrill won, the mandrill’s last RT response was reinforced with food; if the human won, he/she was rewarded by beating the monkey 43

SO 19: Mandrill Reaction Time Game • The mandrill beat the humans more than SO 19: Mandrill Reaction Time Game • The mandrill beat the humans more than 70% of the time • Reaction times of the mandrills due to play with computer was as fast as. 31 seconds! • Benefits to the zoo – Popular exhibit with zoo patrons and the media – Received a lot of money to continue the behavioral enrichment work • Benefits to the mandrills – The male mandrill stopped constantly threatening and chasing his female companions – All of the mandrills were more active; they used more space in the enclosure (interesting side effect, why? ) – Stereotypic behaviors in the enclosure decreased (again, interesting, why? ) 44

SOs 21 -31: Poling et al. , intro • Dr. Poling and his students SOs 21 -31: Poling et al. , intro • Dr. Poling and his students worked with an international organization: APOPO – Belgian nonprofit based in Tanzania • Training giant African pouch rats (nicknamed Hero. RATS) – Detect land mines in sub-Sarahan Africa – Detect TB in humans in sub-Sarahan African populations where typical TB testing is too expensive, too slow, and too inaccurate – Locate survivors in collapsed structures (straightforward, but I wanted to introduce you to this work – remain with the animal theme. Basic animal training is leading to significant global humanitarian work; we often don’t see the direct benefits of solid EAB; gives us another reason why this type of training is so important and how it can be used to benefit society/culture – study NOT Tanzania) 45

Dr. Poling’s Awards for this Work • Association for Behavior Analysis: International – Translational Dr. Poling’s Awards for this Work • Association for Behavior Analysis: International – Translational Research Award, 2016 • American Psychological Association – International Humanitarian Award, 2016 • Other awards/accolades – WMU: Distinguished Faculty Scholar, 1996 – WVU: Distinguished Alumnus Award. 1999 – WMU CAS: Outstanding Achievement in Research, 2003 – Cal. ABA: Lifetime Achievement Award, 2016 46

SOs 21 -31: Poling et al. , intro • Why African pouched rats? (SO SOs 21 -31: Poling et al. , intro • Why African pouched rats? (SO 22) – Excellent sense of smell – Weigh too little to activate mines (or cause further structural damage to collapsed buildings) – Native to sub-Saharan Africa and therefore resistant to local parasites and diseases (include the material after “therefore”) • Other reasons, NFE – Have relatively long working lives (6 years) – Smaller and less expensive than dogs • Operant training (rat lab on steroids!) – Shaping, clicker training, and SD/S∆ training 47

You. Tube Videos: https: //www. youtube. com/user/apopovideos • APOPO Hero. RATs Land Mines 48 You. Tube Videos: https: //www. youtube. com/user/apopovideos • APOPO Hero. RATs Land Mines 48

Recommended Reading • Baron A, Galizio M. (2005). Positive and negative reinforcement: Should the Recommended Reading • Baron A, Galizio M. (2005). Positive and negative reinforcement: Should the distinction be preserved? The Behavior Analyst, 28, 85– 95. • Commentaries and replies from Baron & Galizio, The Behavior Analyst, 2006, 29. 49

THE END • Questions? • Instructional assistance hours: – Monday, 1/29, 7: 00 -9: THE END • Questions? • Instructional assistance hours: – Monday, 1/29, 7: 00 -9: 00 p. m. – Wood Hall First Floor Lounge • Aaron has the reins! 50