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Unit 2: America Becomes a World Power 1900 -1925 THE BIG IDEA America in the early 1900’s was starting to lead the world economically, technologically, and militarily.
I. Imperialism A. the act of stronger nations influencing weaker nations - creating colonies across the globe - dominating areas economically, politically, or militarily B. Example: “The sun never sets on the British Empire” in 1770
C. U. S. Imperialism – pro and con 1. pro – economic opportunity, prestige 2. con – forcing one’s ideas and culture upon others – what about the American values of liberty and self-government?
THE PANAMA CANAL
II. American Imperialism: The Panama Canal A. Atlantic/Pacific route is needed 1. Panama (a province of Columbia) 2. 1879 – France “rents” Panama for $100 million to build canal a)1889 – Frenchman Ferdinand De. Lesseps fails to build canal 3. U. S. Pres. Teddy Roosevelt (TR) attempts to buy Panama for $40 million 4. Columbia refuses offer TR
5. 1903 -- TR organizes “Panamanian Revolution” to gain independence from Columbia 6. Panama gains independence, gives 10 milewide strip of land to U. S. 7. 1904 – U. S. construction of Canal begins 8. 1914 – Canal is complete 9. 1921 – Congress votes to pay Columbia $25 million in “Guilt” payments
THE PANAMA CANAL LOCK SYSTEM 1. A ship enters a lock chamber where the water is level with the body of water the ship is leaving. 3. The gates in front of the boat open to let the ship pass. 2. Gates close behind the ship, and the water level in the chamber rises until level with the next body of water.
III. World War I: 1914 -1920 A. 1815 -- The Congress of Vienna 1. create the European “Balance of Power” (BOP) 2. prevent another Napoleon 3. purpose of “B. O. P. ” a) ensure survival of independent countries b) avoid one country from Napoleon’s Empire 1815 dominating Europe
B. Why BOP failed: The Snowball Effect 1. Central Powers Alliance a) Germany, Bulgaria, Austria/Hungary, Turkey b) All monarchy governments 2. Balkan League Alliance a) Serbia, Montenegro, Greece 3. Russia is upset w/ Turkey (Dardenelles waterway)
4. Fr is scared its enemy Br will join Central Powers 5. Fr asks Br to sign alliance 6. Allied Alliance a) Br, Fr, Russia b) Br and Fr are democracies c) Ru is monarchy d) Br and Fr are scared of monarchy gov’ts spreading e) Ru supports Serbia, wants to defeat Turkey 7. Balkan League joins Allied alliance ALLIED POWERS vs CENTRAL POWERS
C. The Spark 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand a) Austria/Hungary’s heir is assassinated by a Serbian b) A/H declares war on Serbia c) The alliances take effect = WWI Bosnia
D. WWI: A New Kind of War 1. War begins w/Ger invasion of Belgium + Fr 2. Fr expecting old warfare 3. Ger surprise w/Machine Gun – 600 bullets/min 4. Trench warfare develops – ditches dug for protection 5. Stalemate developed 6. Other new weapons a) Mustard gas attacks b) gas masks c) tank d) airplanes
WWI Trench Warfare
E. Will the U. S. Enter WWI? 1. Pres. Wilson favors neutrality – Why? a) CP – all Monarchy Gov’ts b) AP -- Many Americans didn’t want to fight against Ger c) AP – Ru is a monarchy President Wilson
F. 1915 - U. S. begins to favor the Allies 1. Allies strategy – naval blockade of Ger 2. Ger U-boats were sinking ships and breaking the blockade 3. Ger announces “unrestricted u-boat warfare. ” (UUW) 4. Pres. Wilson sends note to Ger “stop using UUW” 5. May 1, 1915 -- U-boats sink the Br Lusitania passenger ship a) 1200 dead, 128 Americans 6. 1916 – Wilson wins reelection promising neutrality 7. 1917 - Ger continues UUW
8. Russian Revolution of 1917 a) Tsar Nicholas II of Ru is overthrown and new gov’t reigns b) communist? 9. Now, Americans feel good joining Allies w/ Ru 10. Wilson - “The world must be safe for democracy” 11. April 6, 1917 America Declares War against the Central Powers “It is our time to assert ourselves as the respected democracy we have striven to become. ” - President Woodrow Wilson
G. American Mobilization for War 1. Propaganda – gov’t posters, speeches, other communication designed to influence opinions 2. The Goal – get Americans to distrust the enemy (Ger), feel patriotic, and rally for the war http: //www. firstworldwar. com/posters/usa. htm
H. 1918 - The “Great War” Ends 1. Central Powers Victory? a) Russia’s new leader, Lenin, makes peace w/ Ger b) G no longer fighting a 2 front war c) G closes in on Paris d) Americans protecting Paris turn G back 2. G Surrenders a) blockade weakens G economy b) G citizens demand change, soldiers desert c) A/H signs Armistice, G follows d) 8. 5 million total dead, cost $280 billion
IV. Wilson’s Dream: World Peace A. Wilson wants a “lasting peace” 1) “ 14 Points for Peace” plan a) balance of power system is flawed b) 1 world-wide organization dedicated to peace is needed --THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS “There must not be a balance of power, but a community of power; not alliances made up of organized rivalries, but an organized common peace. ” -President Wilson
“The terrible responsibility which lies at Germany’s doors can be seen in the fact that not less then seven million lie buried while more than twenty million others carry upon them the evidence of wounds and sufferings, because Germany saw fit to gratify her desires for war. ” ~ Georges Clemenceau French Prime Minister, 1919
B. British, French Harsh Revision of 14 Points 1. 1919 -- THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES a) calls for total destruction of G b) G must pay Allies $33 billion in war reparations c) G military restrictions -- no airforce, limited navy, army -- no tanks or big guns d) G & A/H could not unite e) G must surrender all territory, colonies f) G could not belong to L of N g) Creates 9 new nations 2. Wilson disappointed but believes L of N will solve the world’s problems
EUROPE WWI After WWI
C. The U. S. Struggle to Approve Treaty of V 1. Wilson delivers 36 speeches in 22 days 2. Wilson suffers a massive stroke 3. treaty fails to get support from Congress 4. L of N is created but w/o U. S. support D. WWI – “the war to end all wars? ”