- Количество слайдов: 81
Unit 11: Political Developments in the Early Republic
President George Washington • * Congress UNANIMOUSLY (ALL AGREED) voted him in as the FIRST Pres (of the newly formed) USA • * former Gen. of Continental Army • * lured (convinced to come ) out of retirement • addressed both houses of Congress to work with him • was very nervous • said it felt similar to a criminal going to his execution
Washington as President of the USA Launching the New Govt… • Congress = deeply divided over ALL issues • some members = eager to build a strong national government • others = wanted a limited amount of pwr for the nat’l govt • differences showed up immediately in a debate over what title to use when addressing the president and the excise tax
What Shall We “Call” Our New President? • Adams said: “Your Excellency” - strong nat’l govt supporters agreed • others said: such titles smelled of royalty and had no place in a democracy • debate ended: Washington said to call him “Mr. President” (also known as Commander-in. Chief) and be done with it
Setting up the Executive Branch • Also… • Congress must determine how to properly run the Executive Branch of govt. • What positions should be addressed first? • Who will hold those positions? • How long will they be in office? • All was decided by Washington. • This became known as the President’s Cabinet.
Washington’s Cabinet • George Washington (first Pres. of the US) • John Adams (first Vice Pres. of the US) • Henry Knox (first Sec. of War) • Benjamin • Franklin (first Postmaster • General) Thomas Jefferson (first Sec. of State) Edmund Randolph (first Attorney General) • Alexander Hamilton (first Sec. of Treasury)
Washington as President of the USA MAJOR lack of funds!! (i. e. no money) 1) most critical problem facing the new govt. 2) national treasury was empty 3) Congress aa) had the power to raise funds through taxes bb) members argued endlessly about what to tax and by how much cc) by 1791 = agreed to place an excise tax (a tax on the production or sale of a product) on whiskey and other luxury goods such as carriages
Whiskey Rebellion • settlers living west of the Appalachian Mountains (in the ORV) reacted angrily to the tax • farmers = too costly to transport their grain across the mts to sell in eastern cities 1) distilled (if you’ve watched “Moonshiners” on TV, you will know what it means to “distill” their whiskey) their bulky wheat into whiskey 2) shipped cheaper than wheat 3) complained that the tax made their whiskey too expensive 4) refused to pay it
Congress… • lowered the excise tax in 1793 • most farmers began to pay up • BUT: tax rebels of western Pennsylvania would not! • 1794 = Whiskey Boys = tarred and feathered tax collectors who tried to enforce the law
Hamilton’s & Washington’s Views on Whiskey Rebellion • saw the Whiskey Rebellion (a revolt by farmers in 1794 agst the excise tax on whiskey) as a threat to the authority of the national govt • Hamilton = urged (tried to convince) Washington to send 13, 000 state militia troops across the Appalachian Mts to crush the rebels • rebellion was finally ended
Jefferson’s View on the Whiskey Rebellion • thought the militia being sent was foolish • even worse = upset that Hamilton was prepared to violate people’s liberties by using armed forces to put down opposition to government policies • said this is what a DICTATOR would do
The French Revolution • same time as the Whiskey Rebellion = the nation was caught up in a debate over events in France • 1789 (same time as Washington becoming pres) = French people rebelled against their king • French Leaders: dreamed of building a nation based on “liberty, equality, and fraternity (brotherhood) • 3 yrs later = France became a republic (nation based on democracy) and declared “a war of all peoples against all kings”
The French Revolution • news from France caused supporters of the revolution to change their opinion (NOT a good thing) • many Americans = thrilled by the French Revolution • HOWEVER: France’s revolutionary govt began beheading wealthy nobles (rich ppl) - some 20, 000 men, women, and children were murdered
The French Revolution Hamilton’s View of FR: • he and his followers: called themselves Federalists • most were wealthy • HORRIFIED by the bloodshed in France • scared that what happened to the wealthy families in France would happen to them
The French Revolution Jefferson’s Views on FR: • very excited about France becoming a republic • he and followers: began calling themselves Democratic-Republicans (or simply Republicans) • These DRs saw the French Revolution as part of a great crusade for democracy •
Federalists vs Democratic-Republicans • their rivalry (fighting/arguments) = eventually gave rise to the nation’s first political parties • extremely different visions for the new nation • Federalists: founded by Alexander Hamilton - wanted a strong national • Democratic-Republicans: founded by govt. Thomas Jefferson -wanted a power of the ppl and states’ rights (originally the Anti Federalists)
-Although there was tension, the nation grew quickly during Washington’s two terms in office: the states KY, TN, and VT were added. - He left the nation UNITED and at PEACE. (This doesn’t last long, however. ) Tennessee
The battle is on …
Federalists vs Democratic- Republicans vs Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton • Founder of the Federalist Party • Alexander Hamilton * our nation’s first Secretary of the Treasury • responsible for improving America’s financial well-being and printing money.
Alexander Hamilton Money
Personal Background • Hamilton = born in the West Indies (not in America) • never knew his father • charming, able, and ambitious but poor • wrote an essay at 13 recognized and sent to NY to receive an education
Personal • • Background (continued) married well became a delegate to the Constit’l Convention representing NY • Very vain • VERY bad temper when angered • Wanted to be Pres. of US eventually • Couldn’t Elizabeth Schuyler • WHY? ?
View of Human Nature • believed most people were basically selfish and out for themselves • regular ppl – those without money and/or education – “the mob” • distrusted any system of government that gave too much power to “the mob” this could only lead to error, confusion, and instability
Ideal Economy • ideal economy = based on business, manufacturing, and trade (Northern view) • at this time: US economy based on agriculture (farming) • believed the nation needed a national bank to collect taxes, print money, and make loans to build factories and ships
Ideal Economy – National Bank • said a national bank would… 1) help the govt by collecting taxes and keeping those funds safe 2) give the govt a stable currency by printing paper money supported by gold and silver 3) make loans to businesspeople to build new factories and ships 4) increase business and trade causing them to expand 5) make Americans better off 6) proposal ran into heavy opposition (ppl who didn’t agree)
Ideal Economy. . . • first: new nation needed to begin paying off the huge debts that Congress and the states had accumulated (money added up) during the American Revolution • 1790 = Hamilton presented Congress with a plan to pay off all war debts quickly • said govt would lose respect both at home and Notice: The U. S. is a brand new country and abroad if not ALREADY splitting between the Northern views and! Southern views!! • South = HATED this idea What is this foreshadowing? - most southerners: already paid their war depts - saw little reason to help Northern states to pay their debts
Best Form of Government • “the best people” —educated, wealthy, publicspirited white men like themselves—should run the country • believed: best for the “general good” • QUOTE: “Those who own the country, ” said Federalist John Jay bluntly, “ought to govern it. ” • favored a strong national government
Government Continued… • hoped to use the new government’s powers under the Constitution to - unite the quarreling states - keep order among the ppl • rights of states = not as important as national power and unity • had no deep loyalty to any state • said: his country was not New York = but the United States of America • hoped to see his adopted country become a great and powerful nation
Interpretation of the Constitution Hamilton said… 1) Congress could exercise only those powers specifically listed in the Constitution 2) Federalists supported a loose construction (broad interpretation) of the Constitution = Congress has powers beyond those specifically given in the Constitution 3) said the Elastic Clause allowed Congress to “make all laws which shall be necessary and proper” for carrying out its listed powers (9 th and 10 th Amendments) - collecting taxes was one of those powers - Congress = could set up a bank to help the govt with tax collection 4) 1791 = the Bank of the United States = helped the nation’s economy grow and prosper
Relations with Britain and France Hamilton sided with Britain • against France. • respected Britain’s power and order = needed them for trade/business purposes • shocked by the violence and chaos of the French Revolution • • Goal: be a pwrfl/respected nation who could defend itself agst any enemy
Thomas Jefferson • Founder of the Democratic. Republican Party • First Sec of State • Known for improving America’s relations with other countries, including the negotiation of treaties • * Remember: He was an excellent writer!
Thomas Jefferson Money
Personal Background • born into a wealthy family who owned a large farm in Virginia • showed his brilliance and curiosity. • became a VA planter with many slaves • wrote the Dec. of Indpdnc (1776) • assumed that informed citizens could make good decisions for themselves and their country • had great faith in the goodness and wisdom of people who worked the soil—farmers and planters like himself
View of Human Nature • believed that ordinary, informed people could make good decisions for the country • had great faith in the goodness and wisdom of people who worked the soil—farmers and planters like himself • regular ppl: Hamilton called “the mob”
Ideal Economy • favored an economy based on agriculture. • Opposed the national bank • said it only loaned money to businesses -- -- not farmers.
Ideal Economy – National Bank • TJ and the DRs disagreed!! 1) said Congress didn’t have the right based on the Constitution 2) said Congress could only exercise those powers specifically listed in the Constitution 3) AGAIN: - South = HATED this idea - most southerners: already paid their war debts - saw little reason to help Northern states to pay their debts AGAIN Notice: -The U. S. is a brand new country and ALREADY splitting between the Northern views and! Southern views!! - What is this foreshadowing?
United States Bank • although not everyone wanted it = the US National Bank happened. • 1791 • helped the nation’s economy grow and prosper
Best Form of Government • thought the best government was a democracy, where ordinary Americans chose their leaders (popular vote) • Democratic-Republicans = favored democracy over any other form of govt
Govt… continued • had no patience with the Federalists’ view that only the “best people” (the mob) should rule • said: Fed. ’s view came dangerously Limited government close to monarchy, or rule by a king • believed: the best government was the one that governed the least • thought: a small government with limited powers was most likely to leave ppl alone to enjoy the blessings of liberty
Govt… continued • wanted a strict construction/interpretation of the Constitution: a narrow interpretation meaning that Congress has only those powers specifically given/listed in the Constitution • insisted that the Constitution meant exactly what it said = NO Elastic Clause should be used • maintained: any addition to the powers listed in the document, such as the creation of a national bank, was unconstitutional and dangerous • said: states’ rights were more important than nat’l rights
Relations with Great Britain and France • Jefferson: favored France over Britain • felt that almost everything Hamilton did (in the name of putting the United States on the path to greatness) was a step down the road to ruin • TJ and AH: held very different views on almost everything
• wanted France to be democratic = BUT not in a heated war did NOT side with GB • called Federalists: “British bootlickers” • Democratic-Republicans = newspaper implied that Feds were weak and eager to please the British • most Democratic-Republicans continued to support France • regretted the bloodshed • argued that the loss of a few thousand aristocrats was a small price to pay for freedom
Citizen Genet • Edmond Genêt • 1793: French govt sent Edmond Genêt (zhuh-NAY) to the US • France and GB were at war w/each other! • new official representative = liason (middle man) to speak on behalf of the French • preferred to be called “Citizen Genêt (adopted this title to emphasize the equality of all people) • MISSION: to convince Americans they should join France in its war against GB
Citizen Genet. . . • Democratic-Republicans = welcomed him as a conquering hero • large crowds cheered him as he traveled about the country • formally presented himself to Pres GW • didn‘t get the warm and enthusiastic reception he expected • Washington: did not want to be drawn into war with Great Britain if US sided with Fr • HOWEVER: France expected the US to support them b/c they helped Americans win their independence from GB
Genet … contd • Washington: response to Genêt was cool and dignified • Genêt = began making speeches agst the pres • attacks on Washington = brought thousands of Genêt’s supporters into Philadelphia’s streets • protesters threatened to drag Washington out of his house • Fr supporters: wanted to declare war in favor of the French revolution • Jefferson got angry – even though he loved France • asked the French govt to recall its troublesome representative
Washington’s Farewell Address
Washington’s Farewell Address • When Washington left office, he warned against the dangers of passionate loyalty to parties. If fighting between parties was not controlled, it could tear the young nation apart. • Washington’s views came from his observation of the growing hostilities (angry issues) between the Federalists (led by Alexander Hamilton –Secretary of the Treasury) and the Democratic. Republicans (led by Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State).
Washington’s Quote as Part of His Farewell Address “With slight shades of difference, ” he said, “You have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together. ”
John Adams Federalist THE ELECTION OF 1796: FIRST REAL Election Thomas Jefferson Mainly supported by lawyers, merchants, ship owners, and business people in the North. Democratic. Republican Mainly supported by farmers in the South and the West.
… and the winner is… Winner John Adams Federalist Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican
• framers thought the Electoral College would simply choose the two best leaders for president and vice president • worked this way in the first two elections • not this time • 1796 = VP Adams won presidency by THREE votes against D-R Thomas Jefferson • first runner up – TJ – now the VP • NOW = 2 separate parties must work together
Formative Question: • Do you think this could work today? Turn to a partner and discuss. One minute
John Adams’ Presidency • Immediately after election… Federalists in Congress John Adams Federalist passed four controversial laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. • Alien: people who have come from other countries and are not yet citizens (immigrants) • Sedition: the crime of encouraging rebellion against the government
The Alien Acts • Three laws aimed at aliens (noncitizens) were called the Alien Acts. 1) lengthened the time it took for an immigrant to become a citizen with the right to vote – from 5 to 14 years 2) & 3) Alien Acts = allowed the president to either jail or deport (kick out of the country) aliens who were suspected of stirring up trouble (instigators) • laws were never enforced • BUT: frightened a number of French spies and rabble-rousers (troublemakers) to leave the US
Federalists’ Views on the Alien Acts • believed the laws were necessary to protect the country from troublemakers
Democratic-Republicans’ Views on the Alien Acts • saw this as an attack b/c most immigrants were Dem-Reps
The Sedition Act • made sedition a crime (encouraging rebellion against the govt) • Sedition = “printing, writing, or speaking in a scandalous or malicious (hateful) way against the government, Congress, or the President of the U. S. ”
’ Views on the Federalists. Sedition Act • Hamilton = believed that the law would punish only those who published vicious lies intended to destroy the government
Democratic-Republicans’ Views on the Sedition Acts • Jefferson = saw it as violating the freedoms of speech and the press (1 Amendment) st an attack DR newspaper editors who insulted Pres Adams in print EX: “old, querulous [whiny], bald, blind, crippled, toothless Adams” 25 ppl were arrested under the new law 10 convicted of printing seditious opinions
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Since Jefferson saw the sedition acts as violating the freedoms of speech and the press (1 st Amdmt), he and James Madison … - drew up a set of resolutions (statements of a formal decisions agreed on by a group) opposing the Alien and Sedition Acts - sent them to state legislatures for approval
• argued = Congress had gone beyond the Constitution passing these acts • states = duty to nullify (verb: to refuse to recognize a federal law. This action by a state is called nullification: noun) the laws = declare them to be without legal force • only two states adopted this: Virginia & Kentucky -- i. e. the name VA & KY Resolutions: - states’ rights = has nothing to do with federal govt (Amdmt 10) - protest died out = but not forgotten - would be raised/tested again in the future
States’ Rights • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions = raised the issue of states’ rights Formative Question: Did states have the right not to Question honor federal laws that they believed violated the Constitution? • Turn to a partner and discuss. One minute.
This issue of states’ rights would be debated for years to come and would later play a role in the American Civil War.
1 st: 1785 -1790: New York • first years of existence: our nation’s 2 nd: 1790 -1800: Philadelphia capital moved from city to city 1800 - Present: Washington, D. C. • Fall of 1800: federal govt permanently moved to the city of Washington in the District of Columbia • Most govt’s buildings were still under construction
Nation’s Capital BOTH Northerners & Southerners: - wanted the capital to be located in their section of the country • BRIBERY: - Hamilton promised = to support a location in the South if southerners would support his debt plan • debt plan was passed: Philadelphia no longer the capital as of 1800 s • nation’s new capital = District of Columbia (i. e. Washington, DC) • located = in the South on the Potomac River between Maryland Virginia
Abigail Adams, the President’s wife, described the new “President’s House” as a “castle” in which “not one room or chamber is finished. ”
THE ELECTION OF 1800 Democratic- Federalists P: John Adams • Due to the issues brought on by the previous election = Congress decided to hold this one differently Republicans P: Thomas Jefferson • Each candidate = would have a Vice Pres. contender Federalists wanted Alexander Hamilton, but he was not a natural born citizen. VP: Charles Pinckney VP: Aaron Burr
The Campaign of 1800 • campaign = centered more on insults than on issues • Needless to say: = This was the end of a long the 1820 s before both men died.
The Campaign OF 1800 • Adams : - ran on his record of peace and prosperity 1) Federalist newspapers = called Jefferson an atheist (someone who Federalist Candidates Adams (P) and Pinckney (VP) denies the existence of God) 2) said Jefferson would = “destroy religion, introduce immorality, and loosen all the bonds of society” 3) some elderly Federalists = frightened and buried Bibles for safe-keeping
The Campaign OF 1800 • Jefferson: - supported the Constitution and states’ rights 1) promised to run a “frugal and simple” government Democratic-Republican Candidates Jefferson (P) and Burr (VP) 2) Dem-Rep newspapers = attacked Adams as a tyrant 3) accused him = of wanting to turn the nation into a monarchy so that his children could follow him on the presidential throne
The Divided Federalists • Hamilton and his supporters = refused to support Adams because of disagreements over the president’s foreign policy 1) worked behind the scenes 2) goal: convince the men chosen for the electoral college to cast their presidential ballots for Pinckney over Adams 3) could manipulate Pinckney = so he could personally guide the US his way 4) Pinckney = seemed more likely to value Hamilton’s advice and firm Federalist principles • Adams did not like Hamilton - felt Washington = put too much faith in Hamilton
The Divided Federalists
Deadlock Electoral College - clear that John Adams lost • Constitution says: - each elector cast two votes - idea = candidate finishing second = would be vice president • ALL D/Rs electors voted for Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr = result a tie between them
Breaking the Tie Constitution: Article II Section 1 1) if two candidates each received a majority of electoral votes but are tied = House of Representatives now determines which one will be President 2) each state has one vote - decision now rested on Federalist-controlled House of Representatives 3) 35 ballots cast over 6 days 4) neither candidate received a majority
Breaking the Tie … contd 5) Burr - could have told his supporters in the House to elect Jefferson as president - this is what the DR party wanted - BUT: he didn’t and remained silent bc HE wanted to be president 6) Alexander Hamilton = hated Burr - advised Federalists in Congress that Jefferson was the safer choice 7) 36 th vote…
Thomas Jefferson Winner
Revolution of 1800 • election of 1800 = known as the Revolution of 1800 because power had passed from one group (the Federalists) to another (the DRs) without a single shot being fired • different than other countries where power changed hands by means of a war or revolution (tyranny) • election of 1800 proved that the system of government established by the Constitution was a success
New Amendment The 12 th Amendment 1) 1804 2) 12 th Amendment added to the Constitution to prevent such ties 4) amendment calls for the Electoral College to cast separate ballots for president and vice president 5) If no presidential candidate receives a majority of electoral votes = the House of Reps chooses a president from the top three candidates 6) If no candidate for vice president receives a majority = the Senate chooses the VP
Burr / Hamilton Duel -both men = despised each other - went on for yrs - final issue: Burr lost the election / Gov. of NY -Burr : challenged Hamilton to a duel Hamilton wanted to avoid it = but politics and pride left him no choice - Hamilton fatally wounded = died next day - Burr’s political career = now over