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Unit 1, Chapter 3 The American Colonies Take Shape
“I said hey, I said hey… what’s going on? • 1689 – England’s Glorious Revolution begins a bill of rights • 1705 – Virginia introduces harsher slave codes • 1707 – England, Scotland, and Wales join to form United Kingdom of Great Britain • 1735 – John Paul Zenger’s trail becomes foundation for freedom of the press
“I said hey, I said hey… what’s going on? • 1736 – Qianlong becomes emperor of China • 1740 – Great Awakening begins • 1748 – Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws • 1754 – B. Franklin draws up Albany Plan of Union • 1754 -1763 – French and Indian War • 1760 – George III becomes King of England • 1763 -1764 – Pontiac’s Rebellion • 1763 – Treaty of Paris ends war b/t FR and GB
Section 1: Immigration & Slavery • • Europeans Migrate to the Colonies Main Idea: After a difficult start, the American colonies began to grow steadily. New immigrants from England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, and other nations brought diversity and growth to the region. • • Africans Are Transported to America Main Idea: As English immigration began to decline in the 1600 s, the demand for labor grew in the colonies. As a result, many colonists turned to another source of labor: enslaved Africans. • • Africans in the Americas Main Idea: Although enslaved Africans came from different countries, spoke various languages, and had many cultural differences, over time they forged a new culture as African Americans.
Who is here? • By 1700 – 250, 000 Europeans in the colonies – Rise ten times in 75 years – 90% English – why? • 1/2 indentured servants – Scots lived in backwoods (2 nd) – Germans (many to Penn; 3 rd) • What is good about so many immigrants?
Why did they come?
The Africans are coming: • English immigration declined and need for labor (crops) grew. • African workers at first treated as indentured servants. – Freed after years of service (rights) • Various cultural backgrounds • Mid 1600’s – slavery laws
Transatlantic Slave Trade & Middle Passage
Transatlantic Slave Trade- 1700 s GB imported 1. 5 mil slaves. – 250, 000 to N & S American colonies 1. European slave traders sailed to Africa & traded manufactured goods for African slaves 2. Middle Passage – Traders sailed to Americas & sold slaves in colonies for raw materials 3. Traders returned to Europe country.
Middle Passage • Watch scenes from “Amistad” • Brutal conditions – Little food/water, disease spread, no medicine, shackles, kept under deck, crowded, separated from families, branded painfully, stifling and dirty air, etc. – 10% did not survive
Slavery in the Colonies • NE and Mid-Atlantic – house slaves • South: hard labor – 40% of pop in Chesapeake Bay area – Poor living conditions, hard & long work • Kept African culture – Blended Christianity w/ own religions • Some rebellion (Stono and escape) – Welcomed in FL – why? • Free? – Some – rare – Phyllis Wheatley • 1 st African American to publish book of poems
Section 2: The American Colonies and England • • Government in the Colonies Main Idea: Having different types of regional government, the colonies were disunited, and the English monarchy exercised little control over them. • • England’s Economic Relationship With the Colonies Main Idea: The purpose of the English colonies was to increase England’s wealth and power. The economic philosophy of mercantilism supported those ideas. • • New Ideas Affect the American Colonies Main Idea: The intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment challenged old ways of thinking about science, religion, and government. Enlightenment ideas changed the way American colonists viewed the world as well.
Government in the Colonies North America was good for England. Colonies: – supplied food and raw materials. – bought large amounts of GB manufactured goods So – England left Colonists alone
English Government of North American Colonies At this time – England’s political turmoil was at home in England – Civil War between King Charles I and Parliament – Again, Colonies were left alone – This ‘hands off’ policy is called: Salutary Neglect
Salutary Neglect spawns: Democracy • Early English Documents: – Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights • Habeas corpus • Enlightened thinkers: Locke & Montesquieu • Freedom of the Press? !!? – John Peter Zenger
Britain's Colonial Policy Early 1700’s Mercantilism • Get gold/$ by exporting more than importing • Colonies should buy only from GB – Not manufacture or export Colonial Gov’ts • Each colony creates own assembly – House of Burgesses (VA) • Gov appt. by King Navigation Acts • Export crops and raw materials to England on GB ships • Manufactured goods bought from GB
Colonial Life • Gentry – Wealthy, politics • Trade people & farmers – Next rank – Silversmiths, printers, small farmers • Women – Ran house/fam – Can’t vote or own land • Children – Few attend school; worked
Colonial Education • Not compulsory • New England became leaders – Why? Protestants want to read Bible • 1647 – Mass law of 50 • Girls? • Home school? • College? – ministers and lawyers • By 1740’s 3 colleges – Harvard (MA), William & Mary (VA), & Yale (CT)
Case Study: Ben Franklin • What do you know about him? – Author, printer, inventor, politician, political theorist, scientist, musician, satirist, diplomat, civic activist, postmaster, firefighter, etc. • Poor family, 17 kids, Boston – Ended school at 10, ran away at 17 • How does his story represent American values at the time? – Social mobility and individualism.
How does Ben Franklin’s story represent common American ideals/morals/values? • Social mobility and individualism! • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=SChcy 3 IGlg
• The Enlightenment – Movement led by thinkers who believed all problems could be solved using human reason. • Why is this important for US history? • How does it impact religion? – Don’t forget how imp this is… ever heard of the Salem Witch Trails? ?
Religious Tensions • GB colonists mostly… – Southern Presbyterians, Quakers in Penn, etc. • Ministers believed colonists weren’t pious enough! – Led revivals to renew religious zest. • Preaching impacted young audience – Great Awakening!!!!
The Great Awakening • Why the name? • Created a feeling • Religious revival of independence – People spoke for – Jonathan themselves Edwards, MA – Relied less on • Remind people ministers of power/God • George Whitfield – Toured colonies 7 times – Anyone can have relationship with J. C.
Significance of the Great Awakening • 1740’s and 1750’s – many became Baptist – Methodist and Baptists were middle of bottom of society • Introduced idea of equality – Everyone can have relationship with J. C. • Revival in religion
Check for Understanding: let those creative juices flow! • 1. Eulogy for Ben Franklin – From any perspective: • Fellow Constitutional convention delegate, jilted lover, etc. – 8 -10 sentences • Create 10 # (hashtags) for B. Frank • Write your own “Fire and Brimstone” sermon – 8 -10 sentences
Section 3: Comparing Regional Cultures • Regional Economic Patterns • Main Idea: Variations in geography and climate contributed to the differences between life in New England, the Middle Colonies, and the South. Farming prevailed more in the Middle Colonies than in New England, and the South succeeded at producing the most valuable and profitable crops. • Regional Social Patterns • Main Idea: The three colonial regions varied in terms of social characteristics. Access to education and different settlement patterns helped to create distinct features in each of the regions.
Diverse Economies • Spanish – mined silver, grew sugar • French – fur trade • GB – regions differed – Southern • Staple crops tobacco and rice, used slaves – Middle • Mix of farming and commerce – New England • Carrying trade • Triangular Trade
Section 4: Wars of Empire • • European Competition and the Colonies Main Idea: Between 1689 and 1748, the British and the French fought a series of wars. Most of the fighting occurred in Europe, but some spilled over into North America. The colonies suffered from raids by the French and their Indian allies. • • The French and Indian War Main Idea: Both France and Britain claimed ownership of the fertile Ohio River valley. France’s act of building a fort there angered the British and eventually led to a conflict called the French and Indian war. • • Pontiac’s Rebellion Main Idea: After their conquest of Canada, England cut off delivery of goods to the Indians and flooded Indian lands. In response, many Indian groups held an uprising that came to be known as Pontiac’s Rebellion. • • Aftermath of the War Main Idea: England faced a large war debt following the French and Indian War and had to pay a high price to guard their new territory. The British imposed new taxes and colonial trade regulations to pay for this, angering the colonists.
North America in 1750
1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British Fort Necessity * George Washington French Fort Duquesne * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA A Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
1755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. A Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana. CAJUNS
1756 War Is Formally Declared! Lord Loudouin Marquis de Montcalm Native American tribes exploited both sides!
British-American Colonial Tensions Colonials Methods of Fighting: British • Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or bayonet charge. tactics. Military • Col. militias served Organization: under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Military Discipline: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Drills & tough discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising taxes. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister A He understood colonial concerns. A He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation->Br. -->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758.
1758 -1761 The Tide Turns for England
1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
North America in 1763
Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
BACKLASH! British Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)