Скачать презентацию Understanding Learning Disabilities in Children by Morayo Jimoh Скачать презентацию Understanding Learning Disabilities in Children by Morayo Jimoh

a601be08b907282e9ad75aa6ed57da81.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 36

Understanding Learning Disabilities in Children by Morayo Jimoh Phd, CPsychol Chrisland School, VGC 1 Understanding Learning Disabilities in Children by Morayo Jimoh Phd, CPsychol Chrisland School, VGC 1 st February 2013 @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

What is Learning Disability (LD) • Learning Disability is a neurological disorder that affects What is Learning Disability (LD) • Learning Disability is a neurological disorder that affects the brain’s ability to receive, process, respond to information, store and retrieve information. • LD may be mild, moderate or severe @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

What is Learning Disability (contd. ) • • LD can affect a person’s ability What is Learning Disability (contd. ) • • LD can affect a person’s ability in these areas Listening Speaking Reading Writing Spelling Reasoning Mathematics @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Types of Learning Disability • Dyslexia • Dysgraphia • Dyspraxia • Dyscalculia @ Dr Types of Learning Disability • Dyslexia • Dysgraphia • Dyspraxia • Dyscalculia @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Dyslexia • Dyslexia is an inherited condition that makes it • • extremely difficult Dyslexia • Dyslexia is an inherited condition that makes it • • extremely difficult to read, write, and spell in your native language despite at least average intelligence. Dyslexia is a neurological-based, often familial disorder which interferes with acquisition and processing of language (International Dyslexia Association) It is manifested in receptive and expressive language, reading, writing and spelling. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Dyslexia contd. • Dyslexia is not the result of lack of motivation, inadequate instructional Dyslexia contd. • Dyslexia is not the result of lack of motivation, inadequate instructional or environmental opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may occur together with these condition. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Warning signs of Dyslexia (No two people with dyslexia are exactly alike) • Delayed Warning signs of Dyslexia (No two people with dyslexia are exactly alike) • Delayed speech: Not speaking any word by the first birthday. Often, • • They don’t start talking until they 2, 3 or even older; Mixing up multi-syllabic words for example aminal for animal, bisgetti for spagetti; Lots of ear infection; Can’t master tying shoes; Confusion over left versus right; before versus after; over versus under; Late to establish a dominant hand; Difficulty learning names of letters and sounds in the alphabet; Difficulty writing alphabet in order; Trouble articulating R’s and L’s as well as M’s and N’s. They may still be saying “wed” instead of “red” and “gween” instead of “green”. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Dyslexia sign contd. • Can read a word on one page, but won’t • Dyslexia sign contd. • Can read a word on one page, but won’t • • • recognise it on the next page; Becomes tired after reading a short time; Substitutes similar looking words for example house for horse, while for white. Their spelling is far worse than their reading; Misspells even when copying from the board or from a book; Numerous erasures and cross outs @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Causes of Dsylexia • Dyslexia is an inherited condition @ Dr Morayo Jimoh Causes of Dsylexia • Dyslexia is an inherited condition @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Research results on Dyslexia • Dyslexia affects at 1 out of every 5 children Research results on Dyslexia • Dyslexia affects at 1 out of every 5 children (United • • • States). Dyslexia represents the most common and prevalent of all know learning Disablities Early intervention is essential for this population Dyslexia is identifiable , with 92% accuracy, at ages 51/2 to 6 1/2/. Children do not outgrow reading failure or dyslexia Dyslexia and ADD/ADHD are two separate and identifiable entities. Dyslexia and ADD? ADHD so frequently coexist in the same child that it is always best to test for both. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Research results for Dyslexia contd. • Children with both dyslexia and ADD/ADHD are at Research results for Dyslexia contd. • Children with both dyslexia and ADD/ADHD are at dramatically increased risk for substance abuse and felony convictions if they do not receive appropriate interventions (NIH, 1994) @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Dysgraphia • Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing. • It can lead Dysgraphia • Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing. • It can lead to poor handwriting, problem with spelling, and putting thoughts on paper. • People with dysgraphia might have trouble organizing letters, numbers and words on a line. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Causes of Dysgraphia • Brain damage • Physical illness or deformity • Intentionally poor Causes of Dysgraphia • Brain damage • Physical illness or deformity • Intentionally poor penmanship • No or inadequate instruction • Disorientation • Multiple mental images • Inadequate natural orientation. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Signs of Dysgraphia • Has trouble with buttons and zippers; • Trouble lacing shoes; Signs of Dysgraphia • Has trouble with buttons and zippers; • Trouble lacing shoes; • Has trouble connecting dots; • Has strong verbal skills; • Doesn’t like lego or other small blocks @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Dyspraxia • Dyspraxia is a disorder that affects motor skill • • • development. Dyspraxia • Dyspraxia is a disorder that affects motor skill • • • development. People with dyspraxia have trouble planning and completing fine motor tasks. Examples waving good bye and brushing of teeth. It is not a learning disability but often coexist with other LDs and conditions that impact learning. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Signs and symptoms of dyspraxia The child may take very longer than other children Signs and symptoms of dyspraxia The child may take very longer than other children to: • Sit • Crawl • Walk • Speak • Stand @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Signs of dyspraxia contd • Build up vocabulary • Speak in articulate manner • Signs of dyspraxia contd • Build up vocabulary • Speak in articulate manner • Difficulties with concentration • Does not follow instructions @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

General causes of LD • Genetics • Factors in pregnancy e. g. drug and General causes of LD • Genetics • Factors in pregnancy e. g. drug and alcohol • • consumption; Factors during delivery e. g. trauma during delivery; Early childhood factors e. g. seizures, infection of the cns; Brain trauma or tumours Idiopathy @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Disorder that can make learning difficult • ADD/ADHD • Anxiety Disorder • Childhood depression Disorder that can make learning difficult • ADD/ADHD • Anxiety Disorder • Childhood depression • Autism @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

ADD/ADHD • ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder • • • characterized by significant difficulties ADD/ADHD • ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder • • • characterized by significant difficulties of attention or hyperactivity and impulsiveness or a combination of the two. It is the most commonly studied and research psychiatric disorder in children. It affects 3 to 5 percent of children globally. Children with ADHD have problem sitting still, staying focused, following instructions, staying organised and completing homework. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Types of ADHD (3 types) • ADHD combined type (both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms); Types of ADHD (3 types) • ADHD combined type (both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms); • ADHD predominantly inattentive type ( inattention and at least 6 out of 9 hyperactivity impulsivity symptom); • ADHD predominantly hyperactiveimpulsivity type. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Anxiety Disorder in children • Anxiety disorders are considered to be on of the Anxiety Disorder in children • Anxiety disorders are considered to be on of the most common psychiatric disorders affecting children and adolescents. • Studies have indicated that fewer than 20% receive treatment. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Consequences of Anxiety Disorders • School absences • Impaired relations with peers • Poor Consequences of Anxiety Disorders • School absences • Impaired relations with peers • Poor self esteem • Alcohol and drug use @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Childhood depression • It is often hard to identify depression in children because it Childhood depression • It is often hard to identify depression in children because it often mimics the following disorders: • Inattention; • Impulsivity; • Aggression; and • Learning problem @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Signs and symptoms of childhood depression • Easily comes to tears, feeling sad • Signs and symptoms of childhood depression • Easily comes to tears, feeling sad • Feeling worthless • Irritable and often in a bad mood • Increased in aggressive behaviours • Difficulty staying still • Decreased energy and easily fatigued • Decrease in academic performance • Changes in eating behaviour • Changes in sleep behaviour @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) • ASD are brain based disorders that affect a • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) • ASD are brain based disorders that affect a • • • person’s behaviour, as well as social and communication skills. Children with Autism can have trouble in the following area: Communicating; Reading body language; Learning basic skills; Making eye contact; and Making friends @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Assessment and Diagnosis • Diagnosing a learning disability is not so easy. • It Assessment and Diagnosis • Diagnosing a learning disability is not so easy. • It is a process. • It involves testing, history taking, and observation by a trained specialist. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Types of specialists who may be able to diagnose learning disability • Child & Types of specialists who may be able to diagnose learning disability • Child & Educational psychologists • Neuropsychologists • Child psychiatrists • Developmental psychologists • Clinical psychologists • Psychometrists • Occupational therapist (test sensory disorders that can lead to learning problem) @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Solutions • Assessment and diagnosis • Treatment @ Dr Morayo Jimoh Solutions • Assessment and diagnosis • Treatment @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Assessment and Diagnosis contd. • Sometimes several professional coordinate themselves as a team to Assessment and Diagnosis contd. • Sometimes several professional coordinate themselves as a team to obtain an accurate diagnosis. • Recommendations can then be made for special education. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Treatment • Neuropsychological therapy (CBT) • Biofeedback • Neurofeedback • Medications ( Ritalin & Treatment • Neuropsychological therapy (CBT) • Biofeedback • Neurofeedback • Medications ( Ritalin & other antipsychotics are being currently used to treat AD/HD) • Other brain based therapies @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Tips on how parents can help their children with LD • Learn the specifics Tips on how parents can help their children with LD • Learn the specifics about your child’s learning disability; • Research treatment, services and new theories; • Pursue treatment and services at home; • Nurture your child’s strength. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Tips for schools on LDs • Schools should not wait too long before they Tips for schools on LDs • Schools should not wait too long before they send children suspected for LDs for proper evaluation by professionals. • It may seem that many children are not evaluated properly and by that time there are major gaps in their learning and acquisition. • Early intervention is always the best. @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

 • Children with learning disabilities can, and do, succeed @ Dr Morayo Jimoh • Children with learning disabilities can, and do, succeed @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

Questions • Questions ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Questions • Questions ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? • ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? @ Dr Morayo Jimoh

For more information • www. mobilehealthconsult. com • www. dyslexia. com @ Dr Morayo For more information • www. mobilehealthconsult. com • www. dyslexia. com @ Dr Morayo Jimoh