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Understanding Islam Why should we study the religion of Islam? There are over 1 Understanding Islam Why should we study the religion of Islam? There are over 1 billion Muslims in the world.

Islam Identifications • Muslim: person who follows Islam • Ka’aba: Islam’s holiest shrine – Islam Identifications • Muslim: person who follows Islam • Ka’aba: Islam’s holiest shrine – located in Mecca – Arabic for cube • Qu’ran: secret text, holy book of Islam • Mecca: birth place of Islam, holiest city, Saudi Arabia • Mosque: Muslim house of worship • Allah: Arabic for God same as J and C • Medina: first Islamic community, 2 nd Holy city, Muhammad gains political and religious power – City of the Prophet • Hejira: 622 – Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina; marks first expansion of Islam 2 • Jerusalem: 3 rd Holiest city to Islam – Dome of the Rock

Five Pillars of Islam • Islam means: (#2) – to submit/submission • • • Five Pillars of Islam • Islam means: (#2) – to submit/submission • • • Five Pillars of Islam: (#3) Declaration of Faith (Shahada) Prayers (Salah) Charity (Zakat) Fasting (Sawm) Pilgrimage (Hajj) 3

The Rise and Spread of Islam The Rise and Spread of Islam

Arabia in the 7 th Century 5 Arabia in the 7 th Century 5

Mecca 6 Mecca 6

Muhammad (#4) • • Born CE 570 Parents died Raised by Uncle Marries Khadija Muhammad (#4) • • Born CE 570 Parents died Raised by Uncle Marries Khadija Merchant/trader Meditated in desert Daughter Fatima married to cousin Ali • Video 3: 29 7

Muhammad: Founder of Islam • Muhammad was born in Mecca about 570. • His Muhammad: Founder of Islam • Muhammad was born in Mecca about 570. • His parents died when he was very young, but he was sent to live with his uncle, who was a Bedouin tribesman, even before they died. • Muhammad became a merchant. • When he was 25, he met a wealthy widow named Khadija, and married her.

Muhammad (#5) • Final Prophet/Founder of Islam – Means to surrender/submit (#2) • Messages Muhammad (#5) • Final Prophet/Founder of Islam – Means to surrender/submit (#2) • Messages from God compiled in the Qur’an • Spread the message of one God 9

The Hejira • Muhammad began to speak about this new religion to the Arab The Hejira • Muhammad began to speak about this new religion to the Arab tribes people around Mecca. • Some began to follow him. Others did not like his message, and plotted to kill both him and his followers. • In 622, Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Yathrib, a town to the north. • This journey was known as the hejira. • Yathrib was later renamed Medina, which means “City of the Prophet. ”

Medina and Hejira 622 Marks the beginning of expansion of Islam (#10) 11 Medina and Hejira 622 Marks the beginning of expansion of Islam (#10) 11

Sacredness of Jerusalem • “Night Journey” from the nearest mosque to the farthest (“al-Aqsa”) Sacredness of Jerusalem • “Night Journey” from the nearest mosque to the farthest (“al-Aqsa”) mosque - 619 AD in Jerusalem • Is believed to be when Muhammad “flew” to Jerusalem and met with the old Prophets: Abraham and Moses The Night Journey 1

Umayyad Culture Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Video Al-Aqsa (“furthest”) mosque, built CE 715 Umayyad Culture Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Video Al-Aqsa (“furthest”) mosque, built CE 715 13

People of the Book (# 6) • Muhammad’s Term for Jews and Christians – People of the Book (# 6) • Muhammad’s Term for Jews and Christians – Cause followed Gods teachings • Old and New Testament were God’s words but had been corrupted over time • Christianity and Judaism influenced Islam 14

Return to Mecca – 628 AD Mecca 15 Return to Mecca – 628 AD Mecca 15

Kaaba • Housed 360 idols • Muhammad Smashed idols and dedicated to God (360) Kaaba • Housed 360 idols • Muhammad Smashed idols and dedicated to God (360) (#5) • Pilgrimages during holy month Dhul-Hijjah • Kiswah: the cloth that covers the Kaaba – Embroidered in gold the Muslim Declaration of Faith – At the end of the ḥajj, the new kiswah is put in place, and the old one is cut into small relics that are sold to pilgrims. Ka’bah 16

Spread of Muslim Rule 17 Spread of Muslim Rule 17

Two Main Branches of Islam Battle of Karbala: 661 A. D. 11 Two Main Branches of Islam Battle of Karbala: 661 A. D. 11

Schism • Disagreement over style and qualifications leader • Bloody massacre • (#11) Split Schism • Disagreement over style and qualifications leader • Bloody massacre • (#11) Split into Sunni and Shi’a during Umayyad Dynasty – Mid 600’s • over the choosing of caliph – successor to Muhammad as leader of Islamic community (#11) • (#12) Sunni – 80% caliph based on merit – anyone • Shi'ite/Shi’a – caliph descendent of Muhammad 19 Shrine at Karbala

7. Quran, Sunnah, Hadith make up the Sharia – sacred law of Islam Sunnah: 7. Quran, Sunnah, Hadith make up the Sharia – sacred law of Islam Sunnah: Islamic Faith in practice Hadith: accounts and sayings of Muhammad 8. oneness of God and Muhammad Final Prophet 9. Birth, Marriage, Death Aqiqah Link 10. Hejira (622), Muslim Army united by Jihad (to struggle to be the best Muslim/Holy War) and promise of riches, resentment of foreign rule, Conversion (equality of believers), tolerance 20

11. Umayyad, choosing a caliph 12. Shi’a (Shiite) and Sunni 13. Halal In Arabic, 11. Umayyad, choosing a caliph 12. Shi’a (Shiite) and Sunni 13. Halal In Arabic, the word halal means permitted or lawful. Halal foods are foods that are allowed under Islamic dietary guidelines No pork or alcohol 21

Five Pillars of Islam • • • Declaration of Faith (Shahada) Prayers (Salah) Charity Five Pillars of Islam • • • Declaration of Faith (Shahada) Prayers (Salah) Charity (Sawm) Fasting (Zakat) Pilgrimage (Hajj) Video 2: 00 – Another Hajj Video – And one more 22

Ramadan (#14) • • • 9 th month of the Islamic/lunar calendar Month that Ramadan (#14) • • • 9 th month of the Islamic/lunar calendar Month that Qur'an to Muhammad Fasting from sunup to sundown Focus on relationship with God/spiritually Night of Power: – last days of the month it is believed that Muhammad first received the Qur'an. • Eid ul-Fitr (The Festival of Fast-Breaking): – holiday that marks the end of Ramadan and fasting – Show Wolper Video 23

Islam, Christianity, and Judaism Similarities • • Monotheism Prophethood Golden Rule Jerusalem Holy Judgment Islam, Christianity, and Judaism Similarities • • Monotheism Prophethood Golden Rule Jerusalem Holy Judgment Day Heaven Prayer • • • Charity Coming of Age Pilgrimage Dietary Laws Ethical world view 24

Early Islamic Empires Early Islamic Empires

The Spread of Islam • Within 120 years of the Prophet Muhammad’s death, the The Spread of Islam • Within 120 years of the Prophet Muhammad’s death, the religion of Islam had spread from the Arabian Peninsula to include the following areas: • http: //www. explorethemed. com/Rise. Islam. asp

Early Caliphates Umayyad Dynasty (661 -750 A. D. ) Capital: Damascus, Syria Emphasis on Early Caliphates Umayyad Dynasty (661 -750 A. D. ) Capital: Damascus, Syria Emphasis on Arab Culture & Language Sunni Muslim

Umayyads (661– 750) 28 Umayyads (661– 750) 28

Umayyad Culture Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Video Al-Aqsa (“furthest”) mosque, built CE 715 Umayyad Culture Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Video Al-Aqsa (“furthest”) mosque, built CE 715 29

Shi’ism Today 30 Shi’ism Today 30

Umayyad Decline • Fragmentation – split • Non-Arabs • Leadership problems 31 Umayyad Decline • Fragmentation – split • Non-Arabs • Leadership problems 31

Early Caliphates Abbassid Dynasty (750 -1250 AD) Capital: Baghdad Golden Age of Muslim Civilization Early Caliphates Abbassid Dynasty (750 -1250 AD) Capital: Baghdad Golden Age of Muslim Civilization Included People from other cultures Persians • • Advances in architecture Control of trade routes Advances in science, medicine, mathematics Poetry and philosophy Indians Turks

Abbasids (750– 1258) First 100 years 1 st Golden Age (#15) Because of economic Abbasids (750– 1258) First 100 years 1 st Golden Age (#15) Because of economic power, medicine, science, math, and architecture 33

Islam’s First Golden Age The Abbassid Caliphate was established in 750 A. D. The Islam’s First Golden Age The Abbassid Caliphate was established in 750 A. D. The capital of this new Islamic Empire was established in Baghdad, not Damascus. Founded by al-Mansur, the second caliph of the Abbassid Dynasty. This new caliphate was more inclusive of different people, including Persians, Turks, and Indians, which gave it more appeal.

Islam’s First Golden Age Commerce and Economics This new empire controlled the trade routes Islam’s First Golden Age Commerce and Economics This new empire controlled the trade routes between the East (India and China) and the Mediterranean, Africa, and Europe. This led to thriving, wealthy cities, such as Baghdad. To help trade prosper, the Abbasids developed many useful business practices.

Abbasid Culture • Trade revival • Arabic numerals • Algebra 36 Abbasid Culture • Trade revival • Arabic numerals • Algebra 36

Science and Medicine • • • Astrolabe Medicine Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Muhammad Al-Razi Muslims Science and Medicine • • • Astrolabe Medicine Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Muhammad Al-Razi Muslims used the magnetic needle to produce the mariner’s compass, as well as the astrolabe. • These inventions would become VERY important during the Age of Discovery hundreds of years later. Astrolabe 37

Medieval Renaissance Man Ibn Sina – known also as Avicenna Wrote more than 100 Medieval Renaissance Man Ibn Sina – known also as Avicenna Wrote more than 100 books on astronomy, music, philosophy, medicine, and poetry

Islam’s First Golden Age Advances in Learning: Ø Muslim scholars translated ancient Greek works Islam’s First Golden Age Advances in Learning: Ø Muslim scholars translated ancient Greek works on philosophy, science, and mathematics. Ø Muslims also made advances in the fields of medicine, mathematics, and architecture Ø They gave us beautiful poetry, such as The 18 Rubaiyat, and A Thousand One Nights

Islam’s First Golden Age Muhammad al Razi • Muslim doctor who stressed eating a Islam’s First Golden Age Muhammad al Razi • Muslim doctor who stressed eating a balanced diet. • Encouraged high professional standards for doctors, including education and qualifying exams. • Wrote 50 books on medicine 15

Abbasid Decline Mosque of Abbasid Caliph Al. Mutawakkil 41 Abbasid Decline Mosque of Abbasid Caliph Al. Mutawakkil 41

Home Stretch 16. Life long learners/education important - translated Greek and Sanskrit works on Home Stretch 16. Life long learners/education important - translated Greek and Sanskrit works on philosophy and science House of Wisdom – Baghdad – Al Mamun – preserved ancient learning – diffused to Europe 17. Medicine: Diagnosis/treatment/qualifying examinations Muhammad al-Razi and Ibn Sina – all influenced the West Math – algebra Science Architecture - minarets 18. Letters of credit – receipts – bills of lading 42

Comparison of Statistics and Basics Islam Judaism Christianity adherents called Muslims Jews Christians current Comparison of Statistics and Basics Islam Judaism Christianity adherents called Muslims Jews Christians current adherents 1. 3 billion 14 million 2 billion current size rank 2 nd largest 12 th largest major concentration Middle East, Southeast Asia Israel, Europe, USA Europe, North and South America, rapid growth in Africa sacred text Qur'an (Koran) Bible (Jewish Bible + New Testament) other written authority Hadith Talmud, Midrash, Responsa church fathers, church councils, papal decrees (Catholic only) religious law Sharia Halakhah Canon Law clergy imams rabbis priests, ministers, pastors, bishops mosque synagogue church, chapel, cathedral Friday Saturday Sunday house of worship main day of worship 43

Comparison of Origins and History Islam Judaism Christianity date founded 622 CE unknown c. Comparison of Origins and History Islam Judaism Christianity date founded 622 CE unknown c. 33 CE place founded Saudi Arabia Palestine (def) Palestine founder Muhammad Moses or Abraham Jesus Arabic Hebrew Aramaic, Greek original language(s) early expansion major splits within 60 years, within 12 years, churches in major cities entire Arabian in Palestine, Turkey, little expansion; peninsula; within 100 mostly confined to Greece and Rome years, Muslim world Palestine (map); entire Roman stretched from the Empire by end of 4 th Atlantic to China cent. Shia/Sunni, c. 650 CE Catholic/Orthodox, 1054 Reform/Orthodox, CE; Catholic/Protestant, 1800 s CE 1500 s CE 44

Comparison of Religious Beliefs Islam Judaism Christianity type of theism strict monotheism Trinitarian monotheism Comparison of Religious Beliefs Islam Judaism Christianity type of theism strict monotheism Trinitarian monotheism ultimate reality one God names of God Allah (Arabic for God) Yahweh, Elohim Yahweh, the Holy Trinity other spiritual beings angels, demons, jinn angels and demons revered humans prophets, imams (especially in Shia) prophets saints, church fathers identity of Jesus true prophet of God, whose message has been corrupted not prophet Son of God, God incarnate, savior of the world Not part of beliefs affirmed through Muhammad, recorded in Qur'an through Prophets, recorded in Bible through Prophets and Jesus (as God Himself), recorded in Bible correct belief, good deeds, Five Pillars belief in God, good deeds correct belief, faith, good deeds, sacraments (some Protestants emphasize faith alone) eternal paradise: heaven views vary: heaven eternal heaven Jews and Christians are respected as "People of the Book, " but they have wrong beliefs and only partial revelation. Islam and Christianity are false interpretations and extensions of Judaism is a true religion, but 45 with incomplete revelation. resurrection of Jesus divine revelation means of salvation good afterlife view of fellow Abrahamic religions