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Underpinning a Method Engineering Framework with a Powertype-based Metamodel – the FAME Project 3 Underpinning a Method Engineering Framework with a Powertype-based Metamodel – the FAME Project 3 rd Agent. Link III Technical Forum meeting (AL 3 -TF 3) Budapest, September 15 -17, 2005 Brian Henderson-Sellers Director, COTAR University of Technology, Sydney www-staff. it. uts. edu. au/~brian email: [email protected] uts. edu. au ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 1

Preview • • I. The FAME project II. Method engineering III. Metamodelling IV. Incorporating Preview • • I. The FAME project II. Method engineering III. Metamodelling IV. Incorporating a standard method metamodel V. Existing repository VI. FAML overview VII. In summary ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 2

I. The FAME Project (FAME = Framework for Agent-oriented Method Engineering) Project funded by I. The FAME Project (FAME = Framework for Agent-oriented Method Engineering) Project funded by Australian Research Council (2004 -6) Lead researchers: Brian Henderson-Sellers, Graham Low Postdoc researchers: Cesar Gonzalez-Perez, Ghassan Beydoun ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 3

Project to • create an AO, method engineering (ME)-based approach to software development • Project to • create an AO, method engineering (ME)-based approach to software development • Offer a supportive and integrative framework to consolidate and strengthen existing AO methodologies • FAME project includes both process and product aspects (based on AS 4651 and forthcoming ISO standard) including an AO modelling language (FAML) based on a generic model of agents at both design and run time ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 4

We thus seek consensus, whilst ensuring consistency and maximizing coverage • We seek collaborative We thus seek consensus, whilst ensuring consistency and maximizing coverage • We seek collaborative incorporation of fragments from all other identified AO methodologies • We propose continuing to support these various methodologies by providing a set of interfaces (façades) to the repository to maintain consistency for current AO methodology users ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 5

Tropos-style interface Prometheusstyle interface Brand. X-style interface Repository ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 6 Tropos-style interface Prometheusstyle interface Brand. X-style interface Repository ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 6

II. Method Engineering Method fragments/ chunks/components Repository instances of Metamodel Construction Guidelines uses instance II. Method Engineering Method fragments/ chunks/components Repository instances of Metamodel Construction Guidelines uses instance of Step 1: Method engineer Step 2: Project Manager Methodology M (a. k. a. Process Model) Methodology Instance ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 (a. k. a. Process) 7

From the method fragments in the repository can be assembled an individually tailored process From the method fragments in the repository can be assembled an individually tailored process Constructed methodology method fragments ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 8

III. Metamodelling A metamodel is at a higher level of abstraction than a conventional III. Metamodelling A metamodel is at a higher level of abstraction than a conventional model. It is often called “a model of a model“. It provides the rules/grammar for the modelling language (ML) itself. The ML consists of instances of concepts in the metamodel. ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 9

Strict Metamodelling “is-instance-of“ is key relationship i. e. instance -> class is paralleled by Strict Metamodelling “is-instance-of“ is key relationship i. e. instance -> class is paralleled by element -> set BUT “is-instance-of” is not transitive ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 10

Adding process to product adds problems duration=50 ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 Enacted tasks need Adding process to product adds problems duration=50 ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 Enacted tasks need to have a duration 11

An apparent solution using generalization Activity results in 1 * duration Diagram M 2 An apparent solution using generalization Activity results in 1 * duration Diagram M 2 Design. Activity 1 results in use. Patterns * Class. Diagram class. Count M 2 «instance. Of» Brian’s. Designs duration=50 use. Patterns=TRUE «instance. Of» results in Brian’s. Class. Diagram contains Brian’s. Class class. Count=2 M 1 ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 12

In this “solution” element Activity can now define an attribute duration. l Brian’s. Class. In this “solution” element Activity can now define an attribute duration. l Brian’s. Class. Diagram and Brian’s. Class at same level (M 1) BUT Have lost processes being enacted at M 0 and not M 1 AND M 2 level standardization has to identify all Activities, all Tasks etc. i. e. all contents of a method fragment repository l FURTHERMORE Semantics of “Activity” have been completely changed. [This is a commonly occurring error in the metamodelling literature] ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 13

Activity class Activity. Kind class Design x x x Code x x x x Activity class Activity. Kind class Design x x x Code x x x x x. Design x Code x Test Activity. Kind Activity Design Test So, in “Strictness restored” slide, we have also changed the original “Activity” to “Activity. Kind” but forgotten to rename it as such. Activity. Kind and Activity are two very different Sets. Here Activity class has 14 elements, Activity. Kind class has only 3. ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 14

IV. Incorporating a standard method metamodel Current possibilities include • OMG‘s SPEM • AS IV. Incorporating a standard method metamodel Current possibilities include • OMG‘s SPEM • AS 4651 (SMSDM)/draft of ISO 24744 (SEMDM) – used here ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 15

SMSDM/SEMDM Standard Metamodel for Software Development Methodologies (AS 4651 -2004 standard)/Software Engineering – Metamodel SMSDM/SEMDM Standard Metamodel for Software Development Methodologies (AS 4651 -2004 standard)/Software Engineering – Metamodel for Development Methodologies (draft ISO 24744) • Underpinned by powertype patterns • Three layer architecture: metamodel, method, endeavour ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 16

SMSDM/SEMDM architecture endeavour methodologies assessment quality tools metamodel ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 17 SMSDM/SEMDM architecture endeavour methodologies assessment quality tools metamodel ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 17

An Example of a Powertype in Process Modelling Task. Kind is classified into +assigned. An Example of a Powertype in Process Modelling Task. Kind is classified into +assigned. Team : String name : String Define. Operation name=Define. Operation +assigned. Team : String : Define. Operation +assigned. Team=Liz, John ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 18

Solves the problem of non-transitivity “My. System” Req. Spec. Version 1. 5 Title Version Solves the problem of non-transitivity “My. System” Req. Spec. Version 1. 5 Title Version Document “My. System” Requirements Specification Document endeavour Req. Spec. Document Must be approved: yes Document Kind method metamodel Name Must. Be. Approved ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 19

In summary: the core of the SMSDM/SEMDM ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 20 In summary: the core of the SMSDM/SEMDM ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 20

V. Existing Repository • Precursor to FAME project focussed on the OPF repository • V. Existing Repository • Precursor to FAME project focussed on the OPF repository • Fragments consistent with OPF metamodel are currently being (easily) translated to be SEMDM-compatible • Existing fragments offer wide software development support beyond existing AO methodologies ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 21

AOSE fragments From the literature, we have evaluated Tropos, Prometheus, Ma. SE, Gaia, Cassiopeia, AOSE fragments From the literature, we have evaluated Tropos, Prometheus, Ma. SE, Gaia, Cassiopeia, MAS -Common. KADS, Agent. Factory, CAMLE and PASSI for new method fragments We have so far identified 1 new Activity, 28 new Tasks, 11 new Subtasks, 23 new Techniques and 28 new Work Products ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 22

It is now possible to a) recreate standard AO methods like Gaia, Prometheus b) It is now possible to a) recreate standard AO methods like Gaia, Prometheus b) create an enhanced or integrated method e. g. Prometheus enhanced by Tropos ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 23

Prometheus enhanced by Tropos Technique Abstract class identification Agent internal design AND/OR decomposition Class Prometheus enhanced by Tropos Technique Abstract class identification Agent internal design AND/OR decomposition Class naming Control architecture Context modelling Delegation analysis Event modelling Intelligent agent identification. Means-end analysis Role modelling State modelling Textual analysis 3 -layer BDI model 1 2 Tasks 3 4 5 6 Y Y Y Y Y Y Key: 1. Model dependencies for actors and goals; 2. Construct the age model; nt 3. Design agent internal structure; 4. Model the agent’s environ ment; 5. Model responsibilities; 6. Model permissions ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 24

Tasks Work Product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Y Agent Class Descriptor Tasks Work Product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Y Agent Class Descriptor Agent Acquaintance Diagram Agent Overview Diagram Capability Diagram Role Model Role Schema (Tropos) Goal Diagram (Tropos) Actor Diagram UML Sequence Diagram Y Y Y Key: 1. Model dependencies for actors and goals; 2. Construct the agent model; 3. Design agent internal structure; 4. Model the agent’s environment; 5. Model responsibilities; 6. Model permissions; 7. Code. ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 25

VI. FAML Overview Start with core concepts of agent: – Autonomy – Situatedness – VI. FAML Overview Start with core concepts of agent: – Autonomy – Situatedness – Interactivity Agentexternal Design time Two scopes Two layers ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 Run time Agentinternal Agent System- definitionlevel Environmentlevel Agentlevel 26

e. g. Agent-related, run time ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 27 e. g. Agent-related, run time ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 27

VII. In Summary • No one methodology can fit all situations; hence need to VII. In Summary • No one methodology can fit all situations; hence need to create flexibility such that the process remains “standard” yet can somehow be moulded to various circumstances • Method engineering a solid basis for both standardization and flexibility • Comprehensive metamodel needed to support process+product aspects of an AO methodology. Simple combination of method metamodels dangerous because of implicit assumptions (e. g. agents collaborate vs. agents compete) and use of same term but with different semantics ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 28

In Summary – cont. • Start with existing repository of method fragments and consolidate In Summary – cont. • Start with existing repository of method fragments and consolidate • Implement the new standard metamodel • Create exemplar methodologies for industry testing • Encourage community effort to intercompare approaches and make recommendations (1, 2 or more? ) • Identification of weak points for further research endeavours? ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 29

THE END ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 30 THE END ©B. Henderson-Sellers, 2002 -2005 30