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UNCLASSIFIED 1 st Annual Israel Multinational BMD Conference & Exhibition AIRBORNE ELECTRO-OPTICAL SENSORS FOR UNCLASSIFIED 1 st Annual Israel Multinational BMD Conference & Exhibition AIRBORNE ELECTRO-OPTICAL SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEMS, MISSION AND TRADEOFF ANALYSIS Dr. Ehud Zamir WALES, Ltd. , Israel WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 1/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE PRESENTATION TOPICS • Overview • Sensor UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE PRESENTATION TOPICS • Overview • Sensor Suite Missions • Typical Sensors • Attributes of EO Sensors • Conclusions and Summary WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 2/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE OVERVIEW • Ballistic Missile Defense Systems UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE OVERVIEW • Ballistic Missile Defense Systems require a set of sensors (sensors suite) for detection and tracking of the targets • Data generated by the Sensor Suite prior to target’s engagement is used for prediction of threat trajectories, generation of sky picture, selection of targets, and generation of defense (interception) plan • Data generated by the Sensor Suite is also critical for post interception missions (e. g. kill assessment) WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 3/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSOR SUITE MISSIONS • Sensor Suite UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSOR SUITE MISSIONS • Sensor Suite missions can be summarized as: – Detection and early warning – Tracking and prediction of target’s trajectory – Collect data for classification, discrimination, and identification of targets – Support target selection – Post intercept missions: * Kill assessment * Collecting data on threat targets (battlefield learning) WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 4/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE TYPICAL SENSORS - TECHNICAL FEATURES • UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE TYPICAL SENSORS - TECHNICAL FEATURES • Typically (due to difference in wavelength and size considerations) the accuracy of angular measurements by EO Sensors is much better than the accuracy of angular measurements by RF Sensors • A passive EO Sensor can typically measure only azimuth and elevation of the target • An active Sensor (both RF and EO) can typically measure azimuth, elevation, range, and/or range rate of the target WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 5/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - DETECTION AND EARLY UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - DETECTION AND EARLY WARNING • Requirement: – Detect all BM targets in the threat scenario as early as possible • Space based EO sensors can detect BM in the boost phase and they have a very wide coverage. Early warning by GEO satellites is well established and proven • Airborne EO sensors can detect BM in the boost (limited by sensor’s horizon) and post-boost phases of their flight • Both airborne EO sensors and ground based RF sensors are limited by the horizon and detection range of the sensor WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 7/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - TRACKING AND TRAJECTORY UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - TRACKING AND TRAJECTORY PREDICTION • Requirements: – Track BM targets and predict their trajectories, within the budgeted time, with the accuracy required for cueing of other sensors and/or planning of interception – Have the capacity to track all BM targets in the threat scenario • The accuracy of angular measurements by EO Sensors is much better than the accuracy of angular measurements by RF Sensors • An active RF Sensor can measure azimuth and elevation, as well as range and range rate of the target WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 9/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - TRACKING AND TRAJECTORY UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - TRACKING AND TRAJECTORY PREDICTION (Cont. ) • Trajectory prediction with single RF sensor will typically converge faster than trajectory prediction with single EO sensor • Fusion of data from a combination of RF and EO Sensors will result in faster convergence of the trajectory • An optimal mix of active RF and passive EO sensors provides faster solution for interception plan, wider battle-space, and more efficient utilization of the tracking resources WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 10/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - CLASSIFICATION, DISCRIMINATION, IDENTIFICATION, UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - CLASSIFICATION, DISCRIMINATION, IDENTIFICATION, AND TARGET SELECTION • Requirements: – Collect data for classification and discrimination of objects in the sky picture – Identify the target in the environment of motor stages, Pen. Aids, and interception debris • RF sensors can provide data on RCS and dynamics of objects • Dual and triple bands EO sensors can collect data on IR signature, surface temperature, and relative size of the objects • Diversification of sensors, and wavelength bands, increases the reliability of discrimination processes and the probability of identification of targets among other objects in the sky picture WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 12/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - POST INTERCEPT MISSIONS UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - POST INTERCEPT MISSIONS • Requirements. Collect data for: – Kill assessment – Identification of RV after “No-Kill” event – Debriefing and battlefield learning • Kill Assessment is an essential tool in Ballistic Missile Defense architecture in order to achieve high level of defense (Pk) at affordable cost • Interception blast can be detected, and categorized, by airborne visible sensor few seconds after interception • Post interception aerosol cloud can be detected by airborne IR sensor few minutes (depending on altitude) after interception WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 13/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - DIVERSIFICATION • Diversification UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE SENSORS ATTRIBUTES - DIVERSIFICATION • Diversification of wavelength bands in the Sensors Suite provides for: Infrared Radar – Immunity to counter measures Visible – Increase the number of features available for discrimination and post interception missions (KA) – Increase reliability and system robustness WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 14/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY • A mix UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY • A mix of sensor types and wavelength bands is required in order to optimize performance of the Sensor Suite • Airborne EO sensor can detect targets below the horizon of ground based RF sensor, resulting in earlier detection • Fusion of track data from EO and RF sensors reduces the required tracking time, and sensors load • Data collected by EO sensor increases reliability of discrimination and target selection processes WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 15/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY (Cont(. • Data UNCLASSIFIED AIRBORNE EO SENSORS FOR BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY (Cont(. • Data collected by EO sensor increases reliability of post interception mission (e. g. KA) • Diversification of wavelengths bands provides better immunity against counter-measures • Diversification of wavelengths bands increases system reliability and robustness Airborne EO Sensors can be highly effective and beneficial in any Ballistic Missile Defense architecture WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 16/17 MAY 2010

UNCLASSIFIED WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) UNCLASSIFIED WALES, Ltd. UNCLASSIFIED Approved for Public Release - 10 -MDA-5450 (04 MAY 10) Air. Borne EO Sensor for BMD - 17/17 MAY 2010