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UK Accelerator Activity ASTe. C Role and National Programme Perspectives Mike Poole ASTe. C UK Accelerator Activity ASTe. C Role and National Programme Perspectives Mike Poole ASTe. C Director Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Role of AST in CCLRC • Core Business for CCLRC • DL and RAL Role of AST in CCLRC • Core Business for CCLRC • DL and RAL created for particle physics: NINA NIMROD • 40+ years expertise in electron, proton and ion accelerators • Design, build and operate Large User Facilities • latterly photon and neutron sources: SRS ISIS HELIOS • Develop next generation solutions • DIAMOND ESS ERLP/4 GLS ( ILC, NF, ……. . ) • Underpinning R&D programmes • Interdisciplinary skills plus operational scale Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

CCLRC AST Review - 2001 • Major skill bases remained in ISIS and SR CCLRC AST Review - 2001 • Major skill bases remained in ISIS and SR Departments • Particle physics accelerator expertise (almost) lost • Accelerator Science and Technology Centre (ASTe. C) created in 2001, initially 20 staff - now ~50 staff - accelerator specialists only - £ 7 M pa programme by 2005 • Expansion stimulated by SR 02 awards to CCLRC + PPARC • Major development activities continue in ISIS Department, partly supported by ASTe. C (~£ 1 M pa) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ASTe. C Strategic Objectives • Establish and consolidate UK core accelerator skills base – ASTe. C Strategic Objectives • Establish and consolidate UK core accelerator skills base – leadership and advice to stakeholders • Ensure international competitiveness – (people + programmes) • Develop future LSF – (advice, design, prototype, construction, commission) • Pursue underpinning technology – (inc. experiments) • Encourage significant collaborations – (HEIs + international) • Promote AST inside and outside CCLRC Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Key Elements • Underpinning design studies on future user facilities • Frontier beam dynamics Key Elements • Underpinning design studies on future user facilities • Frontier beam dynamics simulations • New technology demonstrations • Advanced beam test facilities • Major networking with HEIs and overseas laboratories • Knowledge transfer • Recruitment/retention Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ASTe. C Structure • Five Groups: – – – Accelerator Physics (Susan Smith) Intense ASTe. C Structure • Five Groups: – – – Accelerator Physics (Susan Smith) Intense Beams (Chris Prior) RF and Diagnostics (Peter Mc. Intosh) Magnetics and Radiation Sources (Jim Clarke) Vacuum Science (Joe Herbert) (16) (7) (15) (7) (6) • Restrict to AST specialisms - CCLRC engineering etc • New style of funded Technology Centre within CCLRC • Income received also from DIAMOND, SRS, 4 GLS, EU… and PPARC Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Themes for 21 st Century • Energy frontier (or efficiency) • Extreme power proton Themes for 21 st Century • Energy frontier (or efficiency) • Extreme power proton drivers • Ultra-high brightness electron drivers Solution (often) = New technology eg SRF Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Principal ASTe. C Sponsored Programmes • Light sources - 4 GLS, FELs, ERLP • Principal ASTe. C Sponsored Programmes • Light sources - 4 GLS, FELs, ERLP • Linear collider - ILC, CLIC • Neutron source - generic next generation (MW), FETS • Neutrino factory - MICE, design concepts, proton driver, FFAG • • DIAMOND design/procurement role (CDR/TDR; now greatly reduced) SRS support/development (hands-on role and training until 2008) Blue Skies (laser-plasma projects) Underpinning technology (eg undulators, NEG pumps, RF systems etc) NB Sundry smaller scale projects/collaborations include KATRIN Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Joint CCLRC/PPARC Programme • Funded from SR 02 allocations • Dedicated to LC and Joint CCLRC/PPARC Programme • Funded from SR 02 allocations • Dedicated to LC and NF (+ Accelerator Institutes) • Responsive mode grants awarded to LC and NF Collaborations (CCLRC + 15 HEIs) – – Birmingham Cambridge Dundee Durham Lancaster Liverpool Manchester Oxford QMUL RHUL UCL Glasgow IC Liverpool Oxford Sheffield Warwick • Funded April 04 -March 07: – LC-ABD = £ 9. 1 M (PPARC) + £ 1. 5 M (CCLRC) – UK-NF = £ 2. 0 M (PPARC) NB Additional £ 9 M on Accelerator Institutes to 2012 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 (<£ 2 M this period) M W Poole

PPARC Award to CCLRC (2004 -2007) • Total funds £ 4. 7 M (75% PPARC Award to CCLRC (2004 -2007) • Total funds £ 4. 7 M (75% LC, 25% NF) • Staff support £ 3. 2 M (ie ~50 sy) • ASTe. C gets £ 2. 4 M to cover its staff • This covers both LC and NF activities NB ASTe. C adds £ 3 M to this Joint Programme (inc MICE) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

LC-ABD National Collaboration • Linear Collider studies now organised in UK largely through LC-ABD LC-ABD National Collaboration • Linear Collider studies now organised in UK largely through LC-ABD Collaboration with HEIs (2004 -2007) • Strategic decision to concentrate on Beam Delivery System • Major funding initiatives (~ £ 11 M over 3 years) • ASTe. C takes lead role in Beam Dynamics and in Magnet and RF Technologies. New Beam Dump topic now initiated. • Further major ASTe. C role in Beam Diagnostics NB Also participate in EUROTe. V programme - leverage used Super. B Meeting Apr 06 (and extra topics) M W Poole

ILC Baseline Configuration (2006) • Configuration for 500 Ge. V machine • Expandability to ILC Baseline Configuration (2006) • Configuration for 500 Ge. V machine • Expandability to 1 Te. V Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

LC Beam Dynamics at ASTe. C • ILC Baseline BDS – – – Mainly LC Beam Dynamics at ASTe. C • ILC Baseline BDS – – – Mainly 2 mrad crossing studies Final Focus optimisation design with local chromaticity correction Compensation of higher order aberrations Extraction line design Collimation region design and simulations Ground motion modelling for the linear collider • Necessary beam dynamics codes for these studies have been implemented. These are PPARC funded Work Packages - HEI collaborations Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

LC Technology at ASTe. C • Polarised positron source (SCM) • Crab RF system LC Technology at ASTe. C • Polarised positron source (SCM) • Crab RF system (SRF) • Collimation solutions • Diagnostics (nm + fs) • Multi-MW beam dump (just initiated) These are PPARC and CCLRC funded Work Packages - HEI collaborations NB ASTe. C also funds support for SLAC ESA station master Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Other LC-ABD Activities • Laser wire Led by HEIs • Longitudinal bunch structure • Other LC-ABD Activities • Laser wire Led by HEIs • Longitudinal bunch structure • Polarisation analysis • Laser alignment surveyor and Stabilisation • Intra--bunch fast feedback • Spectrometry Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Schematic Neutrino Factory High current H– source Proton Target Driver Capture ‘far’ detector (5000– Schematic Neutrino Factory High current H– source Proton Target Driver Capture ‘far’ detector (5000– 8000 km) Cooling Muon Storage Ring Muon Acceleration ‘local’ detector ‘near’ detector (1000– 3000 km) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

NF Accelerator Challenges • 5 -10 MW proton beam generation • Pion target survival NF Accelerator Challenges • 5 -10 MW proton beam generation • Pion target survival • Muon capture (and cooling ? ) • Muon acceleration and storage Conceptual studies have UK funding Probable EU FP 7 Design Study bid (2007 -2010) UK could host ? Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ASTe. C Neutrino Factory Studies • PPARC funded programme with HEIs • ASTe. C ASTe. C Neutrino Factory Studies • PPARC funded programme with HEIs • ASTe. C conceptual studies of proton driver options (including high intensity synchrotrons) and muon accelerators • High power target studies • Pre-FP 7 Scoping Study (joint CCLRC/PPARC initiative) • Direct financing of MICE Phase 1 (and RF activities for Phase 2) • International collaborations, including FFAG development These are PPARC and CCLRC funded Work Packages - HEI collaborations Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

MICE Project Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment Under construction at RAL Super. B Meeting Apr MICE Project Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment Under construction at RAL Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ASTe. C Expenditure Overview 2005/6 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole ASTe. C Expenditure Overview 2005/6 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ISIS Neutron Source At RAL site World record 800 Me. V protons, 200 µA, ISIS Neutron Source At RAL site World record 800 Me. V protons, 200 µA, 160 k. W on tungsten target ~2× 1016 neutrons/second (mean) from spallation H– ion source (17 k. V) 665 k. V H– RFQ 70 Me. V H– linac 800 Me. V proton synchrotron Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Intense Neutron Source • ISIS is present world record holder (160 k. W+) • Intense Neutron Source • ISIS is present world record holder (160 k. W+) • ISIS upgrade to 1 MW studied and feasible • CCLRC major contribution to ESS Design Studies (multi-MW) • Front End Test Stand (FETS) develops intense LE solutions – ion source LEBT (75 ke. V) RFQ MEBT (3 Me. V) diagnostics (Linac ? ) • Proton driver synergy with Neutrino Factory • Combined ISIS/ASTe. C activity Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Daresbury Laboratory Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole Daresbury Laboratory Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Daresbury SRS Concept World’s first dedicated x-ray source 80 ke. V 2 Ge. V Daresbury SRS Concept World’s first dedicated x-ray source 80 ke. V 2 Ge. V Linac Storage Ring Booster 12 Me. V 600 Me. V Beamlines Synchrotron becomes a storage ring Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

SRS Layout UK National Light Source operated since 1980 - to be replaced by SRS Layout UK National Light Source operated since 1980 - to be replaced by DIAMOND 300 m. A Daily fills Pioneering magnetic insertion devices Closes down Dec 2008 !!! Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

The Nobel Prize: F 1 ATPase structure • Sir John Walker won a share The Nobel Prize: F 1 ATPase structure • Sir John Walker won a share of the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for solving the structure of the F 1 ATPase enzyme using the SRS • Developed an important new technique; opens the way for new insights into metabolic and degenerative disease Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Alternative Compact Light Source 700 Me. V Designed at Daresbury Sold by Oxford Instruments Alternative Compact Light Source 700 Me. V Designed at Daresbury Sold by Oxford Instruments to IBM in 1990 - lithography Operated successfully for 10 years Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

The DIAMOND Project BOOSTER 3 Ge. V Transfer line LINAC 100 Me. V STORAGE The DIAMOND Project BOOSTER 3 Ge. V Transfer line LINAC 100 Me. V STORAGE RING 3 Ge. V 24 cells 300 m. A Circumference = 560 m Instrument Super. B Meeting Apr 06 5 m and 8 m straights M W Poole

Linac and Booster - Dec 2005 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole Linac and Booster - Dec 2005 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

DIAMOND Commissioning Milestone First beam in the booster Dec. 21 st 2005 Super. B DIAMOND Commissioning Milestone First beam in the booster Dec. 21 st 2005 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Storage Ring Installation - Dec 2005 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole Storage Ring Installation - Dec 2005 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

DIAMOND SRF Cavity (Cornell ring) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole DIAMOND SRF Cavity (Cornell ring) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

DIAMOND Experimental Hall (Late 2005) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole DIAMOND Experimental Hall (Late 2005) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Next Generation Light Source • Strong UK communities exploiting existing advanced storage ring and Next Generation Light Source • Strong UK communities exploiting existing advanced storage ring and ‘table top’ laser facilities (SRS, ESRF, CLF) • DIAMOND will serve the x-ray community from 2007 (XFEL ? ) • Low energy (< 1 ke. V) requires a separately optimised source • Users have identified the need to supplement transverse brightness by compression longitudinally - fs pulses • Many scientific applications need multiple sources – eg pump-probe SYNERGIES: ULTRA HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

DIAMOND Construction (late 2005) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole DIAMOND Construction (late 2005) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

DIAMOND on RAL Site Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole DIAMOND on RAL Site Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Storage Ring Limitations • Equilibrium beam dimensions set by radiation emission • Beam lifetime Storage Ring Limitations • Equilibrium beam dimensions set by radiation emission • Beam lifetime limits bunch density (1011 turns) • Demanding UHV environment • Undulators restricted by cell structure and apertures • Most issues worse at low energies (eg < 1 Ge. V) FUNDAMENTAL Super. B Meeting Apr 06 3 GLS LIMITATIONS M W Poole

Linac Based Light Source • Storage ring (1011 turns) fundamental limitations (s, t) • Linac Based Light Source • Storage ring (1011 turns) fundamental limitations (s, t) • Linacs can deliver very high quality electron beams • Temporal pulse pattern flexibility • High average flux requires Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) • Superconducting RF technology can be exploited • High average brightness gun is essential development Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

New UK Light Source • Strong UK communities exploit existing storage ring and ‘table New UK Light Source • Strong UK communities exploit existing storage ring and ‘table top’ laser facilities (SRS, ESRF, CLF) • DIAMOND serves x-ray community from 2007 • Low energy (< 1 ke. V) requires separately optimised source • Users need to supplement high transverse brightness by compression longitudinally - fs pulses • Many scientific applications need multiple sources – eg pump-probe Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ERL Prototype (ERLP) Project Partnership: DL (ASTe. C + SRS) RAL (CLF) HEIs (Manchester/Liverpool/Strathclyde) ERL Prototype (ERLP) Project Partnership: DL (ASTe. C + SRS) RAL (CLF) HEIs (Manchester/Liverpool/Strathclyde) Jefferson Lab Stanford Rossendorf Principal challenges: • • High brightness and intensity gun High current superconducting linac Beam transport optics (bunch compression, CSR, wakes) Diagnostics and: • Lack of experience Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ERLP Detailed Layout Chirped beam compression ~100 fs FEL included Super. B Meeting Apr ERLP Detailed Layout Chirped beam compression ~100 fs FEL included Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ERLP Layout in Tower Building Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole ERLP Layout in Tower Building Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ERLP Progress • Design challenges overcome - engineering solutions produced • Construction well advanced ERLP Progress • Design challenges overcome - engineering solutions produced • Construction well advanced • Commissioning all systems late 2006 • Experimental exploitation planning - 2007 onwards Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Proposed 4 GLS Schematic Layout Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole Proposed 4 GLS Schematic Layout Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

4 GLS Multi-Source Concept Pulse Pattern in IR FEL Branch Dump (50 k. W) 4 GLS Multi-Source Concept Pulse Pattern in IR FEL Branch Dump (50 k. W) IR FEL IR IR FEL Gun 10 Me. V 15 to 50 Me. V High Current Gun 50 Me. V IR Booster Linac Timing Signal Optical Delay XUV Injector Linac 10 Me. V Dump (~1 MW) Pulse Pattern in Linac Bunch Compressor 600 Me. V 3 rd Harmonic Cavity 160 Me. V 590 Me. V Linac Pulse Pattern in Spontaneous Branch 750 Me. V XUV FEL Gun IR for Combined Source Experiments Return Arc Pulse Pattern in Photon Beams 1 k. Hz Photon Beams to Experiments Dump (1 k. W) Pulse Pattern in XUV FEL Branch Spent Beam Undulator 1 k. Hz 750 to 950 Me. V XUV FEL Outward Arc Photon diagnostics & Filtering 200 Me. V Bunch Compressor XUV Booster Linac Pulse Pattern in Photon Beams XUV FEL Branch HHG Seed Laser Photon Beams to Experiments VUV-FEL Optical Delay 0 to few ns Distributed Bunch Compression Bending magnet Source Insertion Device Beamlines Super. B Meeting Apr 06 High Average Current Branch THz Source Spontaneous Sources M W Poole

Provisional 4 GLS Layout Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole Provisional 4 GLS Layout Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

4 GLS Source - International Comparison Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole 4 GLS Source - International Comparison Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

4 GLS Project Status • Conceptual Design Report (CDR) - April 2006 • Technical 4 GLS Project Status • Conceptual Design Report (CDR) - April 2006 • Technical Design Report - Early 2007 • Possible bid - Late 2007 • Possible construction - 2008 -2012 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

ERLP as an Accelerator Test Facility ? Chirped beam compression ~100 fs FEL included ERLP as an Accelerator Test Facility ? Chirped beam compression ~100 fs FEL included Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Proposed site for EMMA: e-FFAG Model Build for £ 4 M ? Super. B Proposed site for EMMA: e-FFAG Model Build for £ 4 M ? Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

FFAGs have Ancient History Chandrasekhar Bohr 20 to 400 ke. V Operated at MURA FFAGs have Ancient History Chandrasekhar Bohr 20 to 400 ke. V Operated at MURA in 1956 Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Scaling and Non-scaling FFAG Pioneered in Japan - Scaling Type Magnets are large, complex Scaling and Non-scaling FFAG Pioneered in Japan - Scaling Type Magnets are large, complex & expensive Orbit excursion ~0. 9 m + where k=7. 5 Bz(r) r Super. B Meeting Apr 06 Non-scaling r M W Poole

EMMA • Electron model - baseline design done • Selected lattice: - 10 to EMMA • Electron model - baseline design done • Selected lattice: - 10 to 20 Me. V - 37 cm cell length - RF alternate cells 42 cells, doublet lattice ~16 m circumference 1. 3 GHz • Specification of hardware started • Possible location - Daresbury Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

EMMA Simulations 674 cells 16 turns Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole EMMA Simulations 674 cells 16 turns Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Other Underpinning R&D Collaborations • Laser based accelerator systems (with CLF and HEIs) • Other Underpinning R&D Collaborations • Laser based accelerator systems (with CLF and HEIs) • Novel magnet systems (with EID and HEIs) • Vacuum science research collaborations (inc MMU contract) • Advanced RF technology (with HEIs) ca £ 500 k pa staff costs (70% ASTe. C) NB This excludes generic R&D elements of funded project programmes Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

The Accelerator Institutes • Formal ASTe. C policy is to collaborate with both CI The Accelerator Institutes • Formal ASTe. C policy is to collaborate with both CI and JAI • Search for synergies with broad range of ASTe. C programmes • ASTe. C will fund 2 joint appointments (or equivalent) in each Institute • ASTe. C is equal partner in CI, participates fully in management and policy issues and will share building at DL in April 06 - CCLRC on CI Board. • Many CI staff already housed with ASTe. C on DL site • Negotiations underway with JAI on joint programmes and appointments • ASTe. C is represented on JAI Executive Committee Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

VISION • UK to play major role in future international PP Facilities • Participation VISION • UK to play major role in future international PP Facilities • Participation via skill base and ‘in kind’ delivery • AST investment for international competitiveness • Maintain flexibility • Crucial CCLRC role: – – core skills interdisciplinary integration mega-technology project management Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

CCLRC Investment Priorities • Sustainable skill base • Funding of prototypes • Integrated SRF CCLRC Investment Priorities • Sustainable skill base • Funding of prototypes • Integrated SRF design/construction/testing facility • Build and operate e-FFAG Model (on ERLP) • Construct e and p Accelerator Test Facilities (DL + RAL) • Ramp up R&D funding prior to Capital Facility NB All of these involve HEI collaboration and cross-Council interests Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

SRF Technology Initiative ? • Maturity and applicability of superconducting RF systems • including SRF Technology Initiative ? • Maturity and applicability of superconducting RF systems • including ILC - potential major UK industrial role ? • Demanding superconducting RF infrastructure • Integrated design, build and test (HP) - nowhere in Europe ! • Collaboration • ASTe. C/HEIs/Industry/Faraday Partnership/NWDA • Exploit Daresbury infrastructure • Unsuccessful bids to PPARC etc (£ 10 M ? ) Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole

Conclusions • AST in UK has recovered its international status • Investment has established Conclusions • AST in UK has recovered its international status • Investment has established strong CCLRC + HEI base • Career attraction needs reinforcement • Programme should be broadened • Evolution to prototyping will be expensive ! • CCLRC/PPARC close policy cooperation is crucial Super. B Meeting Apr 06 M W Poole