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UDSMA USDE IABIN Thematic Networks n Specimens n Species n Ecosystems n Invasive Species UDSMA USDE IABIN Thematic Networks n Specimens n Species n Ecosystems n Invasive Species n Pollinators n Protected Areas

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Creating IABIN: Challenges UDSMA Identifying and narrowing objectives USDE Intellectual property rights 5 official Creating IABIN: Challenges UDSMA Identifying and narrowing objectives USDE Intellectual property rights 5 official languages Differing user requirements Special issues of small countries Data restrictions and sensitivities Economic value of biodiversity information Technology infrastructure Catalog Data supplier commitment and incentives Access to technology Data quality Vocabularies Training Differing standards: taxonomy, geo-referencing, … Financial viability: short- and long-term

UDSMA USDE Addressing the Challenges Integrated Land Management Institutional Reform and Capacity Building Sustainable UDSMA USDE Addressing the Challenges Integrated Land Management Institutional Reform and Capacity Building Sustainable Land Management Legal Frameworks Informational Exchange, Data, Information Management, and Research Mechanisms for Dispute Resolution

Subtropical Deforestation: Paraguay in the 1990 s Alice Altstatt 1, Sunghee Kim 1, Alberto Subtropical Deforestation: Paraguay in the 1990 s Alice Altstatt 1, Sunghee Kim 1, Alberto Yanosky 4, John Townshend 1, Compton Tucker 1, 2, John Musinsky 3, Rob Clay 4 and Oscar Rodas 4 1 University of Maryland, 2 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 3 Conservation International, 4 Guyra Paraguay Mbaracayu Introduction Investigations of changes in forest cover in South America have typically focused on the tropics, but much of the rapid deforestation in the 1990 s was in subtropical South America. This investigation has generated rates of change and identified the principal causes of deforestation in the two main ecological zones of Paraguay. UDSMA USDE Paraguay Oriental The Rio Paraguay bisects the country into two distinct ecological regions. West of the river are dry woodlands on the alluvial plains of the Gran Chaco. To the east is the geologically more varied terrain of the Paraguay Oriental containing remnants of the humid Interior Atlantic Forest. 1991 Paraguay Oriental The Interior Atlantic Forest once covered 85% of eastern Paraguay. This semi-deciduous moist forest contains many endemic subtropical tree species as well as some tropical and cerrado species. It is one of the most biologically diverse, yet threatened ecosystems in the world. This forest continues to disappear at an alarming rate. In the first time period (1987 -1991), 32% of the study area was covered by forest (31, 077 km 2 of a total study area of 98, 622 km 2). By the second time period (1999 -2001), forest cover had been reduced by 29% to 22, 109 km 2 - a loss of 8, 969 km 2 of forest. The rate of deforestation between the two time periods was 700 – 900 km 2 per year. Caaguazu 2001 10 km buffer surrounding Park Within Park The pattern of deforestation includes large scale conversion of forest to agricultural use, small scale encroachment into forest by rural settlers, and forest clearing and degradation through timber harvesting. 1989 Forest Deforestation 1999 10 km buffer surrounding Park San Rafael Within Park Forest 10 km buffer surrounding Park Deforestation Forest Nonforest Within Park Deforestation Water Cloud Conclusions Forest Deforestation • Land cover classification procedures developed for the humid tropics can be successfully applied to subtropical areas. • Except for a small reserves, most of the Interior Atlantic Forest will disappear in the Paraguay Oriental. • Large scale conversion of woodlands to agriculture continues in the Paraguay Chaco amid uncertainty about sustainability in the region. Methodology Nine pairs of Landsat scenes were used to produce this land cover change map using our established processing methods. A recent Landsat ETM+ scene is co-registered to an ealier orthorectified TM Earth. Sat Geocover scene. Spectral data from both dates is input into an unsupervised isoclustering algorithm. The output clusters are assigned to land cover classes using an in-house module, PClass. V. Pixels of output cluster values that fall into more than one land cover or land cover change class are iteratively reprocessed under theisoclustering algorithm and reclassified under PClass. V until all pixels fall into a single category. For each scene, the final land cover change thematic map is filtered to remove polygons of less than 4 contiguous pixels. The overlapping scene maps are checked for consistency, and thenmosaiced into a single map. Image interpretation and classification is performed by experienced data analysts using supplemental data provided by collaborators in Paraguay. Acknowledgements: NASA Grant NAG 5 -9337 Improvements in Landsat Pathfinder Methods for Monitoring Tropical Deforestation and their Extension to Extra-Tropical Areas http: //glcf. umiacs. umd. edu

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UDSMA USDE The Economics Creating the Benefits Function Valuation methods and site-specific economic survey UDSMA USDE The Economics Creating the Benefits Function Valuation methods and site-specific economic survey data to create the benefits function - to be used as educational and planning tool to assist policymakers n Fishery NPV -- $1. 31 million n Tourism and Recreation NPV -$315 m n Coastal Protection Function -- $65