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UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE AND CLIMATE PHYSICS MULLARD SPACE SCIENCE LABORATORY The Akon Europa UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE AND CLIMATE PHYSICS MULLARD SPACE SCIENCE LABORATORY The Akon Europa Penetrator Geraint Jones UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory Zita Martins Imperial College London on behalf of the International Akon Team (>90 members in 10 countries) Many thanks to Marie-Claire Perkinson (Airbus Defence & Space) for some presentation materials g. h. [email protected] ac. uk z. [email protected] ac. uk Άκων Akon

Άκων Akon • Akon proposal involves the delivery of one or two instrumented penetrators Άκων Akon • Akon proposal involves the delivery of one or two instrumented penetrators to Europa • Impact at ~300 m/s; penetrator(s) survive, delivered to 0. 5 -few m below surface • Direct access to Europa’s subsurface: instruments would obtain observations to address several key scientific areas including habitability/astrobiology, geophysics Why “Akon”? Zeus gave Europa three priceless gifts; one was a javelin that always hit its target. Ancient Greek for javelin: Άκων • Design of penetrators based on ESA funded penetrator studies carried out over past several years, specifically designed for icy surfaces in the outer Solar System • Mature technical design of penetrator; ideal delivery is freefal from ~30 km altitude. • Studies have also covered long-term battery technology and model sample acquisition system to bring samples inside penetrator for analysis

Άκων Europa Penetrator Configuration • Two separate bays • 80 K ice, rapid cool Άκων Europa Penetrator Configuration • Two separate bays • 80 K ice, rapid cool down of instruments • Front short lifetime bay houses most instruments • Rear longer lifetime for data storage and relay • Bays protected from impact loads • Torlon Leaf Springs • Provides thermal isolation from shell • Communications via extended UHF antenna connected to the rear plate 400 mm Akon

Άκων Full Scale Testing – Summer 2013 • Mechanical design proven • Impact conditions Άκων Full Scale Testing – Summer 2013 • Mechanical design proven • Impact conditions survived harsher than expected (340 m/s impact, 25 deg pitch angle) • Environmental tests before and after impact proved thermal concept was valid • Video: http: //bit. ly/ch 4 penet Akon

Άκων Power and Thermal • • • Vacuum flask design minimises heat leaks Most Άκων Power and Thermal • • • Vacuum flask design minimises heat leaks Most science operations are carried out in the first day, plus longer term magnetometer and seismometer observations Data from penetrator is returned via relay Upper module Time (days) Shell Arrival time Lower module Akon

Άκων Experiments Akon Possible(CAB) HCP experiments listed at left. List to include will depend Άκων Experiments Akon Possible(CAB) HCP experiments listed at left. List to include will depend on mass allocation for penetrator(s). If two penetrators flown, core instruments could be included on both (including geophysics), with some Sample Imager (MSSL) experiments only included on one penetrator each. We are very open to US instrumentation being provided. BMS (OU)

Άκων plus digital processing unit, communications. Akon Άκων plus digital processing unit, communications. Akon

Άκων Akon Inclusion on NASA Soft Lander Mission Optional delivery scenarios: • Direct trajectory Άκων Akon Inclusion on NASA Soft Lander Mission Optional delivery scenarios: • Direct trajectory to landing site from Jovian orbit – similar delivery system studied in detail to that proposed for Europa Mission (formerly Clipper) • Delivery from Europa orbiter – Lower delta V; lower mass for delivery system, lower cost – Selection of scientifically-valuable landing site more straightforward (dependent on inclination of orbit compared to latitude of possible landing sites) • Delivery from descending Europa Soft Lander – Lander responsible for orientation of Akon on release – Larger mass budget – Possible disadvantage: Soft lander + penetrators would be relatively close together – If no penetrator delivery system, sacrificial descent camera to be included on penetrator itself

Άκων Akon Inclusion on a NASA Soft Lander Mission Scientific Implications • Multiple observation Άκων Akon Inclusion on a NASA Soft Lander Mission Scientific Implications • Multiple observation points for geophysical measurements (seismometer, magnetometer) • Three well-spaced seismometers (soft lander + 2 penetrators) could possibly provide location of Europa quakes. • Seismic detection of impact of soft lander delivery system (as well as Akon delivery system if included) • Landing sites complementary to NASA lander to provide information on variation of surface/near-surface conditions for: – composition – habitability – astrobiology Penetrators would complement and enhance scientific return from Soft Lander

Άκων Akon What to propose? (comments welcome) • Current NASA constraints are very tight Άκων Akon What to propose? (comments welcome) • Current NASA constraints are very tight – 250 kg to be released immediately after JOI, on an orbit that does not intersect Europa’s orbit. Volume/shape also tight: Cone 1 m high, 1 m wide at top, 1. 4 m at base. • It is probably unrealistic to prepare a proposal on a reduced scale penetrator system in only one month. This would also have the disadvantage of lacking supporting design development and tests. • Penetrator designed for Clipper has largely proven design, development funded by ESA. Mass likely to be too high for NASA Europa Lander allocation at the moment. • Mass can be reduced by using solid rocket, but then no multiple burns possible, so may need to target centre of disk. • Other issue: if landing separately to NASA Lander – communications • Final scientific payload to be discussed very soon, starting today!