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Ubiquitous Devices and Applications for Disaster Prepared Smart Homes and Environment Jane W. S. Ubiquitous Devices and Applications for Disaster Prepared Smart Homes and Environment Jane W. S. Liu Institute of Information Science Academia Sinica, Taiwan http: //openisdm. iis. sinica. edu. tw International Summer School on Trends in Computing, Tarragona Spain, July 2013

i. Ga. Ds (intelligent Guards against Disasters) Jane W. S. Liu Institute of Information i. Ga. Ds (intelligent Guards against Disasters) Jane W. S. Liu Institute of Information Science Academia Sinica, Taiwan http: //openisdm. iis. sinica. edu. tw International Summer School on Trends in Computing, Tarragona Spain, July 2013

Outline § Enabling technologies, standards & ICT infrastructures for disaster preparedness and response § Outline § Enabling technologies, standards & ICT infrastructures for disaster preparedness and response § Future scenarios and sample i. Ga. Ds § Examples of on-going work q q q General structures and key components Enhancement for battery operated i. Ga. Ds Alert message delivery over the Internet § Opportunities and challenges

Disaster Prediction & Detection From Weather Underground From Minnesota Public Radio Org. Tsunami warning, Disaster Prediction & Detection From Weather Underground From Minnesota Public Radio Org. Tsunami warning, landslide warning, debris flow monitoring systems

Earthquake Detection § Affordable detectors based on that q P (primary/pressure) wave travels faster Earthquake Detection § Affordable detectors based on that q P (primary/pressure) wave travels faster than S (secondary/shear) waves, and generate only shock q Slower S waves are destructive § Early earthquake warning systems consisting of seismic motion sensors networked with computer(s) q Issue warning based on likely strength and progression of seismic events and q Can allow warning 20 seconds or more before ground motion. $ 29

Earthquake Detection in Taiwan n n BATS: Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology 650 Earthquake Detection in Taiwan n n BATS: Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology 650 strong motion seismic stations Auto-location in seconds by taking advantage of Central Weather Bureau seismic network RF connections to TEC Data Center Capable of inverting BATS waveforms to obtain focal mechanisms for felt earthquakes in seconds Felt earthquakes 08/2011

Standard-Based Alert Delivery Authenticated message senders Integrated Public Alert and Warning System http: //www. Standard-Based Alert Delivery Authenticated message senders Integrated Public Alert and Warning System http: //www. fema. gov/emergency/ipaws_cap_mg. pdf

Common Alert Protocol A common format that supports § Broadcast of messages of all Common Alert Protocol A common format that supports § Broadcast of messages of all types to all public alert systems § Message exchange between emergency information systems § Aggregation and correlation of warnings from multiple sources § End-to-end authentication and validation ITU-T Recommendation X 1303 (07/2007) § Automatic reports by sensor systems to analysis centers § Automatic processing by smart devices and applications

Happenings Now § i. PAWS-CAP-EAS/CMAS q q CMAS § Google Now Alerts Guide for Happenings Now § i. PAWS-CAP-EAS/CMAS q q CMAS § Google Now Alerts Guide for CAP-EAS implementation published by EAS industry Weekly testing in USA since December 2011

A Tornado Emergency Scenario. . . THIS IS A TORNADO EMERGENCY FOR THE WARNED A Tornado Emergency Scenario. . . THIS IS A TORNADO EMERGENCY FOR THE WARNED AREA. . . AT 703 PM CDT. . . NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGISTS AND STORM SPOTTERS WERE TRACKING A LARGE AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS § Sound tornado sirens TORNADO. THIS TORNADO WAS LOCATED 6 MILES § Unlock shelter doors SOUTHWEST OF SAVOY MOVING NORTHEAST AT 45 MPH. THE TORNADO WILL BE NEAR. . . § Turn on spot lights on CHAMPAIGN BY 720 PM CDT. . . shelters RANTOUL BY 729 PM CDT… PAXTON BY … § Adjust traffic signals on A TORNADO WARNING MEANS THAT A TORNADO IS routes to ACTIVATE OCCURRING OR IMMINENT. YOU SHOULD shelters YOUR TORNADO ACTION PLAN AND TAKE PROTECTIVE § Enable outside doors in ACTION NOW. SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE HAS OCCURRED homes to AN WITH THIS SIGNIFICANT TORNADO! THIS ISopen when EXTREMELY DANGEROUS AND SERIOUS LIFE the storm hits. THREATENING SITUATION. .

A Future Scenario Alert xmlns: … Sender: Central Weather Bureau Status: Actual Msg. Type: A Future Scenario Alert xmlns: … Sender: Central Weather Bureau Status: Actual Msg. Type: Alert Scope: Public Info Category: Geo Event: Earthquake Urgency: Immediate Severity: Strong Certainty: Observed Description: A strong earthquake measuring 7. 8 occurred in … Parameters: Magnitude, depth, … Areas: Polygons specifying affected areas Resources: … …

i. Ga. Ds in i. Gad OR Smart Homes (Alert. Type == Tornado) AND i. Ga. Ds in i. Gad OR Smart Homes (Alert. Type == Tornado) AND (Severity >= 3) AND (Outside. Air. Pressure * THRESHOLD_RATIO < Inside. Air. Pressure) and Buildings (Alert. Type == Earthquake) AND (Magnitude >= 6) i. Ga. D CAP-aware elevator controller CAP-aware entry access controller CAP-aware building management system (Alert. Type == Earthquake) AND (Magnitude>= 7. 5) OR (Alert. Type == Tornado) AND (Severity >= 4)

General Structure and Major Components Modem Alert message buffer Signature validation XML parser CAP General Structure and Major Components Modem Alert message buffer Signature validation XML parser CAP Message Processor Affected areas Location filter Device location Alert type & information Resources Alert records Rule processor Activation parameters and rules Rule engine Local data Device interfaces Configuration files Device Controller § Standard-based alarm delivery and message exchanges as parts of DM infrastructure § Standard interfaces for processing & responding to standard-based alarms § Dependable, low-cost, customizable smart devices for enhanced disaster readiness “Cyber-physical elements of enhanced disaster prepared smart environment, ” by Liu, Chu and Shih, in IEEE Computer “Ubiquitous smart devices and applications for disaster preparedness, ” by Liao, et al, in Proceedings of UFirst, UIC 2012

Modem Alert message buffer Signature validation XML parser CAP Message Processor Affected areas Location Modem Alert message buffer Signature validation XML parser CAP Message Processor Affected areas Location filter Device location Alert type & information Resources Alert records Rule processor Activation parameters and rules Rule engine Local data Device interfaces Configuration files Device Controller i. Ga. D demo Prototypes

CAP Message Publisher Pub. Nub cloud service: push alert messages to millions of unique CAP Message Publisher Pub. Nub cloud service: push alert messages to millions of unique IP addresses Alert Publisher CAP_PUBLISHER 1. cap. Msg ← Read a CAP file 2. cap. Msg ← Remove ‘n’ in cap. Msg 3. Connect to Pub. Nub cloud 4. Call publish() to push cap. Msg END i. Gad

n XML Parsers Document Object Model (DOM) Simple API for XML (SAX) n CAP n XML Parsers Document Object Model (DOM) Simple API for XML (SAX) n CAP specific XML parsers, including CAP Library (Java) and RCAP (Ruby)

i. Ga. Ds (Embedded Linux) § PHP § Simple. XML, PHP Business Rules IGADS_LINUX i. Ga. Ds (Embedded Linux) § PHP § Simple. XML, PHP Business Rules IGADS_LINUX 1. Connect to Pub. Nub cloud and wait for message 2. cap. Msg ← Receive a CAP message from Pub. Nub 3. Fork a process to run IGADS_LINUX 4. cap. DOM ← Call Simple. XML, convert cap. Msg to a DOM object 5. cap. DOM ← Extract Event, Parameters from cap. DOM 6. cap. DOM ← Load and add sensor data (local data) 7. Call FUNCTION RULE_ENGINE(cap. DOM) 8. Go back to 1. END FUNCTION RULE_ENGINE( cap. DOM ) 1. RE ← Create PHP Business Rule Engine Object 2. RE reads and parses rules from file 3. Insert cap. DOM to RE 4. Call RE->fire. All() to start rule matching END

Challenges § Minimizing energy consumption of i. Ga. Ds on battery powered platforms § Challenges § Minimizing energy consumption of i. Ga. Ds on battery powered platforms § Prioritized asynchronous message delivery to diverse i. Ga. Ds over the Internet § Interfaces and standards, including p With sensors, actuators, location devices and services, etc. p With information sources (e. g. , BIM, store layouts, building management information system, etc. ) § Creating dual (everyday and emergency) use applications

WAP (Wireless Alert publishers Application Protocol) Architecture and model Request Response (Content) WAP Gateway WAP (Wireless Alert publishers Application Protocol) Architecture and model Request Response (Content) WAP Gateway Encoders Decoders Encoded Request Encoded Content WAE User Agent

WAP Wakeup on Windows Mobile WAP gateway WDP handler WAE user agent EQAlert. exe WAP Wakeup on Windows Mobile WAP gateway WDP handler WAE user agent EQAlert. exe In registry, register on WDPort 1 WDP datagram (WDPort 1) Find no app registered with WDP layer on WDPort 1 - Find EQAlert in registry registered on WDPort 1 - Load and launch EQAlert. exe - Send EQAlert WDPort 1 Open Listerner. Wind - Register with WDP layer on WDPort 1 - Get & process datagram

Transceiver baseband Multi-cellular modem Capture buffer CAP message screener Camera Memories RF front end Transceiver baseband Multi-cellular modem Capture buffer CAP message screener Camera Memories RF front end Display Application processor Blue tooth, WIFI, GPS transceiver baseband U I Power Management E M M C

ASIC CAP Message Screener Basic Info extractor From Modem CAP message buffer(s) CLR Control ASIC CAP Message Screener Basic Info extractor From Modem CAP message buffer(s) CLR Control & decision 3 Msg Type Event type Scale Certainty Urgency . . . Basic info registers Temp SEL M U X SEL ALU 8 8 Message screening rule processor M U X Alert host (e. g. , SMI) Msg Type Event type Low. Scale High. Scale Certainty . . . Configuration registers

Pushing Alert Messages CMAS Happening now: § Guide for CAP-EAS implementation published by EAS Pushing Alert Messages CMAS Happening now: § Guide for CAP-EAS implementation published by EAS industry § Weekly testing since December 2011

? xmlns version = “ 1. 0” <alert xmlns = … … <event>Earthquake</event> <urgency>Immediate</urgency> ? xmlns version = “ 1. 0” Earthquake Immediate Strong Observed Magnitude 8. 1 32. 9525 -115. 5585 0 … Message processor (alert extraction) Action activation rule evaluation Device interface Broadcast pathways Authorized alert sender Pu. SH IP Network i G a D i. Gad Elevator controller Pu. SH i. Gad

Hub Data Update Monitor (DUM) Data Retrieval Service (DRS) Cached data Data Transfer Service Hub Data Update Monitor (DUM) Data Retrieval Service (DRS) Cached data Data Transfer Service (DTS) Incoming Data Monitor (IDM) Data Bridge data Priority Queues Exchange Bindings Decreasing Priority

Hub Data Bridge Data buffer Call Data. Bridge. Notify. Data. Update ( Topic, Relative. Hub Data Bridge Data buffer Call Data. Bridge. Notify. Data. Update ( Topic, Relative. Deadline, . . . ); DTS work dispatcher Notification events DUM DTS Work Queues Thread pool DTS Qpid Priority Queues Thread pool Topic exchange Earthquake Debris Tsunami Flow Dec. priorities Data buffer

Hub HTTP interface Data buffer Data Bridge DRS work Queues DRS IDM Qpid Priority Hub HTTP interface Data buffer Data Bridge DRS work Queues DRS IDM Qpid Priority Queues IDMonitor call Incoming data events Qpid. Long. Poll. All (Queue. Identifiers) Data buffer Earth- Debris quake Flow Tsunami

0. 9 0. 8 1+1 Threads Service time 0. 7 1+7 Threads Residence time 0. 9 0. 8 1+1 Threads Service time 0. 7 1+7 Threads Residence time 1+7 Threads Service time 0. 6 Time (ms) 0. 8745 1+1 Threads Residence time 0. 5 0. 4343 0. 4497 0. 2 0. 1 0. 5528 0. 4743 0. 4760 0. 4049 0. 4173 0. 1612 0. 1847 0. 1247 0. 1370 5 K 10 K 0. 6031 0. 5840 0. 4923 0. 7601 0. 6781 0. 5380 0. 4530 0. 5073 0. 3320 0. 1575 1 K 0. 3 0. 6998 0. 2099 0. 3853 0. 2557 0. 2816 0. 2251 0. 0 25 K 50 K 75 K 100 K Message size End-to-end delay of highest priority message = 2 x residence time + 5 x network delay/traversal < 1 sec.

An Example of CAP-Aware Application ? xmlns version = “ 1. 0” <alert xmlns An Example of CAP-Aware Application ? xmlns version = “ 1. 0” Earthquake Immediate Strong Observed Magnitude 7. 2 32. 9525 -115. 5585 0

Strong earthquake CAP alert … Earthquake, Follow directions Stayindicated by as calm, Move arrows Strong earthquake CAP alert … Earthquake, Follow directions Stayindicated by as calm, Move arrows to eitherto Checkout place a safer counters

Challenges § Minimizing energy consumption for i. Ga. Ds on battery powered platforms § Challenges § Minimizing energy consumption for i. Ga. Ds on battery powered platforms § Pushing alert messages to i. Ga. Ds and people § Interfaces and standards, including With information sources (e. g. , BIM, store layouts, building management information system, etc. ) p With sensors, actuators, location devices and services, etc. p § Creating dual (everyday and emergency) use applications

Selected References n Y. Z. Ou, et al. , “An asynchronous message delivery service Selected References n Y. Z. Ou, et al. , “An asynchronous message delivery service for i. Ga. Ds, ” in Proceedings of International Workshop on Extending Seamlessly to the Internet of Things, July 2013. n J. W. S. Liu, E. T. -H. Chu and C. S. Shih, “Cyber-physical elements of disaster prepared smart environments, ” IEEE Computer, February 2013. n W. P. Liao, Y. Z. Ou, E. T. H. Chu, C. S. Shih, and J. W. S. Liu, “Ubiquitous Smart Devices and Applications for Disaster Preparedness, ” Proceedings of The 2012 International Symposium on Ubi. Com Frontiers Innovative Research, Systems and Technologies, September 2012 Common Alert Protocol (CAP), http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Common_Alerting_Protocol Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), https: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Wireless_Application_Protocol Bradfitz, Bslatkin, Andyster and Bradfitzgoog, “pubsubhubbub, ” https: //code. google. com/p/pubsubhubbub/ , 11/27/2012. The Apache Software Foundation, “Apache Qpid. TM Open Source AMQP Messaging, ” http: //qpid. apache. org/index. html , 11/27/2012. n n

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