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U. S. Perspective on Market-Rate Zero Energy New Homes Net Zero Energy Homes Forum U. S. Perspective on Market-Rate Zero Energy New Homes Net Zero Energy Homes Forum Toronto, January 19, 2005 ~ Duncan Callaway Davis Energy Group

U. S. Federal ZEH Program • Launched in 2001 by NREL and DOE • U. S. Federal ZEH Program • Launched in 2001 by NREL and DOE • Goal: Combine energy efficiency and renewable generation to build marketable homes that approach zero energy on a net annual basis

Clarum Homes: Vista Montaña 257 Homes, All ZEH Mix: SF Attached & Detached Affordable, Clarum Homes: Vista Montaña 257 Homes, All ZEH Mix: SF Attached & Detached Affordable, Entry, Move-Up Over 60% sold before grand opening No marketing used, only press from ZEH Pardee Homes: Soleil 100 homes 10% ZEH Standard 30% PV Standard ZEH Option

Morrison Homes: Lakeside 10% of homes ZEH, Also available as option Excellent press, traffic Morrison Homes: Lakeside 10% of homes ZEH, Also available as option Excellent press, traffic $18, 000 premium, selling all ZEH lots Premier Homes: Premier Gardens 94 homes, all ZEH Some entry-level homes Excellent press and traffic 350 people on waiting list

Centex Homes Zero Energy Case Study • Approach – First study the market to Centex Homes Zero Energy Case Study • Approach – First study the market to determine buyer attitudes toward energy efficiency – Design and construct a pilot ZEH – Develop a refined design with optimized economics – Revise the design with builder input – Build, test, and market

Sequential Analysis Results Sequential Analysis Results

Measures Adopted • • • Zero defect wall insulation (Certain. Teed Optima®--R 13 with Measures Adopted • • • Zero defect wall insulation (Certain. Teed Optima®--R 13 with 2 x 4 framing) High performance windows Tight construction Insulated headers Tightly sealed ducts R 49 attic insulation Buried ducts (~R 14) Tankless water heater Fluorescent lighting Ventilation Cooling (Night. Breeze) 12 SEER A/C & variable speed furnace 2. 4 k. W building-integrated PV

Key Elements--California ZEH • • • Well designed efficiency package State or Utility buy-down Key Elements--California ZEH • • • Well designed efficiency package State or Utility buy-down of PV Utility net metering Utility time-of-use rate Building integrated PV (more development needed) • Better to sell as standard, not option

California PV Market • Electricity prices: – $0. 11 to $0. 13/k. Wh flat California PV Market • Electricity prices: – $0. 11 to $0. 13/k. Wh flat rate – over $0. 30/k. Wh on peak with TOU pricing – net metering in effect • California PV buy-down: – Now $2. 80 per watt, limited pot – Drops ~ $. 20 per watt every 6 months – “Million Solar Homes” program supported by governor • failed in August, but it will be back. . . • 7. 5% California renewables tax credit • Nothing for solar thermal

California Energy Commission ZEH • The CEC $10 M RFP for ZEH development – California Energy Commission ZEH • The CEC $10 M RFP for ZEH development – Near term goals: • 70% reduction in electricity bills • $5, 000 incremental cost to homeowner • 1 k. W peak demand – Long term goals: • 100% reduction in energy bills • no incremental cost to homeowner • zero peak demand – No provisions for space heating

Bringing First Costs Down • Equipment cost reduction: – increased volume, economies of scale Bringing First Costs Down • Equipment cost reduction: – increased volume, economies of scale – new, lower cost technologies – improved installation methods (BIPV) • Builder reduces costs: – free advertising – due to improved supply chain – through simplified entitlement process

Bringing First Costs Down • Utility finances PV system: – Loan all or a Bringing First Costs Down • Utility finances PV system: – Loan all or a portion of system cost to homeowner – Recoup costs in new section of energy bill • if net metering is in effect, loan amount could be larger without increasing energy bill vs. conventional system • loan could be paid with renewable energy credits (RECs) or carbon credits. • DEG utility partners are interested