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U. S. History Chapter 18 Notes America Claims an Empire Global competition prompts the United States to expand its influence and territory engage in conflicts around the globe, and build the Panama Canal.
Section 1 Imperialism and America Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition causes the United States to expand
American Expansion • Imperialism - the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, and military control over weaker territories. • -This was already a trend around the world. Europe had recently taken over most of the world. - Nationalism – putting one’s nation above all else. Pride in one’s country is important. Putting the nation’s interest first in dealings with other countries. U. S. united again following Civil War - People wanted to be a world power - Needed colonies to be one
The West carves up the Rest (World Map in 1900)
Closing the American Frontier
U. S Oversees Possessions (1880 s-1914)
America as a Pacific Power
U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898 -1920 s
Reasons for American Expansion • *Alfred T. Mahan- as an admiral in the Navy, he urged the government to build American naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations. • -The US Navy would soon become the 3 rd largest in the world.
3 factors fueled new American imperialism: 1. The desire for military strength. • 1906 - Fleet of 16 U. S. • The Great White Fleet battleships sail around the world • Showed the world that the U. S. was a power to be reckoned with • Important step in expanding America's international interest
3 factors fueled new American imperialism: 2. The thirst for new markets. • Foreign Markets: new customers for U. S. goods • Overproduction: U. S. farms and factories produced more than U. S. customers could buy. Raw Materials: U. S. factories need more natural supplies than could be obtained in the U. S.
Commercial/Business Interests American Foreign Trade: 1870 -1914
Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869 -1908
3 factors fueled new American imperialism: 3. The belief in cultural superiority. • New ideas - Charles Darwin - survival of the fittest - Social Darwinism Americans believed that their society was superior and would spread throughout the world • People argued the U. S. had duty to Christianize or civilize “inferior peoples” - Also used to support racism
Social Darwinist Thinking The Hierarchy of Race The White Man’s Burden
The Cares of a Growing Family
Constable of the World
- Foreign trade was see as the solution to American overproduction, unemployment, & economic depression
The US Acquires Alaska • William Seward – Served as Secretary of State under Lincoln & Johnson • *William Seward- arranged for the US to buy Alaska from Russia for $7. 2 million. • -In 1959, Alaska became the 49 th state. It turned out to be a great buy, which was full of resources. • -At the time, Alaska was known as “Seward’s Icebox. ”
The US Takes Hawaii • -Hawaii was important to the United States because it was a stopping point on the way to China and East India. • -In 1887 the US established a naval base at Pearl Harbor, which was used as a fueling station. • -By 1900, foreigners and immigrant laborers outnumbered natives 3 to 1. • -Hawaii was a major source of sugar for the US.
The US Takes Hawaii • -The Mc. Kinley Tariff of 1890 provoked a crisis by eliminating the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. As a result, Hawaiian sugar growers faced competition in the American market. • -American planters in Hawaii called for the US to annex the islands so they wouldn't have to pay the duty. King Kalakaua
The US Takes Hawaii • 1891 - Queen Liliuokalani came to power - She wanted to regain control of the island - Tried to remove landowning requirement • Planters called the U. S. government for help • Hawaii was valuable refueling station • U. S. sent marines - Marines and planters overthrew Queen
The US Takes Hawaii • *Queen Liliuokalani- surrendered to the superior force of the US and the white foreigners who planned to overthrow her. • -The US set up a government headed by *Sanford B. Dole. • -In August 1898 Congress proclaimed Hawaii as an American territory. • -In 1959 Hawaii became the 50 th state.
The US Takes Hawaii • Before Hawaii joined the U. S. it set up an independent republic - Sanford Dole named president • Hawaii asked to be annexed by the U. S. - Grover Cleveland didn't want to annex it - President Cleveland cannot make Dole surrender power to queen - recognized Republic of Hawaii Sanford Dole heads a REAL Banana Republic
Section 2 The Spanish-American War In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
Rebellion against Spain • Spain's empire was crumbling - Had once controlled most of the Americas - Late 1800's - Spain had only a few colonies • Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Philippines began wanting independence
Rebellion against Spain • -The US had long held an interest in Cuba, which lies only 90 miles south of Florida. (Sugar) • -While President Pierce was in office he offered to buy Cuba from Spain. The Spanish responded by saying that they would rather see Cuba sink in the ocean.
Rebellion against Spain • -When the Cubans rebelled against Spain, between 1868 in 1878, American sympathies went out to the Cuban people. • -Anti-Spanish sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a second war for independence.
Rebellion against Spain • *José Marti- a Cuban poet and journalist in exile in New York launched a revolution in 1895. He organized Cuban resistance against Spain, using an active guerrilla campaign and deliberately destroying property, especially American owned sugar mills and plantations. This was all in an effort to get America involved in freeing Cuba.
War Fever Escalates • -In 1896, Spain responded to the Cuban revolt by sending *General Valeriano Weyler- to Cuba to restore order. • Used concentration camps to stop locals from aiding rebels. • U. S. press names him the “Butcher of Havana”
Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy
Rebellion against Spain • Two papers fighting for customers (circulation war) - The World owned by Joseph Pulitzer - Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst *Yellow Journalism- exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers. (William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer)
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst
The De Lome Letter • -In February 1898, the New York Journal published a private letter written by Enrique Dupuy De Lome, the Spanish minister to the United States. • -A Cuban rebel had stolen the letter from a Havana post office and leaked it to the newspaper, which was thirsty for a scandal. • -The letter criticized President Mc. Kinley, calling him “weak” and “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd. ” • -Americans were angry over the insult to their president.
The USS Maine Explodes (Feb 1898) • -A few days after the De Lome letter, an American ship blew up in the harbor of Havana. More than 260 men were killed. • -President Mc. Kinley had ordered the USS Maine to Cuba to bring home American citizens in danger from the fighting, and to protect American property. • -At the time, no one really knew why the ship exploded; however, American newspapers claimed that the Spanish had blown up the ship.
War with Spain Erupts • -War cry "Remember the Maine!" • -Public opinion favored war. April 20, 1898 the US declared war on Spain.
The War in the Philippines • *Commodore George Dewey- gave the command to open fire on the Spanish fleet at Manila, the Philippine capital. • -Within hours, they had destroyed every Spanish ship there. Dewey's victory allowed US troops to land in the Philippines. • -By August, Spanish troops in Manila surrendered to the US.
The War in the Philippines • Led by Commodore George Dewey • May 1, 1898 - battle takes place - Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo (we will see him again), supported Dewey - Over 300 Spanish killed and defeated - Dewey became hero in U. S - Bubble gum named after him (Dewey's Chewies).
War in the Caribbean • -Hostilities began with a naval blockade of Cuba. • -Dewey's victory in Manila had demonstrated the superiority of the US naval forces. • -In contrast, the army was inexperienced and ill-prepared volunteer force.
Rough Riders • -A volunteer cavalry under the command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt, who gave up his job as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy to lead the group. • *San Juan Hill- the second victory for the US. Infantry attack. • -US troops invaded Puerto Rico on July 25, 1898.
Treaty of Paris • *Treaty of Paris- on August 12, 1898 the US and Spain signed armistice. The war lasted 16 weeks. -In December 1898, the US and Spain met in Paris to agree on a treaty. • -Spain freed Cuba and the US gained the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the US. Spain also sold the US the Philippines for $20 million. • -The US now had an empire.
Section 3 Acquiring New Lands In the early 1900 s, the United States engages in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
Results of the Spanish American War • U. S. didn't grant Cuba independence immediately - Cuba had to agree to the Platt Amendment - It gave the U. S. the right interfere in Cuban affairs when there was a threat to life, property, and individual liberty - Cuba had to allow an American naval base at Guantanamo Bay until 1999
Results of the Spanish American War • Puerto Rico became a U. S. territory • Had its own elected legislature and a governor chosen by the president • 1917, Puerto Ricans made U. S. citizens; elect both houses
Results of the Spanish American War • Guam was controlled by the U. S. navy • President Mc. Kinley decided that the Philippines should become an American Colony - Philippines wanted independence - Revolted against the U. S. - 1902 - U. S. troops finally restored order • July 4, 1946, Philippines became independent
Ruling Puerto Rico • Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence. Some wanted statehood, while still others hope for some measure of local selfgovernment as an American territory. • -Puerto Rico was important to the US for maintaining a US presence in the Caribbean and for protecting a future canal in Panama.
Ruling Puerto Rico • *Foraker Act- passed in 1900, this act ended military rule and set up a civil government in Puerto Rico. • -The act gave the president of the US the power to appoint Puerto Rico's governor and members of the upper house of this legislature.
Cuba and the US • -When the US declared war against Spain in 1898; it recognized Cuba's independence from Spain. • *Teller Amendment- stated that the US had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. • -US aided Cuba -- food, clothes, schools, medical research, and sanitation.
US and Cuba • *Platt Amendment- a series of provisions that, in 1901, the US insisted Cuba add to its new constitution, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt and giving the US the right to intervene in the country and the right to buy or lease Cuban land for naval and fueling stations. • -It remained in effect for 31 years. • Cuba became a US *protectorate- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger nation.
Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898)- US had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba Senator Orville Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. The U. S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U. S. for naval and coaling station.
Protecting American Business Interests • -The most important reasons for the US to remain in Cuba was to protect its investment in the islands sugar, tobacco, and mining industries, as well as railroads and public utilities. • -The US would continue to try to control its Latin American neighbors. In the years to come, the US would intervene time and again in the affairs of other nations in the Western Hemisphere.
Philippine-American War • -February 1899 - the Filipinos, led by Aguinaldo, rose in revolt. • -The US would use the same tactics in the Philippines that they had condemned Spain for using in Cuba. • -About 200, 000 would die. It took the US about three years to stop the rebellion. • -The US set up a government similar to the one established in Puerto Rico. • - Philippines gained independence after WWII
Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of the Filipino Uprising. July 4, 1946: Philippine independence
Power in the Pacific • U. S. always had interest in Pacific - 1853 - U. S. navy landed in Tokyo Bay - Led by Commodore Matthew Perry • He carried a letter from President Millard Fillmore • U. S. wanted Japan to open ports to American trade - Carried gifts - Made it clear that Japan should not refuse president's request.
Japan becomes a World Power • Before the U. S. naval visit Japan had been closed to the outside word for several centuries • Meiji Restoration: Japanese emperor begins trading with Western allies. His modernized army subdues the lords and samurai of the countryside. • Japan changes from a Medieval to Industrialized country in 50 years.
Foreign Influence in China • -The US imperialists saw the Philippines as a gateway to the rest of Asia… especially China. • -China was seen as a new potential market. • -It also presented American investors with new opportunities for large-scale railroad construction. U. S. Secretary of State, John Hay
John Hayes Open-Door Notes • -The US feared that China would be carved into colonies and that American traders would be shut out. • -To protect American interests, US Secretary of State, *John Hay issued a series of policy statements called the *Open-Door Notes in 1899. • -These were letters addressed to the leaders of imperialist nations, proposing that the nation's share of their trading rights with the US, thus creating an open door. (No nation would have a monopoly)
The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.
The Boxer Rebellion in China • -A 1900 rebellion in which members of a Chinese secret society sought to free their country from Western influence, or as they call them “foreign devils. ” • -International forces put down the rebellion within two months. (GB, France, Germany and the US) The Boxers actually practiced a form of karate. They were called “Boxers” because they seemed like they fought like French Kick-Boxers.
Protecting American Rights • -This rebellion led to a 2 nd series of Open. Door Notes, announcing that the US would “safeguard for the world the principle of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire. ” • -This paved the way for greater US influence in Asia.
The Impact of US Territorial Gains • -Under Mc. Kinley, the US had gained an empire. (Reelected in 1900). • -Many anti-imperialists such as Carnegie, Jane Addams, Cleveland Mark Twain all agreed that it was wrong for the US to rule other people without their consent.
Section 4 America as a World Power The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution add to America’s military and economic power.
Teddy Roosevelt and the World • -1901 - Mc. Kinley is assassinated. Theodore Roosevelt becomes president. • -1904 - Czar Nicholas II (Russia) declared war on Japan- they were competing for control of Korea. • -1905 - Roosevelt mediated a settlement in the war between Russia and Japan took action first by a surprise attack on Russia. • -1906 - Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth. .
Teddy Roosevelt and the World • *Treaty of Portsmouth- in the settlement Japan wanted Sakhalin Island a large sum of money from Russia refused. • -Japan accepted half of the island in exchange, Russia agreed to let Japan take over Russian interests in Manchuria and Korea
The Panama Canal • *Panama Canal- cutting across Central America to greatly reduce travel time between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. • -In 1800, a French company had tried to build a canal in Panama. • -After 10 years, the company gave up and sold its route to the US for $40 million.
The Panama Canal • -1903 - Panama declared its independence from Columbia. • -The US and Panama signed a treaty stating that the US would agree to pay Panama $10 million plus the annual rent of $250, 000 for the Canal zone.
The Panama Canal • Constructing the Canal- ranks as one the world's greatest engineering feats. • -Work began in 1904 and by 1913, the climax of construction, more than 43, 000 workers were employed. Over 5, 000 died of accidents and disease. • -The cost of the canal
Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
• -August 1914, the Canal opened for business. • -US later compensated Columbia $25 million in 1921 for the country's lost territory.
c Policing the Hemisphere • *The Roosevelt Corollary…to the Monroe Doctrine- (MD demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin American nations. ) • -Issued in 1904, the US claimed the right to protect its economic interests by means of military intervention in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere's nations. • -TR’s Big Stick Diplomacy -“Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. ”
Policing the Hemisphere - Encouraged U. S. companies to invest in Latin America - Promised military support if Latin American countries defaulted on their debt to U. S. companies
Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!
Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” • Dollar diplomacy—U. S. guarantees foreign loans by U. S. business (add to your notes) • Latin Americans saw U. S. as bullies - Created distrust between U. S. and it Latin American neighbors
U. S. involvement in Latin America • Business leaders realized they could by products cheaply in Latin America and sell them in the U. S. (coffee, bananas, and copper) • Bought large tracts of land - Many people lost their land were forced to take low paying jobs Banana Republics: Central American countries controlled by large U. S. fruit companies
c Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy • -According to Wilson, the US had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to US interests.
The Mexican Revolution: 1910 s Emiliano Zapata Venustiano Carranza Poncho Villa Porfirio Diaz Francisco I Madero
c The Mexican Revolution • -In 1911, Mexican peasants and workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Porfirio Diaz. (Military dictator and US ally. ) • -After two years General Victoriano Huerta took over and executed Madero. • -Wilson refused to recognize the government, calling it “a government of butchers. ”
c Intervention in Mexico • April 1914 - Huerta’s officers • Venustiano Carranza arrested and released a became new president group of American sailors. • -Wilson saw this as an excuse to intervene in Mexico. • -Once the Huerta regime collapsed, a nationalist leader became president in 1915. Wilson withdrew the troops and formally recognized the new Venustiano Carranza became new president government.
c Rebellion in Mexico • Rebellion in Mexico- many Mexicans did not support the new government. • -Rebels under *Francisco “poncho” Villa and Emiliano Zapato would kill any American men in Mexico. • Poncho Villa actually crossed the border and burned a town in NM, killing 19 Americans. • -The US public demanded revenge.
• Pancho Villa and the song La Cucaracha.
c Chasing Villa • *General John J. Pershing- was ordered by Wilson to capture Villa dead or alive. • -After a year of US troops looking for him. Mexicans grew angrier over the US invasion of their land. • -In the end both sides backed down and Pershing was ordered to return home because the U. S. was preparing for WWI.
U. S. Imperialism Summary • The US pursued and achieved several foreign policy goals in the early 20 th century: • The US expanded its access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy. • The US built a modern navy to protect its interests abroad. • The US exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America.