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U. S. Electricity Infrastructure: State Initiatives for Advancing Security, Technology and Market Transformation Sue U. S. Electricity Infrastructure: State Initiatives for Advancing Security, Technology and Market Transformation Sue Gander Director Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Division National Governors Association Center for Best Practices 202 -624 -7740 [email protected] org www. nga. org/center/eenr

Overview • Electricity infrastructure challenges • State leadership to address these through transmission, technology Overview • Electricity infrastructure challenges • State leadership to address these through transmission, technology and markets – Transmission – Planning, cost allocation, environment – Smart Grid – Pilots and road maps – Energy efficiency as a resource – Best practices and opportunities • ARRA (Recovery Act) support

The National Governors Association Providing Governors Ideas that Work Federal Relations • Builds consensus The National Governors Association Providing Governors Ideas that Work Federal Relations • Builds consensus on federal issues • Committee structure • Gives governors a collective voice on Capitol Hill Center for Best Practices • Comparative policy shop • Provides governors and staff timely technical assistance • Securing a Clean Energy Future (2007 -2008) • Strengthening our Infrastructure for a Sustainable Future (20082009)

Transmission Benefits - If We Get it Right Economic Environment Security DOE study on Transmission Benefits - If We Get it Right Economic Environment Security DOE study on 20% potential wind penetration creates $450 billion in economic gain and 500, 000 jobs Allows states to develop Protects consumers and DG and off-grid renewable industry from blackouts, energy sources data theft, etc Avoids transmission congestion -- costs homeowners and businesses $22 billion/yr Increases energy efficiency Allows for better data opportunities, notably DR collection, backup mechanisms, and analysis of benefits Source: Energy Future Coalition and NGA Center

Transmission faces “old” challenges… • Growing demand for electric services – Growing population/reliance on Transmission faces “old” challenges… • Growing demand for electric services – Growing population/reliance on digital technology/PHEVs • Aging infrastructure – Grid is similar to one envisioned by Thomas Edison – 70% transmission lines at least 25 years old – 70% power transformers at least 25 years old – average is 40 years – 60% of all circuit breakers at least 30 years old – By 2030, the electric utility industry will need to invest up to $2. 0 trillion to maintain today’s level of service ($300 B in transmission) • Concerns with reliability – Three major blackouts in last 9 years – Impacts quality of life, safety, bottom-lines

Transmission Faces New Challenges… • Concerns about global climate change – Electricity use is Transmission Faces New Challenges… • Concerns about global climate change – Electricity use is 40 percent of U. S. CO 2 emissions • Greening of power supply – 20 states have CO 2 reduction targets – 33 states have Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) or similar goal for electricity – Nearly 20 states with Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS)

The Transmission Planning Process FERC Grid Operators PUCs Interconnection Entities Federal Agencies Utilities Environ. The Transmission Planning Process FERC Grid Operators PUCs Interconnection Entities Federal Agencies Utilities Environ. Agencies Governors Source: Energy Future Coalition

State Leadership on Transmission Needs Three areas of focus: • Doing more -- Addressing State Leadership on Transmission Needs Three areas of focus: • Doing more -- Addressing planning, cost allocation • Doing it smarter -- Improving the grid • Doing it better -- Reducing demand for transmission (deferring investments)

Improved Transmission Planning -- CA • Renewable Energy Transmission Initiatives (RETI – Statewide collaborative Improved Transmission Planning -- CA • Renewable Energy Transmission Initiatives (RETI – Statewide collaborative process between CPUC, CEC, CAISO, other utilities, land managers, and enviros – RETI process will identify, plan and permit the “best” transmission lines to meet CA’s 33% RPS – Includes significant investment by PG&E

Improved Planning -- MT, CO, UT • Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line – Improved Planning -- MT, CO, UT • Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line – 230 kilovolt, 214 mile-line that will connect state energy to markets in Alberta, Canada • completed the permitting process in 2008 • expected to attract nearly $1 billion in wind development • Colorado study to propose ways to achieve 1 GW of new RE capacity • Utah statewide REZ study – Phase I completed

Improved Planning -- Regional Efforts • Western Governors Association - WREZ – GIS based Improved Planning -- Regional Efforts • Western Governors Association - WREZ – GIS based study on potential for large scale development of renewable resources – June 15 phase I – Partner with utilities to evaluate needs to move power from preferred REZs – 30, 000 MW by 2015 • Upper Midwest Transmission Development – MGA Governors of IA, MN, ND, SD, and WI – Identify cost-effective wind resources and transmission infrastructure projects – Cost allocation and planning working groups

ARRA Support for Transmission • DOE provided $6. 5 billion for transmission activities – ARRA Support for Transmission • DOE provided $6. 5 billion for transmission activities – Western Area Power Administration and Bonneville Power Authority each given $3. 25 billion in spending authority • To construct transmission only for delivery of RE power • Projects must repay the U. S. Treasury with interest • Additional ARRA planning provisions • Regional Planning Entity must be established for 3 interconnections (Western, Eastern, Texas)

Smart Grid - The Potential Source: http: //www. urbanecoist. com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/smartgrid_454570 a-6. jpg Smart Grid - The Potential Source: http: //www. urbanecoist. com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/smartgrid_454570 a-6. jpg

Smart Grid -- The Barriers • New technology risk • Lack of standards – Smart Grid -- The Barriers • New technology risk • Lack of standards – Security and interoperability • Cost recovery risk – Who pays, who benefits? • Need a strategy – Statewide vision, plan or roadmap

Selected Smart Grid Pilots State Southern CA IL PA Boulder, CO Miami, FL Portland, Selected Smart Grid Pilots State Southern CA IL PA Boulder, CO Miami, FL Portland, OR Ohio Charlottesville, VA Meters Cost 2 -way interface for household devices to communicate w/meter 141, 000 two-way smart meters under proposed pilot $1. 63 billion ($9 million and $304 million in benefits) Com Ed plans to apply for stimulus funds 1. 3 million AMIs with fixed power line carriers 25, 000 planned smart meters Over 1 million wireless meters to every house in Miami-Dade County 850, 000 AMIs $163 million Three-year pilot (20092011) with AMI for 110, 000 meters 14, 700 meters $109 million over 3 years via $33. 3 million rider for 2009 TBD Programmable thermostats near real-time energy usage information 6 -month review of pricing and technology options to best benefit consumers established Statewide Smart Grid Collaborative to manage planning and develop vision TBD Technical Details • hourly interval data for all customers available on-line within two days First fully integrated “Smart Grid City” new outage management, energy usage and tools on Internet better consumer bill information Distribution automation for real-time control Monitoring of electrical equipment Microgrid: Interconnected network that can function connected to or separate from grid TBD $132 million

ARRA Support for Smart Grid • The Smart Grid Investment program $3. 4 billion ARRA Support for Smart Grid • The Smart Grid Investment program $3. 4 billion available starting in the summer and DOE anticipates over 1, 500 applications • The Smart Grid Demonstration program has $615 million available through matching grants

EE as a Resource - New England • ISO New England Forward Capacity Market EE as a Resource - New England • ISO New England Forward Capacity Market – Electricity resources compete for capacity payments – Accepts DR (e. g. EE, DG, load management, etc) – All resources that clear auction paid market clearing price & receive up to 5 -yr usage commitment – Offers price response and reliability response • 2, 029 MW of DR as of 12/2008 • Played key role in July/Aug 2008 heat wave – NYISO saved 948 MW in peak demand – CT saved 217 MW

EE as a Resource - Mid-Atlantic • Demand Response in PJM • Planning Auction EE as a Resource - Mid-Atlantic • Demand Response in PJM • Planning Auction for 2012/2013 held in May • 10, 464 MW of incrementally new capacity available – Auction resulted in 5, 682 of DR, 400% over last year’s auction – Wind resources accounted for 323 MW – Combined results of six PJM capacity auctions = 27, 640 MW

EE Barriers • Upfront costs • Measurement & verification • Scale EE Barriers • Upfront costs • Measurement & verification • Scale

ARRA Support for EE • $3. 1 billion to state energy offices • $3. ARRA Support for EE • $3. 1 billion to state energy offices • $3. 2 billion in energy efficiency conservation block grants • Additional support for weatherization, green schools, bonding authority, tax incentives etc.

Conclusions • States need combination of transmission, smart grid activities along with creative market Conclusions • States need combination of transmission, smart grid activities along with creative market mechanisms to ensure delivery of clean, affordable and reliable energy – Do more, Do it smarter, Do it better • ARRA presents opportunities for states and regions to move ahead

Resources • DOE/Office of Electricity • EPA/National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency • EPRI Resources • DOE/Office of Electricity • EPA/National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency • EPRI • Edison Electric Institute • National Council on Electricity Policy • Regulatory Assistance Project • Center for American Progress • American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy