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True Program Success. TM Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System Arlene Minkiewicz, Chief Scientist PRICE Systems, L. L. C. arlene. [email protected] com October 2004 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Conclusion > > Security constraints on a software system may impact the cost/benefit analysis when building a COTS-Based software system > 2 COTS solutions can save time and money in the development and lifecycle phases of a software product. Understanding of issues associated with COTS systems and security implications is essential to successful deployment of COTS-Based Software Systems Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Cost of security in a COTS-Based Software System 1. 2. Solution Methodology 3. Security Issues 4. Six Steps to a Successful COTS Implementation 5. Adding security to the six steps 6. 3 The Problem Conclusions Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

The Problem > > Adding security constraints to a software system will change the factors involved in a cost / benefit analysis comparing COTS solutions to home grown solutions > Need to understand all of the activities associated with a COTS based solution in order to properly assess the cost of a COTS Based solution > 4 COTS - Not always the low cost solution Need to understand the impact of security constraints on the costs of these activities Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Solution Methodology > Understand bound the problem > Understand the process of including COTS and identify the activities associated with this process > Identify the factors that drive costs for these activities > Identify the impact of security constraints on the costs of these activities > Construct a mathematical model to determine cost from these cost drivers > Test the mathematical model against actual data and refine the model > 5 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Bounding the Problem > Extended Definition of COTS Product (from USC CSE) to include modifications – Commercially available software product - sold, leased or licensed – Source code sometimes unavailable – Periodic release with new features, upgrades for technology, etc. – Modifications to software > Focus is on COTS products being embedded in new software systems > Additional focus is on those systems with security constraints – 6 Security constraints defined as acceptance criteria related to Evaluation Assurance Levels as outlined in the Common Criteria for IT Security Evaluations Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Security Requirements Present in Two Forms > Additional functional requirements related specifically to security related features – Encryption algorithms – Password protection – Remote access security procedures > Additional levels of qualification and testing to ensure that the software does not allow security breaches into the system on which it operates – Backdoors – Buffer overflows – Other defects that allow entrée to hackers – Patches that can be reversed engineered to find weaknesses 7 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Cost Impacts of Security Requirements > Additional Functional Requirements Related to Security increase total Functional Size of the software (SLOC, Function Points, etc. ) > Impact of Assurance Requirements on Cost are a function of: – COTS Selection Strategy – Process Maturity of Organization Delivering Solution • Focus of process model on security – Expertise of personnel relating to Secure Software Development and Good Software Engineering practices 8 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

COTS Selection Strategy > Once a decision has been made to incorporate COTS components into a system with security constraints, the integrator has to pick a strategy – Buy and wrap • Select components that best meet overall functional requirements • Develop a wrapper with glue code that encapsulates the COTS components, ensuring that security requirements are met – Buy pre-certified components • Only evaluate COTS components with vendor certification at the required Evaluation Assurance Level – Buy and certify internally • Select components that best meet overall functional requirements with vendor assurance that they comply with security requirements • Perform necessary certifications internally 9 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Process Maturity of Organization > Biggest area for security concerns is in the quality of the software > Organization with a good software process model firmly entrenched build higher quality software – Processes focused on security get the best results • Cleanroom • Formal mathematical methods – Good processes in general still make substantial difference • CMI • PSP/TSP > Good software development practices can substantially reduce impact of security assurance requirements because most security threats arise from the presence of defects in design and implementation 10 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Expertise of personnel > Security Assurance Requirements are most likely to be met if security is designed into the software from the very beginning – Personnel with training and / or experience in the development of secure software systems understand this – Personnel with training and / or experience in good software development practices understand the importance of building quality into the process from the very beginning 11 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Six Steps to a Successful COTS Implementation 1. Analyze Software Requirements 2. Evaluate and Select COTS Solution(s) 3. Negotiate terms with the COTS Vendors 4. Implement COTS Based Solution • • Tailoring Modifications (not good but sometimes deemed necessary) Develop Glue Code Integration with other COTS Components or homegrown components 5. 6. 12 Maintain License, Subscription and Royalty fees Maintain and Upgrade COTS-Based Solutions Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Analyze Software Requirements > Necessary whether software is being built or bought – In fact part of the requirements discussion should be whether building or buying makes sense > Selection criteria should relate back to requirements > Care should be taken to identify where there is flexibility – as no COTS solution will meet all software requirements completely > COTS Selection Strategy decided during Requirements Analysis – 13 Care should be taken to understand process maturity and personnel capability with respect to secure software development when selecting the best strategy for success Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Identify, Evaluate, and Select > Identify solutions that satisfy product, vendor and security requirements > Techniques for evaluation include – – puzzle approach – > progressive filtering keystone components COTS Selection Strategy is key factor in this activity – – 14 Buy and wrap – not an issue Buy pre-certified or Buy and Certify – clearly will impact evaluation process Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Negotiate terms with COTS vendors > Understand that vendor cooperation and forthrightness is best during the negotiation phase – Address and resolve missing or incomplete functional and known bugs before signing on the dotted line – Establish expectations for responsiveness to issues identified once the integration effort has begun – Develop a clear picture of the recurring and non-recurring costs of the system being developed > Security issues impact negotiations and costs – Pre-certified components bear the cost of certification and recertification – understand how that impacts costs. – If components are to be certified by integrating organization – be sure to include provisions in the negotiations in the event certification fails to meet promised assurance levels. 15 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Implement the COTS Based Solution > Tailoring includes non development activities that must be applied to the COTS components to meet system requirements. > Modifications sometimes occur – Need to understand impact on cost and crossover where modified COTS cost more than home grown solutions – Buy and Wrap COTS – security is not an issue as wrapper will encapsulate modified component – Modifications would require complete re-certification if component is certified by the vendor or the purchaser 16 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Implement COTS Based Solutions > Glue code is code developed to hold all the components of the system together – Wrapper would be considered part of the glue code – Costs for glue code development would be impacted by security requirements – Good processes, training and expertise would mitigate this cost impact > System level integration and tests ensure that all the components function together to meet requirements – Part of integration and test would be assurances that the total system meets all assurance requirements – Costs would be impacted by security requirements – Good processes, training and expertise would mitigate this cost impact 17 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Maintain license, subscription and royalty fees > Important to perform a long term analysis to understand the long term external costs of implementing a COTS based solution > Initial negotiations should be used to ensure that certified or promised level of security is maintained with upgrades > Renewal period is a good opportunity to revisit terms of negotiations to determine whether vendor is meeting support and upgrade commitments 18 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Maintenance and Upgrade of COTS solutions > Evaluation and possible inclusion of upgrades and updates – – Perform evaluation to determine whether upgrade adds value to Software System – Good processes, training and experience will mitigate security cost impacts Re-perform internal certifications Modifications to wrapper code if necessary to accommodate new interfaces Costs for glue code modifications and integration and test will be impacted by security constraints > Fix bugs – – 19 In glue code, modifications or to compensate for COTS bugs not fixed by vendor Costs impacted by security constraints Reintegration necessary Good processes, training and experience will mitigate security cost impacts Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Conclusion > Six Steps to a Successful COTS Implementation 1. Analyze Software Requirements 2. Evaluate and Select COTS Solution(s) 3. Negotiate terms with the COTS Vendors 4. Implement COTS Based Solution • • Tailoring Modifications (not good but sometimes deemed necessary) Develop Glue Code Integration with other COTS Components or homegrown components 5. 6. 20 Maintain License, Subscription and Royalty fees Maintain and Upgrade COTS-Based Solutions Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System

Conclusion > > Security constraints on a software system may impact the cost/benefit analysis when building a COTS-Based software system > 21 COTS solutions can save time and money in the development and lifecycle phases of a software product. Understanding of issues associated with COTS systems and security implications is essential to successful deployment of COTS-Based Software Systems Arlene F. Minkiewicz Chief Scientist PRICE Systems, L. L. C 856 -608 -7222 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System Arlene. [email protected] com

22 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System FASTER DECISIONS. BETTER DECISIONS.

About PRICE Systems > Leader in Program Affordability Management solutions > Combine cost estimating, project control, and knowledge management – ensuring project success at every decision gateway > Customers increase visibility, minimize risk and cost, accelerate project development, and improve the effectiveness of project selection, control and delivery www. PRICESystems. com 23 Costs of Security in a COTS-Based Software System