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Treemap – The Fast Routing Convergence Method for Application Layer Multicast Khoa T. Phan†, Treemap – The Fast Routing Convergence Method for Application Layer Multicast Khoa T. Phan†, Nam Thoai†, Eiichi MuramotoΩ Ettikan K. K¥, Lim Boon Ping¥, P. Y. TanΔ †Ho Chi Minh city University of Technology (HCMUT) ΩImmersive ¥Panasonic Communication Task Force, Panasonic Corporation R&D Center Malaysia, ΔNetwork Team, PSL, Singapore IEEE CCNC 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada USA HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 1

Outline § Application Layer Multicast § Xcast 6 – Explicit Multi-unicast (RFC 5058) § Outline § Application Layer Multicast § Xcast 6 – Explicit Multi-unicast (RFC 5058) § Xcast 6 Treemap § Conclusions and Future work HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 2

Application Layer Multicast (ALM) Multicast functionality is implemented at end-hosts: q No special addresses Application Layer Multicast (ALM) Multicast functionality is implemented at end-hosts: q No special addresses needed. q No infrastructure upgrade required → easy in deployment. q No state per multicast group at routers → enhance scalability with number of groups. However: q There is a performance penalty. q ALM does not leverage native multicast where it exists. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 3

Xcast 6 – Explicit Multi-unicast (1) q Xcast 6 – RFC 5058 (November 2007). Xcast 6 – Explicit Multi-unicast (1) q Xcast 6 – RFC 5058 (November 2007). q An explicit list of unicast destination addresses is stored in IPv 6 packet header. q No state per multicast group at routers → enhance scalability with number of groups. q Incremental deployment → Xcast 6 packet can be tunneled through non-Xcast-aware routers. Datagram packet B C D E F A B X 1 C D E B F BC DEF CD B X 2 C EF BCD EF R 3 B CD D EF B CD - X is Xcast-aware router - R is normal router EF X 4 E B C D E F F HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 4

Xcast 6 – Explicit Multi-unicast (2) Issue: daisy-chain connection in the absence of Xcast-aware Xcast 6 – Explicit Multi-unicast (2) Issue: daisy-chain connection in the absence of Xcast-aware router → long latency and unreliable quality for applications. B C D E F R 1 R 2 B C D E F C B B C D E F A B C D E F D R 3 - X is Xcast-aware router B C D E F R 4 E - R is normal router F HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 5

Xcast 6 Treemap (1) Xcast 6 Treemap is an extension of Xcast 6. Our Xcast 6 Treemap (1) Xcast 6 Treemap is an extension of Xcast 6. Our goals are: q Supporting ALM tree forwarding → solving the daisy-chain problem. q Running on the real Internet. q Supporting fast route adaptation when hosts dynamically join/leave → better quality of service. q Leveraging network layer multicast where Xcast-aware routers exist. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 6

Xcast 6 Treemap (2) Treemap – the technique to encode overlay multicast tree: A Xcast 6 Treemap (2) Treemap – the technique to encode overlay multicast tree: A List of destinations B C List of children D E A B C D E F 1 2 0 0 F q List of destinations: a list of nodes in breadth first order. q List of children: a list of number of children for each node in breadth first order. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 7

Xcast 6 Treemap (3) Integrating the Treemap into Xcast 6 header: q In Xcast Xcast 6 Treemap (3) Integrating the Treemap into Xcast 6 header: q In Xcast 6, “list of destinations” is in the routing header. q We add “list of children” to the destination option header. q With 32 bytes, “list of children” represents a maximum of 64 nodes. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 8

Xcast 6 Treemap (4) How Xcast 6 Treemap work? B C D E F Xcast 6 Treemap (4) How Xcast 6 Treemap work? B C D E F 20200 B C C R 2 R 1 A B D E F 20200 D R 3 R 4 C A B E E D The overlay tree F BCDEF 20200 Treemap representation HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration F 9

Xcast 6 Treemap (5) Our goals: q Supporting ALM tree forwarding → solving daisy-chain Xcast 6 Treemap (5) Our goals: q Supporting ALM tree forwarding → solving daisy-chain problem. ü ü q Can run on the Internet (on IPv 6). q Supporting fast route adaptation when hosts dynamically join/leave. q Leveraging network layer multicast where Xcast-aware routers exist. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 10

Xcast 6 Treemap (6) Fast routing convergence - E joins and the overlay route Xcast 6 Treemap (6) Fast routing convergence - E joins and the overlay route - E leaves and the overlay route changes to: A A A B B A’s routing table A→B C D E D - End-hosts do not update - End-hosts doconcurrently. routing table not update routing table concurrently. B’s. B updates routing table B→C routing table B updates B→D B→C routing table E B→C B C D can’t C updates routing table ALMCast* C→D E E updates routing table E→D D receive data Packet loss in ALMCast (*) B. P. Lim, Ettikan K. K, et al. “Bandwidth Fair Application Layer Multicast for Multi-party Video Conference Application”, 6 th Annual IEEE Consumer Communication and Networking Conferene (CCNC), 2009. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 11

Xcast 6 Treemap (7) Fast routing convergence Treemap BCD 200 BCED 2010 BCD 110 Xcast 6 Treemap (7) Fast routing convergence Treemap BCD 200 BCED 2010 BCD 110 E joins and the overlay route changes to: E leaves and the overlay route changes to: A B CC B C A A B E D D can’t receive data Xcast 6 Treemap HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 12

Xcast 6 Treemap (8) Leveraging network layer multicast ALM BCDEF 20200 A B X Xcast 6 Treemap (8) Leveraging network layer multicast ALM BCDEF 20200 A B X 1 R 1 C D R 3 X 2 R 2 A Note: - X is Xcast-aware router R 4 X 4 B - R is normal router D C E E F F Overlay tree HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 13

Xcast 6 Treemap (9) Forwarding time Daisy-chain form Branched form *PC of Pentium IV Xcast 6 Treemap (9) Forwarding time Daisy-chain form Branched form *PC of Pentium IV 1. 8 GHz with 512 MB RAM HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 14

Conclusions q No state per multicast group at routers → scalable with large number Conclusions q No state per multicast group at routers → scalable with large number of groups. ü q Can run on the Internet (on IPv 6). ü q Supporting ALM tree forwarding in the absence of Xcast-aware router. ü q Supporting fast route adaptation in application layer routing when hosts ü dynamically join/leave → better quality of service. q Leveraging network layer multicast where Xcast-aware routers exist. ü No Xcast router Xcast 6 Treemap packet User sends data as overlay tree Network Have Xcast router Only care about the overlay network Black box HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration sends data in network layer multicast 15

Future work q Large scale multicast group § Extend Xcast 6 Treemap to support Future work q Large scale multicast group § Extend Xcast 6 Treemap to support large multicast group. § Fast routing convergence algorithm for large multicast group. q Cross site testbed § SINET 3 – the backbone network of universities in Japan. § SAM testbed with hosts located in Europe, US, Japan and Asia. HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 16

THANK YOU! HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 17 THANK YOU! HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 17

Xcast 6 Treemap with large group Root node Not enough? N branches Sub-group Maximum Xcast 6 Treemap with large group Root node Not enough? N branches Sub-group Maximum of 64 nodes per group Maximum of (64 * N) nodes Maximum of 64 nodes per sub-group HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 18

Xcast 6 Treemap packet Structure of an Xcast 6 Treemap packet from A is Xcast 6 Treemap packet Structure of an Xcast 6 Treemap packet from A is sent to a group (B, C, D, E, F) Outer IP Inner IP Routing header Destination option header Inner IP: src = A, dest = ALL_XCAST_NODES Outer IP: src = A, dest = B Routing header: list of dest = B C D E F bitmap = 1 1 1 Destination options header: Treemap = 2 0 0 HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 19

Xcast 6 Treemap How Xcast 6 Treemap work? Outer IP = D B CD Xcast 6 Treemap How Xcast 6 Treemap work? Outer IP = D B CD Outer IP = C EF Outer IP = B B C D E F A B CDEF B 20200 R 1 X 2 C D R 3 - X is Xcast-aware router - R is normal router R 4 E F HCMUT & Panasonic Collaboration 20