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Transportation & Supply Chain Systems John H. Vande Vate Spring 2006 1 1 Transportation & Supply Chain Systems John H. Vande Vate Spring 2006 1 1

Who am I? • • • John H. Vande Vate Professor and EMIL Executive Who am I? • • • John H. Vande Vate Professor and EMIL Executive Director Office: 222 of the Old ISy. E bldg. Phone: (404) 894 -3035 Office Hours: – Tuesday, Thursday 3 -5 (after class) or – By appointment 2 2

Our TA • Office: • Hours: TBA 3 3 Our TA • Office: • Hours: TBA 3 3

Administrative Details • Class Home Page: www. isye. gatech. edu/~jvandeva/Classes/6203/2006/syllabus 2006. html Keep up Administrative Details • Class Home Page: www. isye. gatech. edu/~jvandeva/Classes/6203/2006/syllabus 2006. html Keep up with information here! 4 4

Recommended Text • Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies & Case Studies, Recommended Text • Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies & Case Studies, Second Edition, By David Simchi-Levi, Philip Kaminsky and Edith Simchi-Levi, Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin; (October 11, 2002). ISBN: 0072845538 • $76. 24 on Amazon • Used copies • Not required • Each team should have access 5 5

Other Resources • You may also want to read: – Contemporary Logistics by Johnson, Other Resources • You may also want to read: – Contemporary Logistics by Johnson, Wardlow, Wood and Murphy – Logistic Systems Analysis by Daganzo – Business Logistics Management 4 th Edition by R. H. Ballou, Prentice Hall, 1999 – Bramel, J. and D. Simchi-Levi, The Logic of Logistics: Theory, Algorithms and Applications for Logistics Management, Springer-Verlag, 1997 – Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Strategies for Reducing Cost and Improving Service (2 nd Edition) by Martin Christopher – Modeling the Supply Chain by Jeremy F. Shapiro 6 6

Grading • Exams: – February 21 st – March 28 th – Final • Grading • Exams: – February 21 st – March 28 th – Final • Project: 75% 25% – Groups of 4 to 6 7 7

Objectives • Knowledge and understanding of the issues underlying transportation and supply chain management Objectives • Knowledge and understanding of the issues underlying transportation and supply chain management and • Mastery of the tools and models to support intelligent resolution of those issues. 8 8

Projects • Project: Ideally a real application – Team of 4 to 6 students Projects • Project: Ideally a real application – Team of 4 to 6 students – Distance learning students encouraged to bring projects from their companies and recruit teams of on-campus students to work with them – Every team must have at least 1 on-campus student – Several projects already available 9 9

Project Cont’d • Due January 17 th – one member of your team should Project Cont’d • Due January 17 th – one member of your team should send me an e-mail with the subject "6203 Project" providing • The names and contact information (e-mails and phone numbers) • Resumes • Your team's project preferences (list at least four alternatives) in order • Your team's preferences for presentation dates (list all four) in order of preference • Before April 28 th: A presentation and brief report to your sponsor company • On April 6 th, 13 th, 20 th or 25 th. Present in class (approximately 30 minute presentation) 10 10

Project Motivation • Interviewing for job • Learning by Doing • Off-campus students 11 Project Motivation • Interviewing for job • Learning by Doing • Off-campus students 11 11

Projects • European Auto manufacturer: (Not confirmed, but highly likely), several questions related to Projects • European Auto manufacturer: (Not confirmed, but highly likely), several questions related to supplying parts from Europe – Is it better to supply to long run average consumption and adjust inventory as necessary or to ship-toforecast? – Is the company distinguishing among different parts appropriately when setting safety-lead-time? – For transmissions, there are two suppliers in different parts of Europe. Does it make more sense to combine shipments from these two suppliers or to try to achieve higher delivery frequency by using different routes from the different suppliers? • Contact: Section Manager 12 12

Projects • Pitney-Bowes: Most likely something in the area of modeling the number of Projects • Pitney-Bowes: Most likely something in the area of modeling the number of Strategic Stocking Locations for service and repair parts throughout the US, while minimizing transportation cost and inventory, and achieving a high service level such as parts to arrive in 2 hours, 4 hours, etc. . . • Contact: VP Sales, Inventory & Operations Planning. Located in Stamford, CT. 13 13

Projects • Milliken & Co. : • Study their floor covering shipments for 6 Projects • Milliken & Co. : • Study their floor covering shipments for 6 month time period. • Review the results for possible routes that could be built to certain markets. • Review the results for possible forward placement of inventory on some of their "commodities" products. • Review and critique their freight "terms" • Contact: Mfg Supply Chain Leader in Lagrange 14 Georgia 14

Projects • Disney & Co. and Schneider Logistics: Transportation optimization for supplying Disney Parks Projects • Disney & Co. and Schneider Logistics: Transportation optimization for supplying Disney Parks and Resorts around the world (Orlando, Anaheim, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Paris) • Contacts: Director of Segment Logistics Operations in Florida and General Manager of Inside Sales at Schneider. 15 15

Projects • Returns Management Company (not confirmed): • They offer returns management for various Projects • Returns Management Company (not confirmed): • They offer returns management for various retailers and are considering supporting the forward side (i. e. , fulfillment services to customers). Want a group to investigate optimal locations of consolidation activities and assignments to Bulk-mail-Centers (they use the postal service for a significant portion of the transportation). • Contact: Director of Transportation. 16 16

Projects • Ace International (Family-owned Hardware retail company in Panama): Forecasting demand for purchasing Projects • Ace International (Family-owned Hardware retail company in Panama): Forecasting demand for purchasing and other related topics. • Contact: One of the owners. 17 17

Other Projects • Welcome to propose other topics • Must: – Have a corporate Other Projects • Welcome to propose other topics • Must: – Have a corporate sponsor – Be of value to the company – Give the team experience – Relate to topics in this course 18 18

Deliverable • Presentation to your company and to the class (These may have to Deliverable • Presentation to your company and to the class (These may have to be different) • CD that includes – Project Description – Your presentation(s) – Sufficient description that I can follow your presentation, understand the data and use the tools – Data and data definitions – Any tools (documented) 19 19

Supply Chain Management • Managing Flows/Network Design – – – Transportation Inventory Finance Location Supply Chain Management • Managing Flows/Network Design – – – Transportation Inventory Finance Location Exam 1: February 23 rd • Managing Risk – – Revenue Management Safety Stock Inventory Pooling Exam 2: March 28 th • Supply Chain Strategy and Cases 20 20

Transportation • Modes – – – … Parcel Less-than-Truck load Multi-stop TL Truck load Transportation • Modes – – – … Parcel Less-than-Truck load Multi-stop TL Truck load Less-than-Car Load (rail) Block train Less-than-Container load … 21 21

Trade offs • • Cost Speed Reliability Security Special Handling Risk … 22 22 Trade offs • • Cost Speed Reliability Security Special Handling Risk … 22 22

Typical Cost Factors • Parcel (Up to ~150 lbs) – – Zones (origin & Typical Cost Factors • Parcel (Up to ~150 lbs) – – Zones (origin & destination) Weight & Cube Negotiated discount based on volume Delivery Options • Location • Timing: Same day, next day am, next day, 2 nd day, ground, … • UPS: http: //wwwapps. ups. com/cal. Time. Cost? loc=en_US 23 23

Why not Less-Than-Truck Load (LTL) just • Origin & Destination distance? Typically quoted • Why not Less-Than-Truck Load (LTL) just • Origin & Destination distance? Typically quoted • Weight (up to ~20, 000 lbs) as $/CWT • Class • Discount based on volume of business • Special Requirements Why is this • Old Dominion important? • http: //www. odfl. com/rateestimate • / 24 24

NMFC Classes • Density – Helps carrier judge demands for capacity • Value – NMFC Classes • Density – Helps carrier judge demands for capacity • Value – Helps carrier judge risk (liability limits associated with each class) • Class 50: cheapest, e. g. , sand • Class 500: most expensive, e. g. , Ping Pong Balls • Maintained by the NMFTA (NMFTA. org) 25 25

Truck Load (TL) • • • Up to ~45, 000 lbs Origin Typically quoted Truck Load (TL) • • • Up to ~45, 000 lbs Origin Typically quoted as $/mile Destination Volume of business Special Services (accessorials) – Detention, cleaning, … • Schneider National • https: //webapps. schneiderlogistics. com/pwschneiderrate/schneider_rate_ext_customer 26 26

Rail • • Commodity (Grain, Coal, …) Origin, Destination Equipment (Box car, tanker, Tri-level) Rail • • Commodity (Grain, Coal, …) Origin, Destination Equipment (Box car, tanker, Tri-level) Number of cars in block Cars handle on the order of 70 tons … Norfolk Southern http: //www. norfolksouthern. com/nscorp/applicati on? origin=content_home. jsp&event=bea. portal. fr amework. internal. refresh&pageid=Doing+Busine ss&content. Id=english/nscorp/doing_business/non 27 27 e 1/home/agriculture. html

Undiscounted LTL Rates ATL to LB Class 50 $0. 53/CWT $1. 12/CWT 28 28 Undiscounted LTL Rates ATL to LB Class 50 $0. 53/CWT $1. 12/CWT 28 28

Concave Cost per unit decreasing So? ! Shipment Size 29 29 Concave Cost per unit decreasing So? ! Shipment Size 29 29

Consolidation • Incentive to consolidate shipments – Make fewer larger shipments – Reduce frequency Consolidation • Incentive to consolidate shipments – Make fewer larger shipments – Reduce frequency (!? ) – Hub & Spoke – Share transportation resources –… 30 30

Issues with Freight Rates • Issue of how to estimate rates on lanes you Issues with Freight Rates • Issue of how to estimate rates on lanes you don’t currently use • Levels of detail – $/mile as the crow flies – $/mile on the network – Rate look up • Caution: Average cost of shipments can be smaller than the cost of an average shipment 31 31

Estimating Rates Cost of Average shipment Average Cost of shipment Large shipments Small shipments Estimating Rates Cost of Average shipment Average Cost of shipment Large shipments Small shipments Average shipment Size 32 32

Why It Matters? • Estimating transportation costs to “customers” – Typically too many customers Why It Matters? • Estimating transportation costs to “customers” – Typically too many customers – Aggregate them • By region • By state • By 3 -digit zip – Use some care in estimating the transportation cost to “aggregated” customers 33 33

Why It Matters? • Customers may order different quantities at different times • Estimating Why It Matters? • Customers may order different quantities at different times • Estimating the cost to serve the customer often look at average shipments • Careful how you average 34 34

Summary • • • Get started on your projects Transportation mode basics Transportation rate Summary • • • Get started on your projects Transportation mode basics Transportation rate basics Economies of scale promote consolidation Cautions on “aggregating” transportation rates 35 35

Next Time • Models for Transportation – Transportation Models – Transshipment Models – Weight, Next Time • Models for Transportation – Transportation Models – Transshipment Models – Weight, Cube, Linear Cube – Economies of scale – Etc. 36 36