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Transportation Into the Next Millennium Dennis Strong Concepts Transportation Into the Next Millennium Dennis Strong Concepts

n Brief History of Road Transportation n Tools, Innovations & Lessons Learned n What n Brief History of Road Transportation n Tools, Innovations & Lessons Learned n What the Future Holds

HISTORICAL REVIEW First Roads n First Wheeled Vehicles n Roman Roads n Improved Road HISTORICAL REVIEW First Roads n First Wheeled Vehicles n Roman Roads n Improved Road Surfaces n Powered Vehicles n Internal Combustion & Automobiles n

HISTORICAL REVIEW (cont) Traffic Congestion n Traffic Signs & Pavement Markings n Traffic Signals HISTORICAL REVIEW (cont) Traffic Congestion n Traffic Signs & Pavement Markings n Traffic Signals n Evolution of Traffic Engineering n Central Management of Roads n

Time Line 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 2000 B. C. A. D. animal manufactured Time Line 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 2000 B. C. A. D. animal manufactured wheeled paths road vehicles 1880 1900 1920 engineered road roman roads 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 A. D. bicycles popular hot-rolled asphalt automobile Model T traffic signal concrete computers traffic interstates research traffic engineering HCM personal computers TEAPAC ITS hypersonic planes space planes simulation HCM simulation 2000 virtual reality

First Roads First roads (ways) were animal paths. n First manufactured road 4000 B. First Roads First roads (ways) were animal paths. n First manufactured road 4000 B. C. n – Middle East and England, stone paving n First engineered construction 2000 B. C. – Crete, no improvements 2000 years n First road builders 1100 B. C. – Assyrian King’s Engineer Pioneer Corps

First Wheeled Vehicles n First wheeled vehicles – Russia, 3000 B. C. Road damage First Wheeled Vehicles n First wheeled vehicles – Russia, 3000 B. C. Road damage from increased loads and concentrating load n Evolved to truckle cart n

Roman Roads 300 B. C. Military & economic purposes n First to add gravel Roman Roads 300 B. C. Military & economic purposes n First to add gravel to mortar n Quality material, drainage & workmanship n Not improved upon for 2000 years n

Extent of Roman Roads Extent of Roman Roads

Improved Road Surfaces Centralized towns created need n Wheel tracks and rails, England 1767 Improved Road Surfaces Centralized towns created need n Wheel tracks and rails, England 1767 n Mc. Adam innovation, USA 1810 n – small stone base & compaction Speed now first limited by vehicle n 1900 hot-rolled asphalt n 1930 portland cement concrete n

Mc. Adam’s Innovative Design Mc. Adam’s Innovative Design

Powered Vehicles n Most history has been animal power – personal travel 1 day’s Powered Vehicles n Most history has been animal power – personal travel 1 day’s walk n 1 horse per 4 Americans by 1900 – expensive, problems, needed change Steam vehicles as early as 1801 n Bicycles popular around 1860 n – contributed to automobile technology

Internal Combustion and Automobiles n 1885 Daimler & Benz develop IC engine – first Internal Combustion and Automobiles n 1885 Daimler & Benz develop IC engine – first cars following year 1893 H. Ford builds first IC quadricycle n 1893 Duryea brothers build 1 st US car n 1900 US Production - 4, 192 cars n – 1, 681 steam – 1, 575 electric – 936 gasoline IC

First Cars by Daimler & Benz First Cars by Daimler & Benz

Mass Production of Cars n Ford Motor Company, 1903 – 1908 Model T - Mass Production of Cars n Ford Motor Company, 1903 – 1908 Model T - 10, 000 per year – 15 million over next 18 years – always the same, but inexpensive n General Motors offered different models – changed look every year IC trucks huge increase hauling capac. n Car provides affordable travel freedom n

Henry Ford’s Model T Henry Ford’s Model T

Traffic Congestion n 700 B. C. Assyrian – parking restrictions n 45 B. C. Traffic Congestion n 700 B. C. Assyrian – parking restrictions n 45 B. C. Rome congestion measues – one-way streets – vehicle restrictions 6 A. M. to 4 P. M. 1868 London pedestrian signal n 1920 New York walking was faster n 1924 Chicago congestion serious n

1868 Pedestrian Signal 1868 Pedestrian Signal

Traffic Signs & Pavement Markings Signs used since prehistoric times n Romans used raised Traffic Signs & Pavement Markings Signs used since prehistoric times n Romans used raised centerlines n 1600 centerline in Mexico n 1890 cycle clubs first modern signs n 1907 first speed bump n 1918 Speed limits first needed n

Traffic Signals n 1912 first modern signal – Salt Lake City n 1917 first Traffic Signals n 1912 first modern signal – Salt Lake City n 1917 first coordinated signals – Salt Lake City n 1920 first 4 -direction signal display – Detroit n 1928 first actuated signal – Baltimore

Evolution of Traffic Engineering 1920 Highway Research Board n 1924 first city traffic engineer Evolution of Traffic Engineering 1920 Highway Research Board n 1924 first city traffic engineer n – Burton Marsh, Pittsburgh 1930 design speed concept evolved n 1935 Greenshields uses spot-speed studies and photogrammetry n 1940 O. K. Normann empirical studies n

Traffic Engineering Guides 1935 first Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices n 1950 first Traffic Engineering Guides 1935 first Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices n 1950 first Highway Capacity Manual n – O. K. Normann chair of HRB committee 1958 Webster’s “Traffic Signal Settings” n 1965 second Highway Capacity Manual n Numerous technical specs since n

Early HCM’s and Webster Early HCM’s and Webster

Central Management of Roads Early road maintenance by Church n Toll roads in India, Central Management of Roads Early road maintenance by Church n Toll roads in India, 320 B. C. n 1900 bicycle clubs urged central control n 1918 Bureau of Public Roads n 1921 Federal Aid Highway Act n – 50 percent matching funds n Now 10% national funds is typical

National Road Systems 1802 U. S. National Road n 1933 First superhighway n – National Road Systems 1802 U. S. National Road n 1933 First superhighway n – Autobahn to unify fragmented country n 1940 first U. S. freeways – Los Angeles to Pasadena, 4 miles urban – Pennsylvania Turnpike, 170 miles rural n 1956 U. S. National System of Interstate and Defense Highways

TOOLS, INNOVATIONS & LESSONS LEARNED Design Standards n Traffic Management n Traffic Calming n TOOLS, INNOVATIONS & LESSONS LEARNED Design Standards n Traffic Management n Traffic Calming n Computers n Software n

Design Standards n Road Design – wheel loads – drainage – good materials n Design Standards n Road Design – wheel loads – drainage – good materials n Design Guides – AASHTO – MUTCD – HCM

Traffic Management Capacity improvements (TOPICS) n Traffic impact studies n Signal timing studies n Traffic Management Capacity improvements (TOPICS) n Traffic impact studies n Signal timing studies n Priority to high-occupancy vehicles n Flex time n Travel demand modeling & forecasting n

Traffic Calming Neighborhood traffic needs n Speed bumps n Speed humps n Small roundabouts Traffic Calming Neighborhood traffic needs n Speed bumps n Speed humps n Small roundabouts n Road alignment and width n City exists for care and culture of humankind, not for passage of cars. n

Computers and Software Interactive personal computer n Analysis software n Design Software n Simulation Computers and Software Interactive personal computer n Analysis software n Design Software n Simulation software n Animation software n

WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS Into the 21 st Century n Future Vehicles n ITS WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS Into the 21 st Century n Future Vehicles n ITS and the Information Age n Computer Software n Future Travel n

Into the 21 st Century 20 th Century: the century of the car. n Into the 21 st Century 20 th Century: the century of the car. n Number of cars expected to double in next 25 years. n Auto/road system can meet demands for unrestricted mobility & accessibility. n Increasing demands can be managed by controlling and redistributing these demands. n

Future Vehicles Electric n Natural gas n Hydrogen n Solar n Smaller engines allow Future Vehicles Electric n Natural gas n Hydrogen n Solar n Smaller engines allow smaller vehicle n

Solar, Electric & Hydrogen Cars Solar Hydrogen Electric Solar, Electric & Hydrogen Cars Solar Hydrogen Electric

ITS and the Information Age ITS - electronics and information technology n automated highway ITS and the Information Age ITS - electronics and information technology n automated highway systems n ramp metering n intelligent vehicles n intelligent roads n smart-card toll collection n road pricing n

Computer Software n engineering design – best operation n simulation – model performance – Computer Software n engineering design – best operation n simulation – model performance – compare alternatives n animation – visualize performance

High-Speed Trains Magnetic levitation n Bullet trains n – France – Japan High-Speed Trains Magnetic levitation n Bullet trains n – France – Japan

Train Speeds Train Speeds

Future Travel n Telecommuting n Air Travel n Space Travel n Time Travel? ? Future Travel n Telecommuting n Air Travel n Space Travel n Time Travel? ?

SUMMARY Widespread gridlock and everexpanding parking lots are not parts of any rational agenda. SUMMARY Widespread gridlock and everexpanding parking lots are not parts of any rational agenda. n The future road network will clearly be more organized, more systematic, safer, more interactive and more efficient. n

REFERENCES – “Ways of the World”, M. G. Lay, 1992. – “Traffic Devices: Historical REFERENCES – “Ways of the World”, M. G. Lay, 1992. – “Traffic Devices: Historical Aspects Thereof”, Gordon M. Sessions, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1971. – “Transportation Milestones and Breakthroughs”, Richard Steins, 1995. – “Facing the Future”, Ian Graham, 1993. – “Stepping Through History”, Peggy Burns and Peter Chrisp, 1995.

Dennis W. Strong, P. E. Strong Concepts 1249 Shermer Road, Suite 100 Northbrook, IL Dennis W. Strong, P. E. Strong Concepts 1249 Shermer Road, Suite 100 Northbrook, IL 60062 -4540 (847) 564 -0386 fax: 564 -0394 [email protected] Concepts. com http: //www. Strong. Concepts. com