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TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION (TNCs) TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION (TNCs)

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION What is a Multinational Corporation? Which of these companies Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION What is a Multinational Corporation? Which of these companies is not truly multinational? Proctor & Gamble Honda Boeing Cemex SA

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION Trading Firms - Facilitators to Multinational Companies Control of Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION Trading Firms - Facilitators to Multinational Companies Control of Joint-stock companies registered in India and working in tea, coal & jute industries, 1911 Name of Managing Agents or Secretary No. of joint-stock companies controlled in Tea Coal Jute Total Andrew Yule & Co. 10 11 6 27 Begg. Dunlop & Co. 10 - 2 12 Bird & Co. - 11 8 19 Shaw Wallace & Co. 2 11 - 13 Williamson, Magor & Co. 10 5 - 15 George, Henderson & Co. 2 - - 2 Planter’s Stores & Agency 1 - - 1 Kilburn & Co. 6 2 - 8 Octavius Steel & Co. 10 2 - 12 Contd…. .

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Name of Managing Agents or Secretary No. of joint-stock companies controlled Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Name of Managing Agents or Secretary No. of joint-stock companies controlled in Tea Coal Jute Total Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co. 1 - 1 2 Kettlewell, Bullen & Co. 1 - 1 2 J. Mackillican & Co. 2 - - 2 C. A. Stewart 4 - - 4 Duncan Bros. 12 - - 12 Davenport & Co. 8 - - 8 Hoare, Miller & Co. 1 3 - 4 Jardine, Skinner & Co. 2 2 2 6 Mc. Leod & Co. 3 5 2 10 Barry & Co. 3 - 1 4 Macneill & Co. - 5 H. V. Low & Co. - 4 Contd…. .

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Name of Managing Agents or Secretary No. of joint-stock companies controlled Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Name of Managing Agents or Secretary No. of joint-stock companies controlled in Tea Coal Jute Total F. W. Heilgers & Co. - 7 2 9 Stanley, Oaks & Co. - 1 Apcar & Co. - - 1 1 Anderson Wright & Co. - 2 1 3 Ernsthausen Ltd. - 1 2 3 Balmer Lawrie & Co. - 4 Martin & Co. - 3 Lyall, Marshall & Co. - 1 N. C. Sircar & Sons - 7 88 87 29 204 Total Source: Private Investment in India, 1900 -1939, A. K. Bagchi, Cambridge University Press, 1972, Pg. 177

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION Enterprise that own or control value-added activities in two Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION Enterprise that own or control value-added activities in two or more countries

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB French economist – Maurice Bye (1958) Transnational Corporation Internationalization of oil Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB French economist – Maurice Bye (1958) Transnational Corporation Internationalization of oil industry–integration of different stages of oil production Edith Penrose In the light of Theory of Growth of Firms rather than a theory of foreign investment. Case of General Motors manufacturing subsidiary in Australia

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Organizing Framework for Previous MNE Definitions Source Attribute Global Transnational Multi- Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Organizing Framework for Previous MNE Definitions Source Attribute Global Transnational Multi- domestic Perlmutter (1969) Management Style Ethnocentric Geocentric Polycentric Kindleberger (1973) Various functional and attitudinal attributes National corporation with foreign operations International -- Multinational Porter (1986) Coordination and configuration needs Global Complex Global -- Multi-domestic Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) Network / Inter -organizational Structure Global Transnational International Multinational Bartlett and Ghoshal (1990) Organizational Structure Centralized Networks Decentralized Hedlund (1986) Organizational Structure Hierarchy (H form) Hierarchy (M Form) Source: The International Business Environment, Sundaram & Black, 1998

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Organizational Characteristics Multinational Global International Transnational Configuration of assets & capabilities Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Organizational Characteristics Multinational Global International Transnational Configuration of assets & capabilities Decentralized & nationally selfsufficient Centralized & globally scaled Sources of core competencies centralized, others decentralized Dispersed, interdependent, & specialized Role of overseas operations Sensing & exploiting local opportunities Implementing parent company strategies Adapting & leveraging parent company competencies Differentiated contributions by national units to integrated worldwide operations Development & diffusion of knowledge Knowledge developed & retained within each unit Knowledge developed & retained at the center Knowledge developed at the center & transferred to overseas units Knowledge developed jointly and shared worldwide Source: Barlett & Ghosal

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Let’s look at a Case LAFARGE: A concrete multinational http: //www. Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Let’s look at a Case LAFARGE: A concrete multinational http: //www. lafarge. com/cgi-bin/lafcom/jsp/home. do? lang=en http: //www. lafarge-india. com/webapp/rainbow/map. jsp

 Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Characteristics of MNEs 1880 s: Multinational enterprises Highly industrialized economies Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Characteristics of MNEs 1880 s: Multinational enterprises Highly industrialized economies of Western Europe and North America Main characteristics of these enterprises Ø Diverse business operation Ø Mixture of large and small firms Ø Both Managerial and Family firms (but later type predominated)

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Ø The MNEs employ a variety of equity and non-equity modes Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Ø The MNEs employ a variety of equity and non-equity modes of investments Ø Natural resources were the primary sector of exploitation like mining, oil exploration and trade in natural products like sugar, banana and rubber Ø Multinational trading companies, banks and utilities grew with time as the main service providers to the pioneers of international business during this time. • Affiliated firms are linked by ties of common ownership • A common pool of resources and And, • A strategic vision that guides all the affiliates

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Location Advantages: Resource allocation based upon the spatial distribution of factor Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Location Advantages: Resource allocation based upon the spatial distribution of factor endowments. Ownership Advantages: Ø Access to new products and processes Ø Superior management and organization technology Ø Access to large finance Ø Economics of large scale

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Distinguishing Aspects of MNEs: Sundaram & Black Multiple sources of external Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Distinguishing Aspects of MNEs: Sundaram & Black Multiple sources of external authority Ø Number of geographic locations Ø Variance in country environments Ø Lack of superstructure to mediate threats or opportunities that arise at the intersection of the variance in country environment Multiple denomination of value Translation exposure (valuation and setting up of past transaction) Ø Transaction exposure (problem of hedging) Ø Economic exposure (impact of unanticipated changes in real exchange rate)

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Why Firms Become Multinational? · To protect themselves from the risks Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Why Firms Become Multinational? · To protect themselves from the risks and uncertainties of the domestic business cycle · To tap the growing world market for goods and services · Increase foreign production · To reduce costs (transport and middlemen) and improve overall efficiency by restructuring existing value-added activities

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB • To overcome tariff walls · To take advantage of technological Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB • To overcome tariff walls · To take advantage of technological expertise by manufacturing goods directly · To restructure existing foreign value added activities, so as to improve overall efficiency and change the range of products produced · To acquire assets that might be complementary to existing assets, or competitive to them, so as to reduce risk, capture the economies of scale or synergy, or generally strengthen the acquiring firms competitive position in national or world markets.

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Strategic Philosophy of MNEs make decisions that are best for the Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Strategic Philosophy of MNEs make decisions that are best for the organization, even if it means transferring funds or jobs to other countries MNEs are considered as stateless corporations

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Examples: Ø IBM has transferred 120 executives and the headquarters of Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Examples: Ø IBM has transferred 120 executives and the headquarters of its $ 10 billion a year communications business to Europe in order to capitalize on the expected growth in Europe. Ø Layoffs in Japanese companies: Nissan, Sony Ø In Japan, Xerox has over 12, 000 employees, Texas Instrument has over 5000 employees, Hewlett-Packard has 3, 000 employees

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Ø In US (1990), about 640 U. S plants that were Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Ø In US (1990), about 640 U. S plants that were either wholly or partially owned by the Japanese, employing about 160, 000 workers Ø By 2000 A. D. , 800, 000 American were employed by the Japanese firms Ø Project involve people from a host of nations

Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Mazda’s Sports car MX-5 Miata: Design - California Prototype - England Amar KJR Nayak/IB/XIMB Mazda’s Sports car MX-5 Miata: Design - California Prototype - England Assembly - Michigan & Mexico Advanced electronic components invented - New Jersey Fabricated - Japan Finance - Tokyo & New York

Different entry modes used by TNCs Source: UNCTAD survey. Different entry modes used by TNCs Source: UNCTAD survey.

Foreign direct investment (FDI) The purchase or construction of factories and other fixed asset Foreign direct investment (FDI) The purchase or construction of factories and other fixed asset by TNCs

Distribution of FDI Source: UNCTAD survey. BRICs dominate the top 5 most attractive economies Distribution of FDI Source: UNCTAD survey. BRICs dominate the top 5 most attractive economies for FDI

Locational Criterion For market growth, developing and transition economies E. g. China, India, Brazil, Locational Criterion For market growth, developing and transition economies E. g. China, India, Brazil, the Russian Federation, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Poland Thailand. For market size, the largest economies are favored, either developed ones (E. g. the United States, Germany and Canada) or emerging ones (E. g. China, the Russian Federation and Brazil). ….

Source: UNCTAD survey. Size and growth of market are the major location determinants Source: UNCTAD survey. Size and growth of market are the major location determinants

TNCs’ Impact TNCs’ Impact

FACT & FIGURE 62 000 TNCs 900 000 foreign affiliates 56 million workers 19 FACT & FIGURE 62 000 TNCs 900 000 foreign affiliates 56 million workers 19 trillion in sales 1/10 of world GDP 1/3 of world export TNCs become ever-more important in the globalizing world space economy

1. The direct impact of TNCs is limited to relatively few countries and regions 1. The direct impact of TNCs is limited to relatively few countries and regions FDI (foreign direct investment): the investment by TNC to other countries For developing country: <30% (early of 21 st century) 42% (2012) majority: South, Southeast and East Asia, Latin American and Caribbean For least developed country: 1%(1994) 8%(2013) The vast majority of FDI still flows not to the poor or developing worlds but to the rich

1. The direct impact of TNCs is limited to relatively few countries and regions 1. The direct impact of TNCs is limited to relatively few countries and regions WHY? TNCs actively engaged in Merge and Acquisition in already developed foreign market areas HOWEVER in 2013, FDI for developed country declined (<50% of the peak in 2001) FDI in Asia rose by over 6%

2. The worldwide impact of their consolidation is significant Focus in few industries: computers, 2. The worldwide impact of their consolidation is significant Focus in few industries: computers, electronics, petroleum and mining, motor vehicle, chemical and pharmaceuticals, etc. In raw materials: few TNC account for 85% of world trade World pharmaceutical industry: dominated by just 6 firms Automobiles producer: 15 firms( early 21 st ) 5 or 10 (2015)

Comparative advantage of TNC Most TNCs operate in a few industries (computers, electronics…. ) Comparative advantage of TNC Most TNCs operate in a few industries (computers, electronics…. ) Some dominate the marketing and distribution of basic and specialized commodities For example: in raw materials, a few TCNs account for 85% or more of world trade in wheat, maize, coffee… In manufacturing, pharmaceutical industry is dominated by just six firms The world’s 15 major automobile producers at the start of the 21 st century, it has been predicted, will fall to five or 10 by 2015

Comparative advantage of TNCs actively exploit the principle of comparative advantage They produce in Comparative advantage of TNCs actively exploit the principle of comparative advantage They produce in that country or region where costs of materials, labor, or other production inputs are minimized Maintaining operational control and declaring taxes in localities where the economic climate is most favorable Research and development, accounting, and other corporate activities are placed wherever economical and convenient.