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Toward Regionally Coherent Livestock and Pro-pastoralism Programs in East Africa ECHO Drought Risk Reduction Workshop Nairobi, May 11, 2010
Regional Enhanced Livelihoods in Pastoral Areas (RELPA) Program – 2007 - 2010 USAID/East Africa & LPC Somalia USAID/Ethiopia USAID/Kenya COMESA / CAADP
RELPA Program Activity Areas A. COMESA Secretariat: Regional Policy Engagement CAADP Pillar 3: Vulnerable Pastoral Populations, Food Security CAADP Roundtable Process -- Ethiopia T e c h. S t e e r in g Pillar 3 / Livestock Advisor CAADP Roundtable Process -- Kenya L iv e Livestock st Trade &. Disease & P a s t Human o Assets r al is m B. Pastoral Areas Coordination, Analysis and Policy Support Coordination & Analysis Conflict Mitigation Early Warning & Response Natural Assets Social & Assets C o o r d. C o m m. Sustainable Livelihoods in Mandera Triangle C. Enhanced Livelihoods in Mandera Triangle: ELMT Ethiopia F o r a Somalia Kenya D. Recovery to Enhanced Livelihoods: OFDA Physical Assets Financial Assets
RELPA | PACAPS Pastoral Areas Coordination, Analysis, and Policy Support Main Result Areas: • Regional coordination, analysis, and policy support • Regional early warning / early response = livelihoods support • Regional livestock trade and pastoralism policy • Strengthened cross-border animal health service delivery, disease surveillance and epizootic disease contingency plans in the Mandera Triangle
Regional Enhanced Livelihoods in Pastoral Areas (RELPA) - FY 2007 -2010 Some Key Achievements: • A major paradigm shift has occurred in COMESA and CAADP, now showing vastly increased support to and understanding of the importance of pastoral livelihoods and livestock trade • Key livestock and pastoralism policy issues have been endorsed by Councils of Ministers of Agriculture and Environment • COMESA adocating a regional approach and mechanism to address transboundary animal diseases in cooperation with Middle East livestock trade partners and other key stakeholders • RELPA / ELMT achieved breakthrough working with CEWARN in organizing the recent cross-border peace framework meeting held in Moyale • Leveraging of ECHO funds’ Regional Drought Decision program, e. g. RREAD project co-hosted by ELMT Regional Coord. Unit.
Some Key Achievements (cont’d): • Launch of Horn of Africa Pastoral Network by PACAPS. • Strong interest -- 28 partner bodies joined the organizational efforts • To promote collective action towards long-term regionally coherent pastoral development strategies • ELMT’s monthly Bulletin and website will be continued under Ho. A Pastoral Network • ECHO’s RDD Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Advocacy Project (REGLAP) has agreed to continue the Ho. A PN.
Some COMESA Results with RELPA • CAADP processes in Ethiopia, and Kenya – raising “pastoral profile” • Livestock & pastoralism among top 3 Agricultural investment priorities • Mo. U signed between COMESA and Gulf Cooperation Council on Livestock Trade with the Horn of Africa • Facilitating live animal export to Middle East and meat commodity trade within Africa – Saudi Arabia lifted ban • COMESA Policy Framework for Food Security in Pastoralist Areas • Alliance for Commodity Trade in E&S Africa (ACTESA) formed, incl. a livestock program
Selected RELPA Evaluation Recommendations • Cross border trade in livestock should be institutionalized and accepted as a formal business. • Focus on the livestock value chain, linking producers to market, and reducing barriers to trade. • The private sector has a significant role to play for the improvement of pastoral livestock marketing, and governments should provide an enabling environment to encourage and promote its full participation. • There should be deliberate pro-pastoral policies designed to mitigate the myriad of constraints in pastoral areas in a holistic way.
Future of Pastoralism in Horn of Africa ü Transformative wide-area pastoralism-favoring management “lifescapes” to govern access to wet and dry season grazing ü Mobilitity is key to the health of rangelands and dynamics of livestock trade ü Support to this mobility does not need large amounts of finance but a change in mindsets of policymakers and donors. ü Healing the land with livestock: tillers, seeders and fertilizers ü Holistic planned grazing through customary drylands management systems ü Integrally linked to livelihoods, trade and peace maintenance support structures, full government buy-in to community-led productivity initiatives ü Foster private entrepreneurship, e. g. , private veterinary services fodder production & greatly expanded haymaking and storage practices
Challenges/Opportunities: • Achieving true regional synergies and more holistic paradigm-shifting approaches to reversing the downward spiral in drylands • Transformative ideas need much greater emphasis, e. g. , ways to revive customary community institutions, land tenure, trade, livelihoods and peace initiatives must be linked • Truly effective coordination, synchrony, linkages across actors, collective action
Beyond RELPA • East Africa Mission developing a Regional Pastoralism and Livestock program • USAID/Ethiopia scaling up its investment in livestock and pastoralism • USAID in Somalia, Tanzania & Uganda starting up new pastoralism/livestock program • Coordination with ECHO Regional Drought Decision (RDD) program 2008 -10 • COMESA/ACTESA mainstreaming Livestock and Pastoralism Forum • CAADP legacy will continue consolidation and investment in pastoral and drylands affairs