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Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Unit 1: The Chinese Language Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Unit 1: The Chinese Language

Noménclature · Mandarin - Guanhua, an official language used in the court, the language Noménclature · Mandarin - Guanhua, an official language used in the court, the language of officials · Guoyu - National language. · Putonghua - Common Speech, Common Language · Huayu or Huawen – Singapore or overseas · Hanwen – used in Korea and Japan · Zhongguohua – Languages in China · Zhongwen – alternative to Hanyu, focusing on written language

Current status and Future l l l Hanyu is used by 720 million people Current status and Future l l l Hanyu is used by 720 million people 70% of the population of China speak Hanyu One fifth of world population speak Hanyu (885 million ) 12. 18. 1973, U. N. General Assembly, 28 th Session resolution: Chinese is one of the working languages of U. N. Mandarin belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family Mandarin will become the major language in Asia in the 21 century.

Varieties • • Northern (Mandarin)-Beijing Wu-Shanghai Min Southern - Fuzhou Min Northen - Xiamen Varieties • • Northern (Mandarin)-Beijing Wu-Shanghai Min Southern - Fuzhou Min Northen - Xiamen Yue (Cantonese)- Guangzhou Kejia (Hakka) Xiang - Changsha Gan - Nanchang

Features and characteristics l Pronunciation l Vocabulary l Grammar Features and characteristics l Pronunciation l Vocabulary l Grammar

Pronunciation l The number of syllables are limited: 432. There are 1376 syllables if Pronunciation l The number of syllables are limited: 432. There are 1376 syllables if all tonal variation is taken into account. (Liu, 1957) l Vowels are predominant. l There are four tones in Mandarin.

The number of syllables are limited l The total number of syllables is 432 The number of syllables are limited l The total number of syllables is 432 if tones are not taken into consideration. l There are 1376 syllables if all tonal variation is taken into account l Examples: – a, ma, ba, ren, nong, ti, shang (See Xiandai Hanyu Cidan, the syllable table, pp. 7 -12)

Vowels are predominant l Vowels are predominant – lǎo, miáo, lèi l One syllable Vowels are predominant l Vowels are predominant – lǎo, miáo, lèi l One syllable has at most two consonants – nóng – consonants: [n] and [ng] l There are no consonant clusters – [sp] ‘speak’ – [st] ‘steak’ – [kst] ‘text’

Four tones in Mandarin mā 妈 má 麻 mǎ 马 mà 骂 mmother hemp Four tones in Mandarin mā 妈 má 麻 mǎ 马 mà 骂 mmother hemp horse to scold

There are five tones in Shanghai dialect. There are nine tones in Cantonese dialect. There are five tones in Shanghai dialect. There are nine tones in Cantonese dialect.

An interesting story written by Chao Yuenren using one syllable 石室詩士施氏﹐ 嗜獅﹐ 誓食十獅。氏時時適市視獅。十時﹐ 適十 An interesting story written by Chao Yuenren using one syllable 石室詩士施氏﹐ 嗜獅﹐ 誓食十獅。氏時時適市視獅。十時﹐ 適十 獅適市。是時﹐ 適施氏適市。氏視是十獅﹐ 恃矢勢﹐ 使是十獅逝 世。氏拾是十獅尸﹐ 適石室。石室濕﹐ 氏使侍拭石室。石室拭﹐ 氏始試食是十獅。食時﹐ 始識是十獅屍﹐ 實石獅屍。試釋是事。( 趙元任《語言問題》商務印書館 1980. p. 149) Shí shì shī shì, shì shī, shì shí shī. Shì shí shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì. Shì shí, shì Shī shì shì. Shì shì shí shī, shì shì, shǐ shì shí shī shì. Shì shí shī shū, shì shí shì. Shí shì, shì shǐ shì shù shí shì. Shí shì, shì shǐ shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shì shí shī, shí shī. Shì shì shì.

Translation of “SHI” story The poet Mr. Shi who lived in a stone house Translation of “SHI” story The poet Mr. Shi who lived in a stone house liked to eat lions. He swore that he would eat ten lions. He went to the market often to look for lions. At ten o’clock, it happened that ten lions were in the market. At that time, Mr. Shi happened to arrive in the market too. Mr. Shi looked at the ten lions and he shoot the ten lions with arrows. He picked the dead bodies of the ten lions and returned to his stone house. The stone house was wet. He made the servant to clean the room. After the room was cleaned, he began to try to eat these ten lions. Only by the time of eating, he found that these dead bodies of lions were actually stone lions. Try to explain this story.

Vocabulary Morpheme – the smallest meaningful unit of a language. A morpheme in Chinese Vocabulary Morpheme – the smallest meaningful unit of a language. A morpheme in Chinese is a syllable (may or may not be a word. ) l Free Morpheme – can be used as a word by itself l Bound Morpheme – used only as an attachment to another morpheme l

Most words in morden Chinese are disyllabic 老師 學習 學校 醫院 報紙 lǎoshī xuéxí Most words in morden Chinese are disyllabic 老師 學習 學校 醫院 報紙 lǎoshī xuéxí xuéxiào yīyuàn bàozhǐ teacher to study school hospital newspaper

Most words in ancient Chinese were monosyllabic l衣 l車 l人 l日 l見 l者 l之 Most words in ancient Chinese were monosyllabic l衣 l車 l人 l日 l見 l者 l之 yī, clothing, to dress chē, vehicle rén, person rì, sun jiàn, to see zhě, –er zhī of

Script l Non-phonetic: a character has no clue to its pronunciation l Ideographic or Script l Non-phonetic: a character has no clue to its pronunciation l Ideographic or pictographic: characters are derived from the pictures l The writing unit is character. Characters can be written vertically or horizontally, from left to write, from right to left, or from top to bottom

A character has no clue to its pronunciation 豳 A character has no clue to its pronunciation 豳

A character has no clue to its pronunciation 豳 bīn A character has no clue to its pronunciation 豳 bīn

Characters are derived from pictures Characters are derived from pictures

Characters can be written horizontally, from left to write or from right to left Characters can be written horizontally, from left to write or from right to left

Characters can be written vertically from top to bottom Characters can be written vertically from top to bottom

Guwen Guanzhi – An Anthology of Ancient Chinese Guwen Guanzhi – An Anthology of Ancient Chinese

Various styles of writing Various styles of writing

Grammar l Topic-prominent l No inflection l The word order is important S+V+O l Grammar l Topic-prominent l No inflection l The word order is important S+V+O l The use of measure words (classifiers) l Left-branching

Topic-prominent John, wǒ rènshi. [John, I know. ] Zhè běn shū, wǒ kàn le Topic-prominent John, wǒ rènshi. [John, I know. ] Zhè běn shū, wǒ kàn le sān biàn. [This book, I read three times. ]

No Inflection l English – work, works, working, worked l Chinese – gōngzuò 作 No Inflection l English – work, works, working, worked l Chinese – gōngzuò 作

The word order is important S+V+O S V O Māma ài wǒ. 媽媽愛我。 [Mother The word order is important S+V+O S V O Māma ài wǒ. 媽媽愛我。 [Mother loves me. ] Wǒ ài māma. 我愛媽媽。 [I love mother. ]

Large quantity of measure words yī gè péngyou a friend yī zhāng zhǐ a Large quantity of measure words yī gè péngyou a friend yī zhāng zhǐ a sheet of paper yī bǎ dāo a knife yī tiáo qúnzi a skirt yī jiàn chènshān a shirt

Language in Contact l Influence from Altaic: SVO order l Power to form new Language in Contact l Influence from Altaic: SVO order l Power to form new words l Load words

Influence from Altaic The word order SOV is influenced by Altaic language Influence from Altaic The word order SOV is influenced by Altaic language

Power to form new words When new words were introduced to Chinese, most words Power to form new words When new words were introduced to Chinese, most words were translated into Chinese and the new words were coined based on the meaning of each character. telephone 電話 diànhuà television 電視 diànshì computer 電腦 diànnǎo laser 激光 jīguāng railway 鐵路 tiělù electric speech electric vision electric brain activated beam iron road

load words radar model pound shock humor cola sofa léidá mótèěr bàng xiūkè 休克 load words radar model pound shock humor cola sofa léidá mótèěr bàng xiūkè 休克 yōumò kělè shāfā 沙發 雷達 模特兒 磅 幽默 可樂

Words borrowed form other langauges From Miao-Yao 炕 kàng – a brick bed 虎 Words borrowed form other langauges From Miao-Yao 炕 kàng – a brick bed 虎 hǔ – tiger From Altaic 犢 dú – little cow From Proto-Thai 象 xiàng - elephant From India: 葡萄 pútáo - grapes Modern Persian: bāda ‘wine’ Iranian prototype budāwa or bādāwa From India: 茉莉 mòlì – jasmine flower Sanscrit: mallikā

Reading assingments 1. Norman Chapter 1 2. Chinese Profile http: //www. lmp. ucla. edu/profiles/profm Reading assingments 1. Norman Chapter 1 2. Chinese Profile http: //www. lmp. ucla. edu/profiles/profm 02. htm 3. The Chinese Languages http: //www. chinalanguage. com/Language/ chinese. html

Review questions for Unit I 1. Explain the following terms: Guanhua, Mandarin, Putonghua, Guoyu, Review questions for Unit I 1. Explain the following terms: Guanhua, Mandarin, Putonghua, Guoyu, Hanyu, Zhongguohua, Zhongwen, Huayu 2. How many people speak Mandarin? Where are they? 3. What language family does Chinese belong to? 4. Is Chinese language a unique language? What are the varieties of Chinese? 5. What are typological characteristics of Chinese? 6. Give some examples to show the linguistic features of Chinese in terms of pronunciation, words and grammar. 7. In what way is Chinese influenced by other languages?