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Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Topic 4: Vocabulary Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Topic 4: Vocabulary

Basic concepts n Morpheme: A morpheme is a smallest meaningful unit in a language. Basic concepts n Morpheme: A morpheme is a smallest meaningful unit in a language. It may be lexical or rammatical: 女 nǚ lexical,子 zǐ lexcical or grammtical,

Bound vs. free morphemes: n Free: morphemes that can be uttered independently and used Bound vs. free morphemes: n Free: morphemes that can be uttered independently and used freely. 人 rén person. n Bound: always occur in conjunction with another morpheme. 子 -zǐ as in 兒子 érzi. n

Prefix: n Any affix that appears before a free morpheme. un-happy, 老師 lǎo-shī n Prefix: n Any affix that appears before a free morpheme. un-happy, 老師 lǎo-shī n Suffix: n Any affix that appears at the end of a word. work-s, 兒子 ér-zi n

n Derivational and inflectional affixes: n Derivational affixes produce a word; happy => un-happy, n Derivational and inflectional affixes: n Derivational affixes produce a word; happy => un-happy, work=> work-er, n Inflectional affixes attach grammatical meanings to the word. work=>work-ing

n Characters n A Chinese character is a morphemes (either free or bound) n n Characters n A Chinese character is a morphemes (either free or bound) n A character is not necessarily a word. 我 wǒ is a word 們 men is not a word, but a morpheme, a suffix. n Chinese words mostly are two-morpheme words. 中國 Zhōngguó 地圖 dìtú 學生 xuésheng

Words: has a specific meaning and can be used freely. n Monosyllabic words n Words: has a specific meaning and can be used freely. n Monosyllabic words n 人 rén person n 吃 chī to eat n 我 wǒ I M n Disyllabic words n 鼻子 bízi nose n 桌子 zhuōzi table n 官兒 guānr an official n 老師 lǎoshī teacher n

老虎 lǎohǔ tiger n 第一 dìyī first n 人人 rénrén everybody n 黑板 hēibǎn 老虎 lǎohǔ tiger n 第一 dìyī first n 人人 rénrén everybody n 黑板 hēibǎn blackboard n 圖書館 túshūguǎn library n Note: n A Chinese word contains at least one morpheme. n The word boundary is hard to detect in Chinese, not marked by spaces between the words like English. n

n Word classes n Full words vs. empty (functional) words 實詞虛 詞 n All n Word classes n Full words vs. empty (functional) words 實詞虛 詞 n All grammatical words are empty (functional) words. The rest words are full (lexical) words.

n Full words nouns 名詞 n verbs 動詞 n adjectives 形容詞 n nemerals 數詞 n Full words nouns 名詞 n verbs 動詞 n adjectives 形容詞 n nemerals 數詞 n measures 量詞 n pronouns- personal and demonstratives 代詞 n

n Empty words adverbs 副詞 只,漸漸,很,不,沒,最 n prepositions 介詞 在,上 n conjunctions 連詞 和,而且 n Empty words adverbs 副詞 只,漸漸,很,不,沒,最 n prepositions 介詞 在,上 n conjunctions 連詞 和,而且 n particles 助詞 的,嗎,吧,得 n interjections 感嘆詞 啊, n onomatopoeia 象聲詞 嘩啦, n

Word formation Derivation: morpheme plus preffix or suffix n prefixes: n 老- lǎo n Word formation Derivation: morpheme plus preffix or suffix n prefixes: n 老- lǎo n 老師 lǎoshī teacher n 老鼠 lǎoshǔ mouse n 第- dì n 第一 dìyī first n 第二 dìèr second n 阿- ā n 阿妹 āmèi sister n 阿大 ādà first brother n

suffixes: n -子zǐ n 桌子zhuòzi table n 椅子 yǐzi chair n -兒ér n 花兒 suffixes: n -子zǐ n 桌子zhuòzi table n 椅子 yǐzi chair n -兒ér n 花兒 huār flower n 飯館兒fànguǎr restaurant n

-家jiā n 作家zuòjiā writer n 畫家huàjiā painter n -主義zhǔyì n 共產主義 gòngchǎnzhǔyì communism n -家jiā n 作家zuòjiā writer n 畫家huàjiā painter n -主義zhǔyì n 共產主義 gòngchǎnzhǔyì communism n 資本主義 zīběnzhǔyì capitalism n -學xué n 語言學 yǔyánxué linguistics n 物理學 wùlǐxué physics n

infixes: n 胡里胡塗 húlǐ-hútú n 古里古怪 gǔlǐ-gǔguài n 吃不消 chī-bu-xiāo n 來不及 lái-bu-jí n infixes: n 胡里胡塗 húlǐ-hútú n 古里古怪 gǔlǐ-gǔguài n 吃不消 chī-bu-xiāo n 來不及 lái-bu-jí n 對不起 duì-bu-qǐ n

n Compounding Coordinating 並列: n 父母 聲音 大小 買賣 n fù-mǔ shēng-yīng dà-xiǎo mǎi-mài n Compounding Coordinating 並列: n 父母 聲音 大小 買賣 n fù-mǔ shēng-yīng dà-xiǎo mǎi-mài n father-mother voice-sound big-small buy-sell n

n Subordinating 偏正: modifier and modified 修飾與被修飾: n 電話 火車 熱愛 晚會 n diàn-huà n Subordinating 偏正: modifier and modified 修飾與被修飾: n 電話 火車 熱愛 晚會 n diàn-huà huǒ-chē rè-ài wǎn-huì n electric-speech fire-vehicle hot-love eveningmeeting n

n Subordinating 偏正: subject-predicative 主謂: n 地震,頭疼,眼花, n dì-zhèn, tóu-téng, yǎn-huā n earth-vibrate, head-hurt, n Subordinating 偏正: subject-predicative 主謂: n 地震,頭疼,眼花, n dì-zhèn, tóu-téng, yǎn-huā n earth-vibrate, head-hurt, eye-blur n

n Subordinating 偏正: verb-object 動賓: n 吃飯,放心,傷心,吹牛 n chī-fàn, fàng-xīn, shāng-xīn, chuī-niú n eat-rice, n Subordinating 偏正: verb-object 動賓: n 吃飯,放心,傷心,吹牛 n chī-fàn, fàng-xīn, shāng-xīn, chuī-niú n eat-rice, put down-heart, hurt-heart, blow-cow n

n Subordinating 偏正: verb-complement 動補: n 打破,放大,改正,說明 n dǎ-pò, fàng-dà, gǎi-zhèng, shuō-míng n hit-break, n Subordinating 偏正: verb-complement 動補: n 打破,放大,改正,說明 n dǎ-pò, fàng-dà, gǎi-zhèng, shuō-míng n hit-break, make-large, change-correct, state-clear n

Reduplication 重疊 n Verbs 動詞: n 等等,看看,想想,說說 n děng-děng, kàn-kàn, xiǎng-xiǎng, shuō-shuō n wait, Reduplication 重疊 n Verbs 動詞: n 等等,看看,想想,說說 n děng-děng, kàn-kàn, xiǎng-xiǎng, shuō-shuō n wait, look, think, say n

Nounds 名詞: n 爸爸,媽媽,人人,天天,家家戶戶 n bà-ba, mā-ma, rén-rén, tiān-tiān, jiājiā-hùhù n father, mother, person-person, Nounds 名詞: n 爸爸,媽媽,人人,天天,家家戶戶 n bà-ba, mā-ma, rén-rén, tiān-tiān, jiājiā-hùhù n father, mother, person-person, day-day, family-household-houesehold n

Adjectives 形容詞: n AABB: n 高高興興,干干淨淨 n gāogāo-xìng, gāngān-jìng n high-spirited, dry-clean n ABB: Adjectives 形容詞: n AABB: n 高高興興,干干淨淨 n gāogāo-xìng, gāngān-jìng n high-spirited, dry-clean n ABB: n 紅通通,白茫茫,綠油油,黑乎乎,髒兮 兮 n hóng-tōng, bái-máng, lǜ-yóuyóu, hēihūhū, zāng-xīxī n red-thorough, white-vast expanse, green-lush, black-dusky, dirt-xixi n

AAB: n Adverbs 副詞: n 慢慢地﹐ 快快地﹐ 好好地 n mànmànde, kuàide, hǎohǎode n slow-de, AAB: n Adverbs 副詞: n 慢慢地﹐ 快快地﹐ 好好地 n mànmànde, kuàide, hǎohǎode n slow-de, fast-de, good-de n

Synonyms and antonyms n n n n Synonyms – words with the exact same Synonyms and antonyms n n n n Synonyms – words with the exact same meaning speech – 演講,講演 yánjiǎng, jiǎngyǎn perform-speak, speak-perform bike – 自行車,腳踏車 zìxíngchē, jiǎotàchē self-move-vehicle, foot-peddle-vehicle Vitamin – 維他命,維生素 wéitāmìng, wéishēngsù maintain his life, maintain life elements

Synonyms – words with a similar meaning n to take n 拿-取 n ná-qǔ Synonyms – words with a similar meaning n to take n 拿-取 n ná-qǔ n to present (a gift) n 贈-送 n zèng, sòng n

to eat n 吃-食 n chī, shí n to attemp n 打算-企圖 n dǎsuàn, to eat n 吃-食 n chī, shí n to attemp n 打算-企圖 n dǎsuàn, qǐtú n to be proud of, to be arrogant n 驕傲-自豪-自滿 n jiāo’ào, zìháo, zìmǎn n

Antonyms – words with opposite meanings n 大-小,長-短,高-低,好-壞 n dà-xiǎo, cháng-duǎn, gāo-dī, hǎo-huài n Antonyms – words with opposite meanings n 大-小,長-短,高-低,好-壞 n dà-xiǎo, cháng-duǎn, gāo-dī, hǎo-huài n big-small, long-short, high-low, good-bad n 浪費-節約,吝嗇-慷慨,痛苦-快樂, 謙虛-驕傲 n làngfèi-jiéyuē, lìnsè-kāngkǎi, tòngkǔ-kuàilè, qiānxū-jiāo’ào n waste-save, stingy-generous, pain and sufferhappy, modest-arrogant n

春-秋,黑-白,黑-紅? n chūn-qiū, hēi-bái, hēi-hóng n spring-fall, black-white, black-red? n 春-秋,黑-白,黑-紅? n chūn-qiū, hēi-bái, hēi-hóng n spring-fall, black-white, black-red? n

Words that form a continuum n 冰-寒-冷-涼-溫-暖-熱-燙 n bīng-hán-lěng-liáng-wēn-nuǎn-rè-tàng n icy-cold-cool-warm-hot n Words that form a continuum n 冰-寒-冷-涼-溫-暖-熱-燙 n bīng-hán-lěng-liáng-wēn-nuǎn-rè-tàng n icy-cold-cool-warm-hot n

n Hyponyms Words within a same category, with a hierarchy. The words within a n Hyponyms Words within a same category, with a hierarchy. The words within a category under another word are hyponyms of the word at the upper level. n Animal n n n dog cat pig . . .

Idioms n n n n Four character idioms chéngyǔ 四字成語 狐假虎威 hú-jià-hǔ-wēi the fox Idioms n n n n Four character idioms chéngyǔ 四字成語 狐假虎威 hú-jià-hǔ-wēi the fox assuming the majesty of tiger – borrowing the power to do evil 一鳴驚人 yì-míng-jīng-rén to make one’s mark at the first shot, to amaze the world with a single brilliant feat 南轅北轍 nán-yuán-běi-zhè to go south by driving the chariot north, means and ends opposed, practice diametrically opposed to preaching. *Chinese chéngyǔ may function as nouns or verbs.

Proverbs yànyǔ 諺語 n Proverbs are sentences with classical origin or a special philosophical Proverbs yànyǔ 諺語 n Proverbs are sentences with classical origin or a special philosophical meaning or implications. n 活到老﹐ 學到老。 n Huó dào lǎo, xué dào lǎo. n Learn as long as you live. n

Xiòuyǔ 歇後語 n A special expression composed by two parts. The first part is Xiòuyǔ 歇後語 n A special expression composed by two parts. The first part is a statement or a description. The second part is the essence of the expression. n 老鼠過街﹐ 人人喊打。 n Lǎoshǔ guō jiē, rénrén hǎn dǎ. n When rats are running across the street, every body yells: “Kill them!” (to be chased by all like a rat running across the street. ) n

和尚打傘-無法無天。 n Héshang dǎ sǎn – wú fǎ wú tiān. n A monk holds 和尚打傘-無法無天。 n Héshang dǎ sǎn – wú fǎ wú tiān. n A monk holds an umbrella – there is no hair (rhymed with ‘law’) and sky. n

Assignment Unit 4 homework due 10/28 n See course page Assignment n http: //www. Assignment Unit 4 homework due 10/28 n See course page Assignment n http: //www. csulb. edu/~txie/380 homewor k 4. doc n