- Количество слайдов: 28
Topic: Reasons for and Types of Migration • Aim: Why do people migrate? • Do Now: Why would you move away from home after high school (or not)? “Little Haiti”, Miami, Florida
Movement vs. Migration • Write down (in a few sentences) your physical movements in a given day. – For example, I would write “I leave my house in Montclair, get in my car and drive to Verona…” • Flip it over and draw a simple diagram
Activity Space of Each Family Member
Movement vs. Migration • Activity space – A daily routine that takes a person through a sequence of short moves • Sort of a functional region! – Can be influenced by culture • Members on one ethnic group may display a spatially distinct activity space • Cyclic movement – Commuting, e. g. • Seasonal movement – “Where do you summer? ”, e. g. • Nomadism – Water sources, pastures
Migration • When movement results in a permanent relocation across significant distances • Emigration vs. Immigration – migration from a location vs. migration to a location • Place “A” can have individuals migrating away from and to it. Emigrant: Place A → Place B Immigrant: Place B → Place A
Reasons for Migration
Why Do People Migrate? • Two types of factors, often working in combination – Push factors induce people to move out of their present location – Pull factors induce people to move into a new location • Three major types of push and pull factors 1. Political 2. Environmental 3. Economic © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Factors of Place Desirability Less-desirable places More-desirable places What are some of the "more-desirable places" to migrate to within your state, province, or country? * What are some of the "less-desirable places" to migrate to within your state, province, or country?
What are push factors of migration? Unfavorable characteristics of a locale that contribute to the dissatisfaction of its residents and impel their emigration Examples: widespread unemployment; poverty; discrimination; political unrest; war; famine and/or drought; land shortage; overpopulation
What are pull factors of migration? • Characteristics of a locale that act as attractive forces, drawing migrants from other places Examples: employment opportunities; political and/or personal freedoms (speech; religion, right to vote, etc. ); land; amenities (e. g. retirement) n. Many people move based on excessively positive images and expectations – not always accurate n
Article Assignment Reminders • Identify the article! • “Article Title, ” Author, Publication, date • Key concepts – Must analyze > 3 – Unit Syllabus, textbook – Should be relevant to week’s topics – Please highlight the terms
E. G. RAVENSTEIN (1834 - 1913) British sociologist Do now = READING CHECK: What are his LAWS OF MIGRATION? – Most migrants go only a short distance • Distance decay – People will travel farther if they are migrating to a city – Rural inhabitants are more likely to migrate than urban – Families are less likely to make international moves – Most international migrants are young males • Less valid today than when first proposed. Females now comprise between 40 -60% of all international migrants worldwide – Most people migrate for economic reasons
Economic Factors: The most common reason for migration. Migrants will often risk their lives in hopes of economic opportunities that will enable them to send money home (remittances) to their family members who remain behind.
Economic Migration: Ireland
Net In/Out Migration • Difference between emigrants and immigrants is net migration • If immigrants exceed emigrants, net migration is (+) and called net-in migration • If reversed, net migration is (-) and called net-out migration
Migrant workers in Southwest Asia: Many migrant workers have died in this region over the last several years, due to extremely poor working conditions. The Philippine government considers only two countries in this region “safe” for Filipino migrant workers – Israel and Oman.
Political Factors • Voluntary – Push • Persecution, unrest – Pull • Rights, freedoms • Forced – Push • Slavery • Refugee – Forced to migrate to avoid violence or disaster • Internally displaced person (IDP) – Like a refugee, but within borders • Asylum seeker – Seeks to be recognized as refugee
Environmental Factors Migrants from Hurricane Katrina • Pulled – towards attractive physical environments (mountains, proximity to water, etc) • Pushed – due to environmental disasters, pollution, lack of resources (clean water, etc). • The ‘Dust Bowl’ of the 1930’s, e. g.
In Montserrat, a 1995 volcano made the southern half of the island, including the capital city of Plymouth, uninhabitable. People who remained migrated to the north or to the U. S.
Types of Migration
Migration can be divided into two categories: 1. International Migration – Permanent move from one country to another • Voluntary • Forced 2. Internal Migration – Permanent move within the same country • Interregional • Intraregional © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
INTERNATIONAL AND INTERNAL MIGRATION • Mexico has international migration into the country from Central America and out of the country to the United States. • Mexico also has internal migration, especially interregional migration to states near the U. S. border and intraregional migration into Mexico City. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Internal Migration: U. S. • Seniors: adopt a sophomore, junior, or both • Brainstorm internal migrations throughout U. S. history – Westward migration mid-1800 s – “Great migration” African-Americans after Civil War moved north and west • Has been reversing recently – Sun Belt – Trail of Tears, etc. – Native Americans move west – Slaves being “sold down the river” • Invention of the cotton gin shifts southern economy to deep south
CHANGING CENTER OF U. S. POPULATION The population center is the average location of everyone in the country, the “center of population gravity. ” If the United States were a flat plane placed on top of a pin, and each individual weighed the same, the population center would be the point where the population distribution causes the flat plane to balance on the head of a pin. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Voluntary vs. Forced Migration 1. Voluntary migration – The migrant makes the decision to move – Most migration is voluntary – Push and pull factors determine whom and where 2. Forced Migration – Involuntary migration in which the mover has no role in the decision-making process • • • Slavery Human trafficking Refugees Military conscription Children of migrants
Texas Textbook Controversy
Intervening Obstacles • Intervening obstacles, which hinder migration, can be categorized into two types. 1. Environmental Featurei. e. , mountain, ocean, or distance 2. Political Feature- i. e. , countries require proper documentation to leave one country and gain entry in another
Reviewing your migration story • What were the push factors? • What were the pull factors? • What were the intervening obstacles?