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Topic Maps: What Works and What Doesn’t? 31 October 2007 A 304 - 2: Topic Maps: What Works and What Doesn’t? 31 October 2007 A 304 - 2: 45 -3: 30 PM PDT Presented by Jay Ven Eman, Ph. D. , CEO Access Innovations, Inc. / Data Harmony 505. 998. 0800 / www. accessinn. com / www. dataharmony. com [email protected] com

New Technologies o o Meta data W 3 C n n o OWL SKOS New Technologies o o Meta data W 3 C n n o OWL SKOS Topic Maps Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Meta data o o What is it in this context? How does it work Meta data o o What is it in this context? How does it work in a semantic environment? Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

“Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Semantic Web? October 31, 2007 “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” By Semantic Web? October 31, 2007 “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” By About Smith Professional baseball Entertainment Business Summary In Story brief. . . Arial 1. 98 Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

1. 98? o o Price? Price of what? n n n o o $, 1. 98? o o Price? Price of what? n n n o o $, , Ÿ, £? Wholesale? Retail? Sale? How? ? o Newspaper? Stadium seat? Article? Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

“Meaning” starts with a knowledge organization system (KOS) o o o SKOS Uncontrolled list “Meaning” starts with a knowledge organization system (KOS) o o o SKOS Uncontrolled list Name authority file Synonym set/ring Controlled vocabulary Taxonomy Thesaurus Topic Map Ontology LOTS OF OVERLAP! Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Not complex - $ Highly complex - $$$$

Meta Data - the “Meaning Markers” o o Data about data Information about information Meta Data - the “Meaning Markers” o o Data about data Information about information Included Added Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Data about ‘stuff’ - like what? o o o Author name Date of creation Data about ‘stuff’ - like what? o o o Author name Date of creation Language used in the creation Title of the creation Subject of the creation Keywords. . . Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Narrowing the focus o Keywords (AKA subject headings, index terms, identifiers, etc. ) are Narrowing the focus o Keywords (AKA subject headings, index terms, identifiers, etc. ) are one type of meta data. Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

For example. . . o A bibliographic database record usually includes information such as For example. . . o A bibliographic database record usually includes information such as author, title, language, date of creation, and subject area. o So does a traditional library card catalog Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

But did you think about… o o o The legend on a street map? But did you think about… o o o The legend on a street map? The yellow pages in a telephone book? The aisle signs in a supermarket? Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Meaning of meta data o o Meta data is information that ‘points’ to a Meaning of meta data o o Meta data is information that ‘points’ to a explanation or a resolution Meta data makes statements about an information resource or object Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Sidebar - meta data or metadata? o ‘Metadata’ is “a word coined by Jack Sidebar - meta data or metadata? o ‘Metadata’ is “a word coined by Jack E. Myers to represent current and future lines of products implementing the concepts of his Meta. Model, and also to designate his company, The Metadata Company, that would develop and market those products. ” Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Metadata o o o A term not used prior to 1969 Used first in Metadata o o o A term not used prior to 1969 Used first in 1973 Registered U. S. Trademark (in 1986), owned by Jack Myers Metadata granted incontestable status in 1991 Designed to be a term with no particular meaning Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Included Meta Data Added <DOC Date=10/31/07> <TI> “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? Included Meta Data Added “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” Smith Professional baseball Entertainment Business In brief. . . < There was a time. . . /Text> Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Object

Meta data as indexing language List of words Synonyms Taxonomy Thesaurus INCREASING COMPLEXITY / Meta data as indexing language List of words Synonyms Taxonomy Thesaurus INCREASING COMPLEXITY / RICHNESS Ambiguity control Synonym control Ambiguity cont’l Synonym control Synonym cont’l Hierarchical rel’s Associative rel’s Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Taxonomy / thesaurus o o o Main Term (MT) Top Term (TT) Broader Terms Taxonomy / thesaurus o o o Main Term (MT) Top Term (TT) Broader Terms (BT) Narrower Terms (NT) Related Terms (RT) n o o o See also (SA) Aka subject term, heading, node, category, descriptor, class TAXONOMY THESAURUS Scope Note (SN) History (H) Non. Preferred Term (NP) n Used for (UF), See (S) Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Term record Various views Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Term record Various views Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

New Frontiers from the World Wide Web Consortium: OWL & SKOS Copyright 2007 Access New Frontiers from the World Wide Web Consortium: OWL & SKOS Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

The old frontier? Term record Various views Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. The old frontier? Term record Various views Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Taxonomy, Thesaurus, & Ontology o Taxonomies and thesauri are not ontologies o They are Taxonomy, Thesaurus, & Ontology o Taxonomies and thesauri are not ontologies o They are entities o Ontology – science of describing kinds of entities n “an explicit and formal specification of a conceptualization” Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Ontology o From philosophy – the science of describing n Kinds of entities in Ontology o From philosophy – the science of describing n Kinds of entities in the world n How they are related Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

OWL o Web Ontology Language o W 3 C Recommendation 10 February 2004 n OWL o Web Ontology Language o W 3 C Recommendation 10 February 2004 n http: //www. w 3. org/TR/2004/Rec-owl-guide-20040210/ n http: //www. w 3. org/TR/2004/Rec-owl-ref-20040210/ n http: //www. w 3. org/TR/2004/Rec-webont-req-20040210/ Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Taxonomic classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Strigiformes Families: Strigidae Tytonidae Copyright Taxonomic classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Strigiformes Families: Strigidae Tytonidae Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Spotted Owl Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Spotted Owl Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Web Ontology language - OWL o OWL n output Provides semantic meaning to these Web Ontology language - OWL o OWL n output Provides semantic meaning to these kinds of entities n Web resource n Accessible to automated processes Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

OWL o “…is intended to provide a language that can be used to describe OWL o “…is intended to provide a language that can be used to describe n n the classes and relations between them o that are inherent in Web documents and applications. ” Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

OWL o Formalize a domain by defining n n o Classes Properties of those OWL o Formalize a domain by defining n n o Classes Properties of those classes Define individuals n o Assert properties about them Reason about these n Classes and n Individuals Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

OWL Ontology o May include 1. 2. 3. Classes Properties Instances SKOS Topic o OWL Ontology o May include 1. 2. 3. Classes Properties Instances SKOS Topic o Capture semantics o Multiple, distributed, related ontology schema Normative OWL exchange syntax RDF/XML o n Resource Description Framework/Extensible Markup Language Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Structure of controlled vocabularies List of words Synonyms Taxonomy Thesaurus INCREASING COMPLEXITY / RICHNESS Structure of controlled vocabularies List of words Synonyms Taxonomy Thesaurus INCREASING COMPLEXITY / RICHNESS Ambiguity control Synonym control Ambiguity cont’l Synonym control Synonym cont’l Hierarchical rel’s Associative rel’s Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Hierarchical View Term Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Hierarchical View Term Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Taxonomy term record o o o o <Term. Info> <T>Agrotechnology</T> <BT>Biotechnology</BT> <NT>Animal management technologies</NT> Taxonomy term record o o o o Agrotechnology Biotechnology Animal management technologies Controlled environment agriculture Genetically modified crops Source: www. Data. Harmony. com Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Thesaurus term record o o o o <Term. Info> <T>Agrotechnology</T> <BT>Biotechnology</BT> <NT>Animal management technologies</NT> Thesaurus term record o o o o Agrotechnology Biotechnology Animal management technologies Controlled environment agriculture Genetically modified crops Agricultural science Food technology Plant engineering Source: www. Data. Harmony. com Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Agrotechnology Agrotechnology OWL term record Agrotechnology Source: www. Data. Harmony. com Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

SKOS o o Simple Knowledge Organization System SKOS Core Guide n n o W SKOS o o Simple Knowledge Organization System SKOS Core Guide n n o W 3 C Working Draft 2 November 2005 http: //www. w 3. org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-guide 20051102/ SKOS Core Vocabulary Specification n n W 3 C Working Draft 2 November 2005 http: //www. w 3. org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-spec-20051102/ Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

SKOS o May include 1. 2. 3. o o o Classes (RDFS) Properties (RDF) SKOS o May include 1. 2. 3. o o o Classes (RDFS) Properties (RDF) Instances? ? OWL Express structure and content of concept schemes Multiple, distributed, related SKOS schemes Normative SKOS exchange syntax RDF/XML n Resource Description Framework/Extensible Markup Language Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

SKOS Specifically for “concept schemes” o n n n n Thesauri Classification schemes Subject SKOS Specifically for “concept schemes” o n n n n Thesauri Classification schemes Subject headings lists Taxonomies Terminologies Glossaries And other types of controlled vocabularies Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

SKOS o Models n n concept schemes A set of concepts OPTIONALLY includes statements SKOS o Models n n concept schemes A set of concepts OPTIONALLY includes statements about semantic relationships between concepts o Directionality implied - interpretations (‘skos: Concept’ and properties) o Not people, organizations, places, etc. Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Source: Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Source: Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Agriculture Agriculture DH SKOS Output Agriculture Agribusiness Agronomy Farming Accepted Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

American music" src="https://present5.com/presentation/5e700c15b4c669357a76d01cee1417a9/image-44.jpg" alt="DH SKOS Output American music" /> DH SKOS Output American music Accepted Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Architecture Architecture DH SKOS Output Architecture Refers to the art and practice of designing and building structures Accepted Band music Accepted Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

A Brief Discussion of Topic Maps A Brief Discussion of Topic Maps

Statements about what? Sports Baseball Amateur baseball Little league Professional baseball MLB “Is MLB Statements about what? Sports Baseball Amateur baseball Little league Professional baseball MLB “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Topic Maps o o o ISO standard - ISO 13250: 2002 For merging back-of-the-book Topic Maps o o o ISO standard - ISO 13250: 2002 For merging back-of-the-book indexes Collection of structured markup Describing KOS Associating KOS with information resources (objects) Separation of KOS from objects

Topic Maps o Three main concepts 1. 2. 3. o Names of things Occurrences Topic Maps o Three main concepts 1. 2. 3. o Names of things Occurrences of the named things Associations between names Three additional constructs 1. 2. 3. Identity Facet Scope OWL

Topic with occurrence Professional baseball descriptor-for Topic map layer Information resources layer “Is MLB Topic with occurrence Professional baseball descriptor-for Topic map layer Information resources layer “Is MLB a sport, entertainment, or business? ” http: //www. newindexer. com/mlb. htm/

Topics, associations, occurrences MLB Sports member-of doc-type http: //www. newindexer. com/mlb. htm/ use-for descriptor-for Topics, associations, occurrences MLB Sports member-of doc-type http: //www. newindexer. com/mlb. htm/ use-for descriptor-for Professional baseball author-of related-to Baseball member-of Professional athletes Amateur baseball member-of article Little league member-of http: //www. swaa. org Smith

Problems with Semantic Web o o o Complexity Lack of tools Lack of skills Problems with Semantic Web o o o Complexity Lack of tools Lack of skills Limited resources Gaming the system The syllogism trap o o o KOS biases Lack of agreement Lack of interest Good enough Topic Maps vs. OWL

Lack of agreement o “Symbionese Liberation Army credited with offing an SUV” n n Lack of agreement o “Symbionese Liberation Army credited with offing an SUV” n n o About - ‘revolutionaries’ or ‘freedom fighters’ About - ‘revolutions’ or ‘freedom movements’ “Symbionese Liberation Army accused of firebombing SUV” n n About - ‘terrorists’ or ‘anarchists’ About - ‘terrorism’ or ‘anarchy’

The syllogism trap o o o Humans are mortal Greeks are human Therefore, Greeks The syllogism trap o o o Humans are mortal Greeks are human Therefore, Greeks are mortal o o o New Mexicans speak Spanish The author lives in New Mexico Therefore, . . . Source: Clay Shirky, “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview” www. shirky. com/writings/semantic_syllogism. html/ and Dave Mc. Comb, presentation at DAMA-I, May 2005 www. wilshireconferences. com

The syllogism humor trap o o o I am a nobody Nobody is perfect The syllogism humor trap o o o I am a nobody Nobody is perfect Therefore, I am perfect Bonus: I don't approve of political jokes. I've seen too many of them get elected.

Topic Maps vs. OWL o o TMCL Topic maps XTM, Hy. TM, LTM ISO Topic Maps vs. OWL o o TMCL Topic maps XTM, Hy. TM, LTM ISO o o o OWL RDF Schema RDF/XML, N 3 SOAP, WSDL W 3 C

Full-text search and applied indexing languages o o o Full-text search engines - getting Full-text search and applied indexing languages o o o Full-text search engines - getting better? ? Thesauri applied using machine automated indexing - easier, faster, cheaper Taxonomic navigation n n o Faceted navigation Table of contents drilldown - taxonomy views Query disambiguation Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Full-text search and applied indexing languages o o o Long history Many richly developed Full-text search and applied indexing languages o o o Long history Many richly developed thesauri with legs Tools that work Large body of professionals Almost as rich Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Tools that work! Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Tools that work! Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Almost as rich Hierarchical View Term Record Almost as rich Hierarchical View Term Record

ANSI/NISO Z 39. 19 -200 x ANSI/NISO Z 39. 19 -200 x

Clearer disambiguation? Temperature Planets Is. A Roman god Type. Of Brand. Of Mercury Is. Clearer disambiguation? Temperature Planets Is. A Roman god Type. Of Brand. Of Mercury Is. A Metallic element Automobile

Clearer disambiguation? o Thesaurus statement n n n Mercury (planet) mercury (metal) Mercury (automobile) Clearer disambiguation? o Thesaurus statement n n n Mercury (planet) mercury (metal) Mercury (automobile) Mercury (mythical being) mercury (temperature)

Mercury" src="https://present5.com/presentation/5e700c15b4c669357a76d01cee1417a9/image-64.jpg" alt="Clearer disambiguation? o OWL statement Mercury" /> Clearer disambiguation? o OWL statement Mercury (Planets)

Thesaurus to SKOS o Thesaurus label o SKOS Label o Main Term (MT) Top Thesaurus to SKOS o Thesaurus label o SKOS Label o Main Term (MT) Top Term (TT) Broader Terms (BT) Narrower Terms (NT) Narrower Term Instance Related Terms (RT) n See also (SA) Non. Preferred Term (NP) n Used for (UF), See (S) Scope Note (SN) History (H) o Nonpreferred. Term o o o o

Thesaurus to Ontology (OWL) o Thesaurus Label o OWL Label o Main Term (MT) Thesaurus to Ontology (OWL) o Thesaurus Label o OWL Label o Main Term (MT) Top Term (TT) Broader Terms (BT) Narrower Terms (NT) Narrower Term Instance Related Terms (RT) n See also (SA) Non. Preferred Term (NP) n Used for (UF), See (S) Scope Note (SN) History (H) o o o o o

Objectives for search & navigation o ASIS&T -- virtual library n o ASRT -- Objectives for search & navigation o ASIS&T -- virtual library n o ASRT -- internal information control n o Organization chart Naval Postgrad -- Homeland security degree n o Subject matter Curriculum outline SLA -- Web content n Public Web navigation Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Naval Postgraduate School’s Homeland Security Taxonomy Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Naval Postgraduate School’s Homeland Security Taxonomy Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Naval Postgraduate School’s Homeland Security Taxonomy Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. Naval Postgraduate School’s Homeland Security Taxonomy Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

SLA website and thesaurus Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. SLA website and thesaurus Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

SLA search Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc. SLA search Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Myth of topic maps o o o And OWL, SKOS Not a myth They Myth of topic maps o o o And OWL, SKOS Not a myth They do work Limited adoption Narrow, tightly defined niches Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Thank you. Questions? Topic Maps: What Works and What Doesn’t? 31 October 2007 A Thank you. Questions? Topic Maps: What Works and What Doesn’t? 31 October 2007 A 304 - 2: 45 -3: 30 PM PDT Presented by Jay Ven Eman, Ph. D. , CEO Access Innovations, Inc. / Data Harmony 505. 998. 0800 / www. accessinn. com / www. dataharmony. com [email protected] com

Activity in the field o Ontologies n o SKOS n o http: //www. w Activity in the field o Ontologies n o SKOS n o http: //www. w 3. org/2001/sw/Web. Ont/impls http: //www. w 3. org/TR/swbp-skos-coreguide/#secref Topic Maps n http: //www. topicmaps. org/ Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Resources o o www. accessinn. com www. dataharmony. com www. iso. org www. ontopia. Resources o o www. accessinn. com www. dataharmony. com www. iso. org www. ontopia. com n n o Lars Marius Garshol, “Metadata? Thesaurui? Taxonomies? Topic Maps!” Steve Pepper, “The TAO of Topic Maps” www. topicmaps. org Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.

Resources o Cory Doctorow, “Metacrap: Putting the Torch to Seven Straw-men of the Meta-utopia, Resources o Cory Doctorow, “Metacrap: Putting the Torch to Seven Straw-men of the Meta-utopia, ” http: //www. well. com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm o Russell Glass, “Is Anyone Going to Tag all of this Stuff? , ” http: //zoominfo. blogs. com/soughtafter/2005/03/semantic_web_is. html o Clay Shirky, “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview, ” www. shirky. com/writings/semantic_sllogism. html o Pete Norvig, “Semantic Web Ontologies: What Works and What Doesn’t, ” www. alwayson-network. com/comments. php? id=P 7480_0_3_0_C Copyright 2007 Access Innovations, Inc.