- Количество слайдов: 20
Topic 13 - The Industrial Revolution Essential Question- How do science and technology affect society?
Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic and technological change in 18 th and 19 th century Great Britain. • Change from simple hand tools/human and animal power to complex machines/steam power • The Industrial Revolution begins in Great Britain because of their abundance of natural resources (coal, tin, etc. ) and natural waterways
Causes of Industrialization • New Agricultural Revolution improves quality and quantity of farm products • Enclosure- consolidating farm lands • Availability of natural resources- coal for fuel, iron for machinery, etc. • Capital/Entrepreneurs willing to start new enterprises • Technological inventions and energy • Steam Engine- powered machines without needing to be next to a moving water source • Flying Shuttle- weaving could happen at a faster pace • Spinning Jenny- quickly produces thread • Eventually factories have to be built to house these massive machines Capital- surplus money that can be used to invest in new businesses or technologies
Effects of Industrialization • Urbanization • New Social Classes • New Economic Systems • Child Labor • Poor Working Conditions • Low Wages
The Growth of Cities • Changes in agriculture, population increases, and increasing demand for workers result in droves of people migrating from farms to cities
Urbanization • As farmers were driven off their land due to enclosure, they moved to cities to find jobs. • Factories were located in cities because they were a reliable source of cheap labor • Businesses need infrastructure (docks, roads, trains, mail, water lines, electricity, sanitation) and cities were often the first to have them • There were some problems with urbanization- terrible living conditions, poor working conditions as workers become disposable Urbanization-the growth of cities; includes the migration of people to cities
Poor Working Conditions • Long work days- 14+ hours, 6 days a week • Terrible wages- as little as $. 25/day • Dirty, poorly lit factories • Dangerous machinery with little safety guidance and no oversight • Child labor
New Social Classes • Industrialization led to the growth and fracture of the Middle Class • Upper Middle Class- new jobs and positions (doctors, lawyers, factory owners, etc) • Lower Middle Class- skilled workers (craftsmen/artisans, printers, etc) • Despite the growth of the Middle Class, the majority of workers were still poor unskilled laborers who saw little improvement in their working or living conditions
Positive Effects of Industrialization • As working conditions and wages improved, the standard of living rose for workers- they could buy things that previously only the wealthy could afford, ate more varied diets, wore inexpensive and mass-produced clothing, etc. • New opportunities for social mobility, which then led greater political rights for the developing middle class • New businesses and products that changed how people lived Social Mobility- the ability of individuals or groups to move up the social scale
New Economic Ideas • The Industrial Revolution also saw a shift from traditional economies that were based on bartering/trade to money-based exchanges • Two primary competing theories developed: • Communism • Capitalism • The primary difference in these systems has to do with means of production Means of Productionresources: machines, factories, etc.
Capitalism • Adam Smith is considered the “Father of Capitalism” • Smith believed in a free market system where supply and demand will run the market • Laissez Faire- Government keeps its HANDS OFF the economy • However, these systems allow business to exploit workers because they place profit above all else • Eventually, the workers unite in unions Reform or Progressive Era Capitalism- an economic system where the means of production/industry are owned by private citizens with the goal of making a profit
Communism- an economic and political system where the means • Marx believed that industrialization would of production/industry be the downfall of society because it made are owned by the people workers disposable while the bosses became with the goal of profits incredibly wealthy The theory of Communism is thatbeingproperty is all equally divided • A Communist society has no social classes amongst a classless shared by an equal, and because everyone is equal and all wealthclassless society property is shared by the community as a whole • Karl Marx is considered the “Father of Communism” In practice, the government has control over all property and makes all production decisions.
The Communist Manifesto • Marx and Friedrich Engles write The Communist Manifesto in response to the terrible conditions of the Industrial Revolution • Marx and Engles argue that all history is a class struggle between “haves” and “have-nots” • The Industrial Revolution only made this struggle more bitter • The Proletariat (workers) will eventually rise up in rebellion against the Bourgeoisie (bosses) • The proletariat will overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a classless society • All comrades (men and women) will be equal and all means of production will be owned by the people
You have two cows. . .
Thomas Malthus • Wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) • Believed that poverty was inevitable because the growing population would outgrow the food supply • “Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power in the earth to provide subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race…” • War, famine and disease served to check human population growth • As long as the population kept increasing, the poor would suffer • Was he right? No- although the population did continue to grow, the food supply grew even faster.
David Ricardo • Developed the “Iron Law of Wages” • Believed the poor had too many children High wages to appeal to the few available workers • When families had more children, those children increase the labor supply, which led to lower wages and higher unemployment Families have more children Children flood the labor force
Review Before a nation can begin to industrialize, that nation must first develop 1. A democratic government 2. A rigid class structure 3. A strong religious foundation 4. An adequate food supply
Review Which condition is most necessary to the process of industrialization in a society? 1. Dependence on subsistence agriculture 2. Creation of a one-crop economy 3. Availability of investment capital 4. Capture of foreign lands
Review According to theories of Karl Marx, history can be viewed as a 1. succession of famines that result in the destruction of civilizations 2. continuous struggle between economic classes 3. listing of the accomplishments of the ruling classes 4. repeating cycle of imperialism and colonialism
Review A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the 1. concentration of workers in urban areas 2. increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power 3. formation of powerful craft guilds 4. control of agricultural production by governments