- Количество слайдов: 35
TODAY’S DISCUSSION: LOGISTICS Component Manufacturers Distributors Intel Contract Manufacturers Solectron Texas Instrument SCI IBM Celestica HP AMD Flextronics Arrow LSI Logic Avnet Retailers & End Consumers Retailers Tech Data Corp Lucent Jabil Motorola Sanmina Radio Shack Brightpoint Circuit City Dell End Consumer Nortel Bell Cell. Star Alcatel Premier Best Buy Merisel, Inc Compaq Pioneer National Semi Finished Goods Distributors / Channel Partners Ingram Micro OEMs Cisco Enterprise Sales E-commerce purchase Reverse Logistics
LOGISTICS IN ACTION!
DOING LOGISTICS IN A GLOBAL SETTING……. . There are easier things to do!!!
THE BASIC LOGISTICS PROCESS Plan Deliver Return Suppliers’ Supplier Source Make Return Deliver Return Source Return Your Company Internal or External Make Deliver Source Return Customer Internal or External Customer’s Customer Raw Material Purchasing Factory Manufacturer’s Warehouse Retailer’s Warehouse Consumer
Key Elements in the Logistics Process Transportation Inventory Demand Planning/forecasting Communications Distribution Centers Customer service Third-parties
SOME SOBERING THOUGHTS ABOUT GLOBAL LOGISTICS
Your typical grocery store in Bangkok
Chinese Distributor Expands Warehouse via The ultra-technological means of ‘Tarps’!!
A “special” product display in a Moscow supermarket
Let’s examine the key issues associated with the source, make, deliver processes of logistics SOURCE MAKE DELIVER
“Sourcing” Issues Ü Vendors – competencies/cultures/mission alignment Ü “Full” costs to move and store materials sourced from a given location Ü Who will do the moving and storing? Ü Other costs associated with “sourcing” * Transloading? * Taxes and duties? * Customs clearance? * Inventory costs? * Brokers? * Duties
“Making” Issues Ü Do we make or do we outsource? Ü Where do we do the production? Ü Relative importance of proximity to sources vs. proximity to markets Ü Are Distribution Centers required in effectively reaching markets?
“Deliver”- the major Logistics Issues Ü Do ourselves or outsource? Ü Shipment quantities? Ü The need for Distribution Centers? Ü The cost of transportation and DC’s? Ü Are middlemen needed, and what type? Ü The costs of middlemen
Some of the key global challenges…. Chinese Distributor’s delivery bikes! § Infrastructures § Methods/Equipment § Intermediaries § Cultures and relationships
Meaning of Logistics Infrastructure. . Modes of transportation Warehousing networks 3 PL providers Communications capabilities Government assets
The “Moral of Infrastructure”…. . It is different in almost every environment
LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE in OTHER PLACES……
Infrastructures, some examples. . § Russia/Ukraine: Whoa, don’t go there! § India: Trucks are able to run only 150 miles on average per day as compared to 360 miles in developed countries. § Spain. . “the trains in Spain are a big pain” § Mexico. . pay for. Those trucks are cheap, but you get what you
RAIL FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN THE EU IS A DIASTER!!! § No two countries use the same signaling system § No two countries use the same electric current § Trains run on different sides of the track in some countries § Track gauge varies § Freight traffic yields to passenger traffic § Lyon to Milan…Train… 48 hours Truck… 8 § Cost of rail exceeds cost of truck!!
The significance of Third-parties in global logistics: • Minimize the asset base • Obtain local knowledge of logistics practices • Contract manufacturers • Warehousing firms • Carriers 3 -PL’s, as they are called, will be absolutely essential in taking a frozen food product to market in France and the UK.
Some Unique Factors to Consider in the UK And France From a Grocery Logistics Perspective ♣ France’s transportation infrastructure is one of the best in Europe and boasts the largest road network. The country has more than 589, 000 miles of road network, including 6, 820 miles of freeways, fully interconnected with Western Europe. ♣ The 35 -hour workweek that is now part of France’s labor regulations affects all areas of logistics. These same regulations allow a system called ‘modulation’ where employees can work fewer hours during off-seasons, and more hours during busy-seasons, all while paying workers a consistent salary year-round. Thus, the 35 -hour workweek is actually flexible.
Third-party logistics companies are important in France. Geodis is the largest French logistics company; other leading French-based logistics companies include Gefco, STEF, TFE, Giraud and FM Logistic. In France, “genuine shared user” facilities are prevalent which allows a firm using a third-party warehouse to share labor with other firms using the same warehouse. This can dramatically reduce warehouse labor cost. The emergence of retail buying groups is an effort by independent grocers to enhance their buying power, and the leading chains of this type are Leclerc and Intermarché in France.
Mkt Share French Grocery Retailers Auchan Casino Carrefour Intermarche Leclerc 13% 10 30 15 15 Intermarche and Leclerc are retailer coops and are not integrated, and don’t have coordinated scanning Auchan and Carrefore have big stores and do a significant amount of direct store delivery
Hypermarkets (defined by ACNielsen as stores over 2, 500 m 2) in France account for 52% of total grocery sales but just 2. 7% of all grocery outlets. Thus 1080 stores account for just over half the total grocery market! Importance of Hypermarkets in the UK and France Country % of Sales Value % of number of Stores France 52 % 2. 7 % U. K. 57 % 2. 4 % Keep in mind that France and the UK have much older city centers built in a time when there were no large trucks. Now all the major cities have limited hours for distribution. So distribution to stores is limited as to time and size of trucks – usually quite small.
A key tactic to create differentiation is the use of own brand products. UK grocery retailers have used this approach extensively. Percentage Penetration of Private Label Products UK France Safeway 47 Carrefour 20 Tesco 51 Auchan 16 Sainsbury 54 Intermarche 29 ASDA 54 Leclerc 18 Somerfield 36 Casino 23 National Average 45 National. Average 22 In the UK, the big trend is the use of 3 rd party managed distribution centers, even for the big manufacturers like Nestle
French retailers are embarked on a differentiation strategy based mainly on store size and location. They are less advanced than the British in terms of retail branding (as noted earlier) and this is reflected in lower levels of own label penetration and greater discounting. Both countries share uniquely low levels of ‘switchability’ with relatively few large surface stores accounting for over half the total market. It is a matter of some debate in which country retail power is the greatest and which consumers are the greatest beneficiaries, both today and tomorrow. In the UK, key logistics issues also include huge problems with road congestion, retailers pushing back inventory to the product manufacturers, and increasing use of cross-docking
Congestion is so bad in the UK, there is a trend towards “congestion charges. ” London has put a toll on vehicles that enter central London during the daytime. Each vehicle must pay £ 5 ($9) per day even if they just are inside the boundary for only 5 minutes. The zone is covered with CC-TV in order to monitor the license plates, and then match them to the database of paid customers. Roads, in general, are becoming more congested, so the time to deliver is increasing. In France, the Rungis International Food distribution village is a critical part of the food logistics process. This is a huge Distribution Center, and almost everything bound for Paris and a lot of other places goes through here. There are separate rows of buildings for meat, dairy, fruit/vegetables, frozen products and flowers.
Summary, from a logistics standpoint, here’s what you need to set up, manage and cost……. . 1. Source and cost of materials and components 2. Process for moving materials/components to 3. production sites: modes of transportation 3. The cost of moving inputs to production sites 4. Whether to produce yourself or use contract 5. manufacturers: Capital availability? ? ? 5. Cost per unit to manufacture
6. Methods and costs for transporting finished product: 7. Rail, truck, air 7. Need for warehousing, whether to outsource and the 8. cost of same: expertise? ? 8. Cost of transportation to the retailer/final customer 9. Need for middlemen, and the associated cost: Commissions/markups, market coverage 10. Extraordinary costs: brokers, customs, taxes 11. and duties
Totaling up the Logistics/Operations costs: Materials cost: $_________ Transport cost, materials $_________ Production costs $ ________ Warehouse cost $ ________ Transport cost, finished product $________ Selling costs $ ________ Extra cost (duties, customs, etc) $ ________ TOTAL COST $ ________
Some Useful Websites 1. http: //www. manufacturing. net/lm/ Logistics Management magazine 2. http: //www. shipping-worldwide. com/courier. html Cargo rate quotes 3. http: //www. maersk-logistics. com/ Maersk site on operations and rates 4. http: //www. logisticsworld. com/ Logistics World – go to the International area 5. http: //www. logisticsworld. com/logistics/international. htm This site has a list of websites dealing with logistics for several countries 6. http: //www. supplychainbrain. com/index. htm Some great case studies on country-specific logistics 7. http: //www. logisticsfocus. com/articles/ Good articles on logistics conditions in various countries 8. http: //www. valuenotes. com/ Good articles on logistics conditions in various countries
And, Here You Go! Prod Idea uct Int’l Students S U P P LY CHAIN