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Today o o Language variation, cont. Social and regional dialects Standard and nonstandard dialects Today o o Language variation, cont. Social and regional dialects Standard and nonstandard dialects Some patterns associated with socioeconomic status (SES) Readings: 10. 3, 10. 9

Regional U. S. dialects o o Northern Midland Southern Western Some sociolects: -Yiddish -Pennsylvania Regional U. S. dialects o o Northern Midland Southern Western Some sociolects: -Yiddish -Pennsylvania Dutch -Chicano English -Vietnamese English isogloss: a linguistic feature marking out the areal limits of a dialect area; or the boundary itself. (several form an “isogloss bundle”) http: //accent. gmu. edu/browse_maps/namerica. php http: //www. ku. edu/~idea/northamerica/usa. htm

Map of US Dialects Ch. E Am. E Ch. E http: //www. artsci. washington. Map of US Dialects Ch. E Am. E Ch. E http: //www. artsci. washington. edu/nwenglish/washington. asp

o 7 -10 major dialects n n Vowel system Lexical isoglosses Phonological isoglosses Syntactic o 7 -10 major dialects n n Vowel system Lexical isoglosses Phonological isoglosses Syntactic isoglosses

o Sociolectal and regional dialect features often originate from language or dialect contact n o Sociolectal and regional dialect features often originate from language or dialect contact n Yiddish English, Chicano English: language contact n Yiddish ≠ Yiddish English n Southern US English: dialect contact Eastern Yiddish (Israel) Poland Hungary South Africa Canada Western Yiddish (Germany) S Germany Netherlands Yiddish Sign Language Israel Latvia Russia Uruguay USA. . . Switzerland France

Dialects have a history o Regional differences (along East coast) can be traced to Dialects have a history o Regional differences (along East coast) can be traced to dialects of British English during settling of America in 17 th, 18 th c. Boston: ‘Pahk the cah in Hahvahd yahd’ n n [pa˘k D´ ka In ha˘v´d ja˘d] Charleston, South Carolina [A˘] New York, New York [a˘] *note: this is a stereotyped perception. Deletion of [®] unlikely preceding a vowelintial word, such as ‘in’

Standard vs. Non-standard o Some n non-standard dialects African-American English (AAE) o Multiple negatives: Standard vs. Non-standard o Some n non-standard dialects African-American English (AAE) o Multiple negatives: He don’ know nothin’. n Appalachian English o Double modals: I might could do that. He useta couldn’t swim. o a-prefix: go a-fishin’, come a-runnin’

Standard vs. Non-standard o Standard dialect n n n o an idealization that cannot Standard vs. Non-standard o Standard dialect n n n o an idealization that cannot be associated with any one current actual dialect typically learned by overt instruction (e. g. , in schools) and then used by political leaders, upper classes, in the media considered the dominant or ‘prestige’ dialect Non-standard dialect n any dialect not perceived as ‘standard’

From Standard to Nonstandard o Three standard varieties in US English: n n n From Standard to Nonstandard o Three standard varieties in US English: n n n Late 1800 s: Charleston World-War I: New York Post World-War II: ? ?

Phonological differences o Northern: ‘r-less dialects’ n n o Midland: stress shift n o Phonological differences o Northern: ‘r-less dialects’ n n o Midland: stress shift n o NY: ‘toidy-toid (33 rd) street’ Boston: ‘Pahk the cah in Hahvahd yahd’ Appalachian: Détroit, cígar, dírectly, Nóvember Southern: [ɛ] [I] / ___ nasals n ‘t[I]n o’clock’, [p. In] ‘pin, pen’

Syntactic differences o Appalachian (Midland): n n n o Double modals: might could, use Syntactic differences o Appalachian (Midland): n n n o Double modals: might could, use to could a-prefix: go a-fishin’, come a-runnin’ Past tense: ‘clumb’ (=climbed), ‘et’ (=ate) Southern n Aux. ‘done’: She done already told you.

Lexical differences o Words for ‘sweetened carbonated beverage’ n ‘Coke’ – CA, New Eng. Lexical differences o Words for ‘sweetened carbonated beverage’ n ‘Coke’ – CA, New Eng. n ‘Soda’ – South, East n ‘Pop’ – Midland North, West n ‘Tonic’ – Boston n ‘Cocola’ – Georgia, Tennessee

Lexical differences o Southern n o Midland n n n o French influence: armoire, Lexical differences o Southern n o Midland n n n o French influence: armoire, bayou, bisque German influence: ‘dunk’, ‘spritz’, ‘schmear’ Come here once. Elizabethan English: flapjack, greenhorn, reckon, ragamuffin Western n Spanish influence: patio, plaza, padre, mesa