Скачать презентацию Today A Gameboy for 50 has more computing Скачать презентацию Today A Gameboy for 50 has more computing

d703a43ebd883afe4d4aef12f8c399a1.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 54

Today, A Gameboy for $50, has more computing power than a Cray supercomputer of Today, A Gameboy for $50, has more computing power than a Cray supercomputer of only 25 years ago. • Tom Peters Circle of Innovation 1

Information Technology in the Digital Age Chapters 3, 4, &6 2 Information Technology in the Digital Age Chapters 3, 4, &6 2

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 3 Chapter Objectives • Identify James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 3 Chapter Objectives • Identify the major types, trends, and uses of computer systems. • Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage. • Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications. Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 4 Chapter Objectives • Describe James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 4 Chapter Objectives • Describe several important trends occurring in computer software. • Give examples of several major types of application and system software. • Explain the purpose of several popular software packages for end user productivity and collaborative computing. Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 5 Chapter Objectives • Identify James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 5 Chapter Objectives • Identify several major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies. • Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business. Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Digital Economy § The digital economy refers to an economy that is based The Digital Economy § The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, and software. § The digital economy is also sometimes called the Internet economy, the New economy, or the Web 6

IT Architecture 7 IT Architecture 7

Although there is always a need for improved technology, the critical resource is intelligent Although there is always a need for improved technology, the critical resource is intelligent resourceful people who can relate business needs to technology. James J. O’Connor 8

Electronic Framework 9 Electronic Framework 9

Information Architecture § Information architecture is a high-level map or plan of the information Information Architecture § Information architecture is a high-level map or plan of the information requirements in an organization. § In preparing information architecture, the designer requires two kinds of information: 1. 2. The business needs of the organization—that is, its objectives and problems, and the contribution that IT can make. The information systems that already exist in an organization and how they can be combined among themselves or with future systems to support the organization’s information needs. 10

Architecture Example’s w APU’s Enterprise Architecture w APU’s Information Architecture 11 Architecture Example’s w APU’s Enterprise Architecture w APU’s Information Architecture 11

Components of Information Systems ü Hardware is a set of devices such as processor, Components of Information Systems ü Hardware is a set of devices such as processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer. ü Software is a set of programs that enable the hardware to process data. ü Database is a collection of related files, tables, relations, and so on, that stores data. ü Network is a connecting system that permits the sharing of resources between computers. ü Procedures are the set of instructions about how to combine the above components. ü People are those individuals who work with the system or use its output. 12

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 13 Computer System Components Central James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 13 Computer System Components Central Processing Unit Input Devices Control Unit ALU Output Devices Special Primary Cache Purpose Memory Storage Processors Secondary Storage Devices Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Computers w Supercomputer w Main Frame w Mini Computer w Microcomputers / PC’s 14 Computers w Supercomputer w Main Frame w Mini Computer w Microcomputers / PC’s 14

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 15 Microcomputer Systems • Handheld James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 15 Microcomputer Systems • Handheld Computers – PDA, Information Appliances • • • Notebook Computers Desktop Computers Workstations SMART Cards Network Server – Powerful microcomputer used in small LANs Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 16 Name Common Input Devices James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 16 Name Common Input Devices ? ? Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 17 Common Input Devices • James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 17 Common Input Devices • • • Keyboard Pointing Devices Pen Based Computing Speech Recognition Optical Scanning Magnetic Ink Character Recognition • Smart Cards • Digital Cameras Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition 18 Input Technology Trends First Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition 18 Input Technology Trends First Second Third Generation Punched Cards Paper Tape Punched Cards Key to Tape/ Disk Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Keyboard Data Entry Pointing Devices Optical Scanning Voice Recognition Touch Devices Handwriting Recognition Trend: Towards Direct Input Devices that Are More Natural and Easy to Use Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 19 Name Common Output Devices? James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 19 Name Common Output Devices? ? Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 20 Common Output Devices • James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 20 Common Output Devices • Video Output – CRT – LCD • Printed Output – Inkjet – Laser Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Communications Media Audio Computer w Tape/cassette/record/CD/DV D w Teleconference / Audio conference w Sound Communications Media Audio Computer w Tape/cassette/record/CD/DV D w Teleconference / Audio conference w Sound digitizing w Microphone w Digital video interactive w Compact disc interactive w Computer simulation Graphic materials w Pictures w Printed job aids w Visual Displays Text Motion / Still image w w w Slides / Overheads Videodisc (cassette) Motion pictures Broadcast television Teleconference/videoconfer ence 21

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 22 Output Technology Trends First James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 22 Output Technology Trends First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Voice Responses Audio Responses Hyperlinked Printed Reports Multimedia and Documents Trend: Towards Output Methods that Communicate Naturally, Quickly, and Clearly Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Emerging Display's OLED – Organic lightemitting diods 23 Emerging Display's OLED – Organic lightemitting diods 23

James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition Introduction to Information Systems 24 Magnetic Tape Optical Disks James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition Introduction to Information Systems 24 Magnetic Tape Optical Disks CD-ROM, CD-RW DVD Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Primary Storage Semiconductor Memory Magnetic Disks Floppy Disk Hard Disk, RAID Direct Access Sequential Access Direct Access Secondary Storage St Acc or es ag s Co e C Spe ap ed st ac In pe r B ity cr De ea it s In cr crea es ea se ses s Primary & Secondary Storage Media Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition 25 Basic Components in a Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition 25 Basic Components in a Telecommunications Network 1 Telecommunications Processors 4 3 5 Telecommunications Software 2 PCs, NCs, and Other Terminals Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill 2 Telecommunications Channels and Media Computers Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wire vs. Wireless Media Wire ü Twisted pair wire ü Coaxial cable ü Fiber Wire vs. Wireless Media Wire ü Twisted pair wire ü Coaxial cable ü Fiber optic cable Wireless ü Cellular radio ü Microwave transmission ü Satellite transmission § Global positioning system ü Radio & Infrared light ü Bluetooth 26

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 27 Telecommunications Strategic Capabilities Overcome James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 27 Telecommunications Strategic Capabilities Overcome Geographic Barriers: Capture information about business transactions from remote locations. Overcome Time Barriers: Provide information to remote locations immediately after it is requested. Overcome Cost Barriers: Reduce the cost of more traditional means of communications. – Centralized Management Overcome Structural Barriers: Support linkages for competitive advantage. Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why Networks • Need to share data, software, and hardware • Centralized management • Why Networks • Need to share data, software, and hardware • Centralized management • Share access to outside sources 28

Networks w WAN w LAN w PAN w VPN 29 Networks w WAN w LAN w PAN w VPN 29

Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition 30 Local Area Networks PC Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien Eleventh Edition 30 Local Area Networks PC PC PC Shared Database and Software Packages Network Server Shared Printer PC PC Internetwork Processor to Other Networks Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

WAN’s w Network which extends geographical boundaries - distance w Network which joins remote WAN’s w Network which extends geographical boundaries - distance w Network which joins remote networks – use of 3 rd party vendors w Network which extends existing resources w Change of protocols 31

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 32 Wide Area Networks Irwin/Mc. James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 32 Wide Area Networks Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 33 Other E-business Networks The James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 33 Other E-business Networks The Internet Router Intranet Server Fire wall Extranet Fire wall Router Intranet Server Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Host System Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

LAN vs WAN 34 LAN vs WAN 34

Equipment w Repeaters w Bridges (DSU/CSU) w Routers w Hubs / Switches w Interface Equipment w Repeaters w Bridges (DSU/CSU) w Routers w Hubs / Switches w Interface Cards (NIC) 35

Connectivity Technologies Connectivity Services w w POTS x. DSL ISDN Cable Modem w Frame Connectivity Technologies Connectivity Services w w POTS x. DSL ISDN Cable Modem w Frame Relay w Dedicated w ATM Connectivity Speeds w w w w 56 Kbps T 1 – 1. 544 Mbps T 3 – 43. 232 Mbps OC 3 – 155 Mbps OC 12 – 622 Mbps OC 48 – 2. 5 Gbit OC 192 – 9. 6 Gbit 36

Topology w The topology of a network is the physical layout and connectivity of Topology w The topology of a network is the physical layout and connectivity of a network. n Ring topology n Bus topology n Star network 37

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 38 Network Topologies Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 38 Network Topologies Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Web. Hog 39 Web. Hog 39

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 40 The Internet’s TCP/IP Application James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 40 The Internet’s TCP/IP Application Layer Session Layer Host-to-Host Transport Layer Internet Protocol (IP) Network Layer Network Interface Data Link Layer Physical Layer OSI Model Presentation Layer Application or Process Layer Physical Layer Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Types of Software w Application software - set of computer instructions that directs computer Types of Software w Application software - set of computer instructions that directs computer hardware to perform specific processing activities. n n General Purpose Specific w Systems software - controls and supports the computer hardware and its information processing activities between hardware and applications. n n n System control programs System support programs System development programs 41

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 43 Categories of Computer Software James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 43 Categories of Computer Software System Software Application Software General. Purpose Programs Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Application. Specific Programs System Management Programs System Development Programs Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 44 Common General Purpose Applications James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 44 Common General Purpose Applications • • Electronic Mail Word Processing Presentation Graphics Multimedia Personal Information Manager Groupware Presence Awareness (IM) Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 45 Web Browsers Discussion Groups James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 45 Web Browsers Discussion Groups Surf the Net Launch Information Searches Typical uses of a Web Browser in Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Environments Multimedia File Transfer Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill E-Mail Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Database Management Systems w The program (or group of programs) that provides access to Database Management Systems w The program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database is known as a database management system (DBMS). w There are many specialized databases, depending on the type or format of data stored. n A geographical information database n A knowledge database n A multimedia database 48

Eleventh Edition Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien 50 Multimedia Technologies Video Capture Eleventh Edition Introduction to Information Systems James A. O’Brien 50 Multimedia Technologies Video Capture Card Authoring Language Compact Disk Interactive Storyboard Sound Board Key Technologies of Multimedia MIDI Interactive Video Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Digital Video Interactive Compressed Audio Computer Edit System Digital Audio Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 52 Internet Applications Download and James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 52 Internet Applications Download and Computer Surf and E-mail E-Commerce Internet Chat and Discussion Forums Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Popular Uses of the Internet Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Telnet Search Engines Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 53 Categories of Programming Languages James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 53 Categories of Programming Languages Machine Languages Use binary coded instructions 1001 1100 1101 High Level Languages Markup Languages Use brief statements Use embedded control codes Compute X = Y + Z First heading Assembler Languages Fourth Generation Object-Oriented Use symbolic coded Languages Use natural statements Define objects that instructions LOD Y ADD Z Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill SUM THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS contain data and actions Document. write (“Hi There”) Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Internet Oriented Languages w Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard language the Web Internet Oriented Languages w Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard language the Web uses for creating and recognizing hypermedia documents. n n Hypertext (hyperlinks. ) Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) w Dynamic HTML makes Web pages more like dynamic applications and less like static content. w XML (e. Xtensible Markup Language) is a language for defining, validating and sharing document formats. w Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a file format for describing three-dimensional interactive worlds and objects. 54

Internet Oriented Languages (cont. ) w Java is an object-oriented programming language that gives Internet Oriented Languages (cont. ) w Java is an object-oriented programming language that gives programmers the ability to develop applications that work across the Internet. w Java. Script. is an object-oriented scripting language that allows users to add some interactivity to their Web pages. w Active. X is a set of technologies that combines different programming languages into a single, integrated Web site. w ASP (Active Server Pages) is a Microsoft CGI-like technology that allows you to create dynamically generated Web pages from the server side using a scripting language. w PHP 55

Corporate Portals § A corporate portal refers to a company’s Web site that is Corporate Portals § A corporate portal refers to a company’s Web site that is used as a gateway to the corporate data, information, and knowledge. (Single Point of Entrance) n n n n n Knowledge bases and learning tools Business process support Customer-facing sales, marketing, and service Collaboration and project support Access to data from disparate corporate systems Internal company information Policies and procedures Best practices and lessons learned Human resources and benefits 57

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 58 Chapter Summary • A James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 58 Chapter Summary • A computer system is a system of information processing components that perform input, processing, output, storage and control functions. • Types of computers • Peripheral devices used for input and output come in a variety shape and sizes. Future trends are towards devices that communicate naturally and are quick and easier to use. Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 59 Chapter Summary (cont) • James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 59 Chapter Summary (cont) • Computer software consists of two major types of programs: application software and system software. • There are several basic types of telecomm networks, including wide area networks (WANs) and local area networks (LANs). Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 60 Chapter Summary • Organizations James A. O’Brien Introduction to Information Systems Eleventh Edition 60 Chapter Summary • Organizations are becoming internetworked enterprises that use the Internet, intranets, and other telecommunications networks to support ebusiness. • Telecommunications has entered a deregulated and fiercely competitive environment with many vendors, carriers, and services • A major trend is towards pervasive use of the Internet and its technologies to build interconnected enterprise and global networks. Irwin/Mc. Graw-Hill Copyright © 2002, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.