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To what extent does Canada have a unified national identity?
“We Are More” • Watch poem by Shane Koyczan
…or are we?
…or are we?
…or are we?
…or are we?
To what extent does Canada have a unified national identity?
To what extent did Canada build a national identity in the post-war world?
Chapter 7: A Changing Society Introduction Post World War II Canada Booming Economy Population growth due to immigration Suburbia Technological improvements
Immigration Who do you think was considered the ideal immigrant after WWII? • Some people that came to Canada were refugees or displaced persons = (Victims of war no homes/possessions/hope for the future) • 1945 -1967 newcomers 2. 5 million settled in cities (urbanization) Where did the majority of immigrants come from in the first half of the century? Where did the majority of immigrants come from in the second half 1960 s, 1970 s of the century?
Suburbia • Population growth=Demand for housing=Housing developments (similar/cheaper housing solutions) • Values associated with Suburbia: • Traditional family: • Mom staying at home • Father working to bring in money • Larger families – Increase in birth rate – BABY BOOM
BABY BOOM • Baby boomers (influence culture and economy—think of present-day retirement rates and the influence this will have on Medicare and old-age pensions) • More schools, institutions, and products created
Age of the Automobile What do you think the views of seatbelts and drinking & driving and air pollution were? • 1950 s • Car sales boom • Fascination with technology, progress, and personal freedom
Television and Consumer Society What is a consumer society?
Television and Consumer Society What is a consumer society? • Encouraging people to buy more products (consume) • People feel like they always need to buy more!
Teen culture -What do you think your ‘teenage’ style is? -Read teen culture on pg. 165. What was the style after the wars? • More freedom due to better economics (part-time jobs) • Had own style • Rock n’Roll and new music styles
Youthquake • Early 1960 s • Culture of protest • Political beliefs, music, fashion What do you think counterculture is?
Canada the Good • • Still quite conservative: Sundays: no newspapers, movies, or opening of large stores Movies and books were censored Limited supply of liquor and women couldn’t attend halls • By 1960 s restrictions became more relaxed • Canadians loved sports: Hockey, Ice Skating, and Swimming
Protecting Canadian Culture • Sport heroes had positive influence, but American pop culture had large influence. • American movie stars have big influence 1949 • Massey Commission: • Investigate Canadian culture must protect our culture from US • National Film Board used to produce and distribute Canadian audiovisual works 1957 • Massey commission worried about TV • CBC – national radio (began to move to television. • National radio network in-charge for development of TV
1968 • Federal government introduces Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission -- > Regulate foreign material broadcasted over the airwaves and impose rules requiring Canadian content.
Read “Protecting Canadian Culture” on pg 166/167 In your own words define: 1. The Massey Commission 2. CRTC (Canadian Radio-television Commission)
Canada’s Flag 1965 • Lester B. Pearson • Debate over symbols used • Caused rift between French and English Canadians • pp. 193 -194 http: //archives. cbc. ca/IDD-1 -73 -80/politics_economy/canada_flag/
Post-War Prosperity • Private industries would handle the transition to a peacetime economy through government incentives such as tax breaks. • Government Corporations (businesses) auctioned off. • Causes a boom in the economy • What about social programs=UI, family allowances=protection from poverty • Which level of government would provide these? Pg 169/170 • How did this level provide these services? People wanted security and stability
Post-War Prosperity • Private industries would handle the transition to a peacetime economy through government incentives such as tax breaks. • Government Corporations (businesses) auctioned off. • Causes a boom in the economy • What about social programs=UI, family allowances=protection from poverty • Which level of government would provide these? – provincial • How did this level provide these services? - Taxes People wanted security and stability
Social Changes • Federal-Provincial relationships • Canadians wanted social support, but whom would they get it from? • Federal or provincial government? • Solution: • Provinces will transfer taxation power to Canadian government. • Provinces would receive government grants to provide social services such as healthcare and education. • System of equalization or transfer payments would allow government to give money to the poorer provinces from taxes collected in richer provinces.
Rich Resources and New Industries • Natural resources and minerals • What was the most important development in Alberta? - Pg. 170
Rich Resources and New Industries • Natural resources and minerals • What was the most important development in Alberta? • Discovery of oil in Leduc, Alberta • Boom Towns were created • Industry dominated by Ontario – By 1950’s more than half of the nation’s factories and plants and 99% of it’s automobile industry were located in Ontario • Environmental Impact?
How would megaprojects help with jobs? Megaprojects: The government realized it needed to improve it’s roads, sewer systems, power plants, schools, and hospitals Using Falk, Counterpoints research: • TRANS-CANADA HIGHWAY (St. John’s to Victoria) 7821 km of road • ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY (Great Lakes – Atlantic Ocean) • TRANS-CANADA PIPELINE (Natural Gas-Alberta to industrial heartland
American Investment = A Continuing Issue • Needed investment in Natural resources=US had the capital • by 1967=88% of oil industry is foreign owned • Branch plants=more than half of manufacturing owned by US • Losing control of Economy? Was Canada becoming another state of the US?
Positives and negatives to American foreign investment • Read “American investment” on page 171 and make a chart on a piece of paper
Canadian Owners and Workers • Many business people in Canada and Canadian companies were also becoming rich • Unions continued to fight for working conditions • 1946 -1948 -Unions Grow=ask for five-day, forty-hour work week, paid vacations • Non-industrial unions also rise = teachers, nurses etc
Limits of Prosperity • Immigrants got worst jobs • Women were discriminated and paid less than men for the same work Canada’s First Nations fared worst: • Mercury poisoning from a pulp and paper mill contaminated the fish caught and eaten at a reserve in Ontario • Highways, pipelines and boom towns disrupted hunting grounds Look at chart on pg. 172
Read pg 161 -172 • Answer questions on page 1 -5 on page 172
Go over homework • Answer questions on page 1 -5 on page 172 1) A. What are transfer/equalization payments? - When the government takes taxes and distributes them between provinces depending on who needs the most money. B. How did the start of transfer payments mark a change in the nature of confederation? - Ottawa (aka. The federal government) gained more power, especially over social programs because they could decide where the federal tax money went
2) Why did the government believe it was necessary to provide Canadians with a system of social services? - Canadians wanted security and stability - Wanted to avoid the fear of another depression 3) Why did Canada’s economy grow in the postwar years? Give at least three reasons. - Natural resources - American investment - Mega-projects
4) List at least three gains that trade unions made in postwar years. How did they affect Canadian workers and businesses? - 40 hour work week - 5 day work week - Paid vacations (and other benefits) - Non industrialized workers created unions (eg. Nurses) 5) Megaprojects, resource development and industrialization brought many benefits, but there were also costs such as pollution and urban sprawl. Were the gains worth the cost? – Tell your neighbor your opinion!
Post-War Politics The Nation Expands: J. R. Smallwood brings Newfoundland into Confederation in March 31 st, 1949 Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation at the end of 1949. It was the last major British Colony on the North American continent. To commemorate this historic event, a special reverse appeared on the 1949 Canadian Silver dollar, created by Thomas Shingles. Depicted on the coin is the Matthew, the ship used by John Cabot to "discover" Newfoundland. Below the ship is the phrase 'May the new found land flourish' in Latin, Floreat Terra Nova.
Changing face of Politics 1948 -1957 • St. Laurent-”Uncle Louis” • Liberal • brought Newfoundland into confederation • Had a rich lifestyle
Changing face of Politics 1957 - 1963 • John Diefenbaker (“Dief”) • Progressive Conservative • First Westerner to be PM • Un-hyphenated Canadianism (angered French-Canadians) Deif’s Human Rights: • First PM to allow woman into his Cabinet • Appointed an Aboriginal Senator • Introduced the Bill of Rights • Gave Canada’s status Indians living on reserves the right to vote For over a decade ‘Dief’ and Person took turns being PM and leader of the opposition What do you think un-hyphenated Canadianism is?
Changing face of Politics 1963 - 1968 Lester Pearson ‘Mike’ • Liberal • Changed the Canadian Flag • Stopped capital punishment (the death penalty) • Built on the social programs that King has started… • Introduced Unemployment insurance (employment insurance is the same ) • family allowance “baby bonus” • Canadian Pension Plan (CPP) • Canadian Assistance Plan (CAP) • Medicare/Medical care Act
Medicare • Saskatchewan Premier T. C. “Tommy Douglas” introduced a complete medicare program that allowed people in province to seek medical treatment without paying • Leader of which political Party introduced nation-wide medicare? http: //archives. cbc. ca/IDC-1 -73 -90 -419/politics_economy/medicare/clip 1
Medicare • Prime Minister Pearson introduced universal (all of Canada) Medicare (Medical Care Act) • Federal and provincial governments would now share the cost of medical care by doctors and hospitals. • Funding will come from taxes • Controversial social program -- > expensive but valued
Social welfare • Define social welfare: Why did Canadians support the introduction of Medicare and other social welfare programs? : To have a social conscience is to care for all people in society and try to improve their lives. How did Diefenbaker, Pearson, and Douglas demonstrate social conscience?
The Trudeau Era • 1967: PM Trudeau replaces Pearson • • What did he want for Canada? A Just Society Protect the rights and freedoms of Canadians. Which document does he introduce in 1982 in order to do this? – pg 181 • Which document was a precedent to the important document? Think Diefenbaker!
The Trudeau Era • 1967: PM Trudeau replaces Pearson • What did he want for Canada? - A Just Society • Protect the rights and freedoms of Canadians. • Which document does he introduce in 1982 in order to do this? – The Charter of Rights and Freedoms! • Which document was a precedent to the important document? Think Diefenbaker! – The Bill of Rights
The Trudeau Era • 1967: PM Trudeau replaces Pearson • What did he want for Canada? - A Just Society • Protect the rights and freedoms of Canadians. • Which document does he introduce in 1982 in order to do this? – The Charter of Rights and Freedoms! • Which document was a precedent to the important document? Think Diefenbaker! – The Bill of Rights • Promote the social and economic well being of people • Individual freedoms—Government should not interfere with personal liberties…Remember the War Measures act? We’ll see what Trudeau does next chapter. • Decriminalization of homosexuality
Larger Supported change for: • Women, Environment, and Aboriginals Voting Age Lowered! 1972 Federal voting age changed to 18
Women’s Movement 1960 s • Feminism • Equality in political, social, and economic fields 1967 Royal Commission on the status of women: - right to choose to work outside the home - provide day cares - maternity leaves - stop discrimination in society
• National Action on the Status of Women (NAC) 1971 – A pressure group that lobbied (protested) • Guarantee equality under Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1982
Environmental movement • Terrible damage being done to the Earth’s air, water and land • Federal Government passed laws telling companies to prove that their projects would not hurt their immediate environment • Recycling in homes and in industry became an issue • Automobile industries were pressured to make car efficient vehicles and produce less pollution.
GREENPEACE • 1970 started in BC • Concerned about nuclear bomb off the coast of Alaska -- > took small boat into the test area to protest and test was cancelled. • Based in Amsterdam with a number of Canadians still involved.
Economic Challenges Problem of Inflation • 1973 Oil embargo (ban) by OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) • War between Israel and neighbouring countries-Canada and Western countries support Israelis-Arabs refuse to sell oil • Price jumps 400% • Dollar falls=unemployment at highest level since the Depression • wages increase, but so do prices
Regionalism Regional Disparity = economic gap between the rich and the poor • Natural Resource industries hardest hit – Atlantic cod industry and BC fishing industries hardest hit • Resentment towards Ontario Western Alienation = favouring of central Canada • Oil crisis was a perfect example • Federal government freezes prices and taxes petroleum exported from western Canada • Money used to subsidize the cost of imported oil in the East (quote on p. 183)
Regionalism cont`d • Trudeau increased transfer payments for provinces from federal government to be used in social services. • National Energy Program (NEP): reduce consumption of oil, protect Canadians against rising oil prices, and to make Canada self-sufficient in oil • Exploration in arctic and Newfoundland • Consumers: switch from oil to gas • Alberta is upset – WHY? • 1984 NEP dismantled, but West remained bitter
Debt Crisis By 1984, Trudeau has left behind a $160 billion debt (deficit = debt) Mulroney • Conservative • Lowered social programs to decrease debt, but also lowered taxes and encouraged the Free Trade with America • His idea was not to take care of people, so they would work. • His plan didn’t work! - Recession in 1990 s • Debt increases Mulroney, like American President Ronald Regan, believed that the solution to debt was to lay in the problems in the hands of corporations and wealthy citizens (through tax breaks)
Debt Crisis Jean Chrétien • Liberal • Solution: Injected more money on public works to create jobs • Interest rates shot up! So Chrétien decreased the amount of government spending. • Start cutting social spending – Eg. Less money for post-secondary = higher tuition – Less money for health care = health care costs increase! – Thousands of children and families were living in poverty Mulroney left a $466 billion debt!
Take a look at some of the new technology in the 50’s and 60’s • Pg. 188