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Titanium – The heaviest light metal Dan Snitkovsky Uniweld Israel FRONIUS International Gmb. H Titanium – The heaviest light metal Dan Snitkovsky Uniweld Israel FRONIUS International Gmb. H Buxbaumstr. 2 4600 Wels Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titanium – The heaviest light metal 0, 5 g/cm³ Lithium light metal 4, 5 Titanium – The heaviest light metal 0, 5 g/cm³ Lithium light metal 4, 5 g/cm³ Heavy metal Titanium 5 g/cm³ Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

TITANIUM, Part of the IVb group of the table of the elements (titanium, zirconium, TITANIUM, Part of the IVb group of the table of the elements (titanium, zirconium, hafnium) Vb group (Vanadium, niobium, tantalum ) Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titanium Part of the IVb group of the table of the elements (titanium, zirconium, Titanium Part of the IVb group of the table of the elements (titanium, zirconium, hafnium) Vb group (vanadium, niobium, tantalum ) Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Advantages l l l l Highest corrosion resistance Good oxidation resistance at < 600°C Advantages l l l l Highest corrosion resistance Good oxidation resistance at < 600°C Low density High specific strength Excellent yield strength Outstanding biocompatibility Excellent decoration ability Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Turbine engine construction Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Turbine engine construction Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Application turbine Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Application turbine Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Implant in the dentistry Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Implant in the dentistry Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Implant, turbo charger, turbine industry Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Implant, turbo charger, turbine industry Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Lynx helicopter rotor Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Lynx helicopter rotor Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Defense industry Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Defense industry Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Attention: At more than 9% aluminium dangerous brittle intermetallic phases can be developed This Attention: At more than 9% aluminium dangerous brittle intermetallic phases can be developed This is the reason that titanium is only available with max. 8% Al. Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Attention: Not more than 0, 1% O 2 in titanium, otherwise: l no corrosion Attention: Not more than 0, 1% O 2 in titanium, otherwise: l no corrosion resistance l no weldability l no more ductility Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Attention: No H 2 – enemy no. 1 !! Has to be less than Attention: No H 2 – enemy no. 1 !! Has to be less than 10 -3 (0, 001%) otherwise l Embrittlement l Drops out HYDRIDE PHASE Solubility H 2 at 300°C = 18 weight% Solubility H 2 at RT only = 0, 002 weight% Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Attention: No N 2 ! Embrittlement starts at 0, 3 weight% Oxygen equivalent contamination Attention: No N 2 ! Embrittlement starts at 0, 3 weight% Oxygen equivalent contamination in (weight%) Q = (O 2) + 2 (N 2) + 2/3 (C) Hardness (HB) depends on (O 2) : HB = 40 + 310 Q Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Tensile strength: Unalloyed titanium has 290 up to 740 N/mm² Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall Tensile strength: Unalloyed titanium has 290 up to 740 N/mm² Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Higher tensile strength is only achieved by alloying: Ti 6 Al 4 V unalloyed Higher tensile strength is only achieved by alloying: Ti 6 Al 4 V unalloyed titanium other alloys Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

( + ) = standard alloy since 1940 in USA start of production for ( + ) = standard alloy since 1940 in USA start of production for the first time in 1954 „Pratt+Whitney / General Electric“ at turbines (3. 7164) = Ti 6 Al 4 V 90% 6% 4% has 900 bis 1300 N/mm² At 300°C long term performance is OK, but turbines have to fulfill higher demands - more about that later Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Selection of filler metal for welding Because of ductility choose always one grade/step „lower“ Selection of filler metal for welding Because of ductility choose always one grade/step „lower“ undermatched wire. Anyway the seam will be 50 HB harder than the base material. Reason: unintentional amalgamation with O 2/N 2 Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Brazing: Most frequently silver-based Short dwell period required, otherwise phaseformation, for this reason small Brazing: Most frequently silver-based Short dwell period required, otherwise phaseformation, for this reason small parts only. Brazing with: l Ti 15 Ni 15 Cu (953° – 970°C) fair wetting behavior, but corrosion resistance is ok, furthermore the mechanical properties are better. l Ti 48 Zr 4 Be (898° – 926°C) good wetting behavior, but worse brazing results for the rest l As solder for titanium you may also use: Al 99, 5 / Al. Mn / Al. Si 12 Ca. 680° – 690°C Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Electron beam welding l Vacuom 10(-4) Torr Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Electron beam welding l Vacuom 10(-4) Torr Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titanium WIG – special arrangements Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titanium WIG – special arrangements Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titanium WIG – special arrangements Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titanium WIG – special arrangements Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Orbital welds Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Orbital welds Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titanium MIG – special arrangements Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titanium MIG – special arrangements Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titanium MIG – special arrangements Teflon innerliner top wire feeding properties l Non-sensitive to Titanium MIG – special arrangements Teflon innerliner top wire feeding properties l Non-sensitive to high temperatures l less abrasion in the innerliner Teflon drive rolls because titanium is very soft and sensitive regarding feeding and contamination Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

RCU 5000 i Remote Control Unit Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius RCU 5000 i Remote Control Unit Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius

Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius Titan das schwerste Leichtmetall © Fronius