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Timeline of the Arab and Israel Conflict Timeline of the Arab and Israel Conflict

Late 1800 s to WW I n n Zionism: n Theodore Herzl, a leading Late 1800 s to WW I n n Zionism: n Theodore Herzl, a leading Jewish sympathizer, states that a Jewish homeland is needed to stop the violence against the Jews Ottoman Empire defeated in World War I by Britain, France, and USA.

Between the World Wars n n Britain takes control of the Palestinian area. Balfour Between the World Wars n n Britain takes control of the Palestinian area. Balfour Declaration: n n n Says Palestine is to be used for a Jewish homeland Made by Britain 680, 000 Jews start to move to Palestine

WW II n Hitler and the Holocaust n n Adolph Hitler comes to power WW II n Hitler and the Holocaust n n Adolph Hitler comes to power in Germany 6 million Jews were killed during his time in power all over Europe n n Equal to 2/3 of the total Jewish population in Europe Hostilities between Jews and Arabs in Palestine begin

1947 -1948 n United Nations: n An agreement is made to end hostilities between 1947 -1948 n United Nations: n An agreement is made to end hostilities between Arabs and Jews. n n n Palestine is to be split in 2. 650, 000 Palestinians are to be moved from Jewish controlled areas. 1948: Israel declares independence from Britain.

1948 War of Israel Independence n n Israel is attacked by Syria, Lebanon, Jordon, 1948 War of Israel Independence n n Israel is attacked by Syria, Lebanon, Jordon, Egypt, and Iraq. Israel defeats all of the Arab countries back and gains more territory.

Suez Crisis- 1956 n n Known in the Arab World as the “Tripartie Aggression” Suez Crisis- 1956 n n Known in the Arab World as the “Tripartie Aggression” Egypt attempts to control Suez Canal from to stop supplies getting to Israel. n n Britain and France invite Israel (secretly) to Sevres They ask Israel to attack Egypt, promising support Israel attacks Egypt France & Britain offer to come in and make peace

Suez, cont. n n Nasser rejects F & B’s offer pretext for invasion Large Suez, cont. n n Nasser rejects F & B’s offer pretext for invasion Large “D-Day” style invasion…Israel takes Sinai n n n US is angry; Eisenhower sides with Moscow & condemns the war British PM (Anthony Eden) resigns Israel is pressured (successfully) to give back Sinai

The PLO n Palestine Liberation Organization n n Formed in 1964 Aim is to The PLO n Palestine Liberation Organization n n Formed in 1964 Aim is to free Palestine from Israeli control through force Leader is Yasir Arafat PLO leads many attacks on Israeli civilians and military

Suez cont. n France & Britain invite Israel to Suez cont. n France & Britain invite Israel to

6 Day War- 1967 n Seeing Egypt, Syria, and Jordon are getting ready to 6 Day War- 1967 n Seeing Egypt, Syria, and Jordon are getting ready to attack Israel, Israel attacks all 3 countries at the same time. n n Israel is able to quickly defeat all three Israel takes land from all 3 countries n Israel doubles in size

Yom Kippur War- 1973 n Egypt and Syria attack Israel on the Jewish holiday Yom Kippur War- 1973 n Egypt and Syria attack Israel on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur n n Israel again successfully defends itself with no changes in borders. Middle Eastern countries agree to stop sending oil to Western countries like the United States. n n Gas shortages occur Spill over into US and Russia n n n Russia supplies Arab countries with weapons US supplies Israel with weapons Tensions rise between US and Russia

Peace Process Starts 1978 n Camp David Accords n n US President Jimmy Carter Peace Process Starts 1978 n Camp David Accords n n US President Jimmy Carter meets with leaders from Israel (Begin) and Egypt (Sadat). Israel agrees to give back territory to Egypt agrees to recognize Israel’s independence Sadat is assassinated shortly afterward by Muslim extremists who don’t want peace.

Intifada 1980’s n Groups of regular Palestinian civilians begin an uprising against Israel’s military Intifada 1980’s n Groups of regular Palestinian civilians begin an uprising against Israel’s military occupation.

Israel and Iraq- 1981 n Fearing Iraq may be making nuclear weapons, Israel destroys Israel and Iraq- 1981 n Fearing Iraq may be making nuclear weapons, Israel destroys Iraq’s nuclear factories.

Israel Invades Lebanon- 1982 n Invades because PLO headquarters is in Lebanon’s capital, Beirut Israel Invades Lebanon- 1982 n Invades because PLO headquarters is in Lebanon’s capital, Beirut n Israel’s attacks to stop the PLO’s attacks

Peace Agreement- 1988 n Israel and the PLO agree to cease-fire and for Israel Peace Agreement- 1988 n Israel and the PLO agree to cease-fire and for Israel to return to their pre 6 Day War boundaries.

Oslo Peace Process- 1993 n US President Clinton meets with Israeli leader Yitzhak Rabin Oslo Peace Process- 1993 n US President Clinton meets with Israeli leader Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasir Arafat. n n West Bank and Gaza Strip are to be given to Palestinians to run. Israel is promised peace

Rabin is Assassinated- 1995 n During a peace rally following the Oslo Accords, Rabin Rabin is Assassinated- 1995 n During a peace rally following the Oslo Accords, Rabin is assassinated by an Israeli militant who was against peace.

Modern Violence 1995 -2005 n Second Intifada: n n More violence against Israelis for Modern Violence 1995 -2005 n Second Intifada: n n More violence against Israelis for their continued military presence in Palestinian areas. Israel reacts: Israel sends troops to West Bank and Gaza n Israel starts building fence around the Gaza Strip n

Hezbollah in Lebanon- 2006 n An extremist group called Hezbollah takes control of Lebanon Hezbollah in Lebanon- 2006 n An extremist group called Hezbollah takes control of Lebanon n Israeli soldiers kidnapped Rocket attacks start Israel invades Lebanon to stop the attacks n Invasion succeeds and attacks stop

Hamas in the Gaza Strip- Today n n In retaliation for Israel’s continued military Hamas in the Gaza Strip- Today n n In retaliation for Israel’s continued military presence in the Gaza Strip, the group Hamas starts launching rockets into Israel reacts by bombing the rocket sites and sending troops into Gaza.