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Thursday, Feb. n n n th 9 Woo. Hoo! You’ve completed your first unit in American History I!! CNN-go over test Guided notes Activity-Timeline “Sons of Liberty”
Unit 2: REVOLUTION AND THE EARLY REPUBLIC
Taxation Essential Question: What are the causes of the American Revolution?
COLONIAL RESISTANCE AND REBELLION – SECTION 1 n England’s Parliament and Big Ben n The Proclamation of 1763 sought to halt the westward expansion of the colonists, thus the colonists believed the British government did not care about their needs This was one of many measures passed by the English Parliament that would be strenuously opposed by the American Colonists
NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION Colonists protest n n Huge debt from the French. Indian War caused the English Parliament to impose a series of taxes on the colonists The Sugar Act and the Stamp Act were two such taxes
British National Debt (The French and Indian War)
The Sugar Act - 1764 • First attempt to raise income from the Colonies • Duty on sugar and molasses not obtained from Britain • Smuggling cases tried in Great Britain
THE STAMP ACT n In March of 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act which imposed a tax on documents and printed items such as wills, newspapers, and cards (even playing cards!! A stamp would then be
RESISTANCE GROWS n n In May of 1765 Colonists formed a secret resistance group called, Sons of Liberty to protest the laws Merchants agree to boycott British goods until the Acts are repealed
MORE TAXES, MORE PROTESTS More taxes and acts soon followed: Declaratory Act Townshend Acts The Townshend Acts taxed goods brought into the colonies from Britain – including lead, paint, glass, paper and TEA n
Why Were the Colonists So Angry? n n n People in Britain were shocked at the uproar in the colonies. Britain had spent a great deal of $$$ protecting the colonists from the French British paid 26 TIMES the taxes of the colonists.
Friday-WOOHOO!! Feb. 10 th n n n CNN BRIEF RECAP ROAD TO REVOLUTION NOTES, CONT. TIMELINE “SONS OF LIBERTY”
Monday, Feb. 13 th n n n CNN Illustrated Timeline work “Sons of Liberty” Cartoon Activity **Quiz tomorrow!!! Make sure you have taken your notes and review!
Timeline activity n n On the next slide will be a list of ‘Road to Revolution’ events. We are going to create a timeline of these on the big paper provided. You are to put them on the timeline in order. Write neatly and keep it pretty small to make sure to have room for the next steps! First-draw line across middle, then a line above and below that to separate info from pics—(I will explain)
Timeline-cont. n n Right above the names of the eventswrite a BRIEF description Then, over the next several days, choose 10 of these events, the ones that are most interesting to you, that you feel are super important, and create an illustration in blocks above your written information.
1765: Quartering Act • British Action: • Colonial Response: – Colonists had to keep British troops in their homes – Purpose to keep troops in the colonies and reduce the cost – Colonists did not get along with army and did not want them there permanently – They despised the British “occupation” and the soldiers – Began to form meetings about the Acts they disliked
TENSION MOUNTS IN MASSACHUSETTS n n n The atmosphere in Boston was extremely tense The city erupted in bloody clashes and a daring tax protest, all of which pushed the colonists and England closer to war Boston Massacre was in 1770 when a mob taunted British soldiers – 5 colonists were killed BOSTON MASSACRE 1770 BY PAUL REVERE
1. What parts of the encounter between the British redcoats and the colonist does the engraving leave out? 2. The text says that the British troops fired “without orders. ” How does the engraving suggest the opposite? 3. How does Revere’s presentation of the colonial victims seem especially designed to inflame the feelings of the viewer?
Tuesday, Feb 14 th n n n n CNN WARM-UP-GRAB A LAPTOP QUIZ #1 -start new paper NOTES FINISH ‘SONS OF LIBERTY’ WORK ON TIMELINES CREATE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
“Join or Die” 1754 n Look up the following cartoon and its origin. Who created it? Why? What message did it send? Did the colonies accept it? Why?
TEA ACT n n n British East India Tea Co. in trouble. Taxes had encouraged colonial merchants to smuggle cheaper Dutch tea. So, the Tea Act was passed, which refunded 4/5 of the taxes to the British tea company, which made life tough for colonial merchants. It allowed the British company to sell cheaper and bypass colonial merchants.
BOSTON TEA PARTY 1773
BRITS RESPOND TO TEA VANDALS n n After 18, 000 pounds of tea was dumped by colonists into Boston Harbor, King George III was infuriated Parliament responded by passing the Intolerable Acts
The major laws considered “Intolerable” z Boston Port Act: Closed the Port at Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for. z Quartering Act: Forced the citizens of Massachusetts to house and feed British soldiers in their homes. z Massachusetts Government Act: Suspended the Massachusetts Colonial Legislature until the tea was paid for. z Administration of Justice Act: Guaranteed that British officials would not be tried in colonial courts for capital crimes.
THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION n n Colonists start to organize and communicate First Continental Congress met in 1774 and drew up rights Military preparation began England reacts by ordering troops to seize weapons FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS - 1774 PHILLY ATTENDEES INCLUDED SAMUEL ADAMS, PATRICK HENRY, AND GEORGE WASHINGTON
The British Are Coming. . . Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 18, 1775
SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS n n n May 1775, Colonial leaders met for a Second Continental Congress Some called for Independence, some for reconciliation Finally, the Congress agreed to appoint George Washington as head of the Continental Army Patrick Henry addresses Congress
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL n n June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill n British General Thomas Gage decided on an attack on Breed’s Hill (near Boston) Deadliest battle of war as over 1, 000 redcoats and 450 colonists died Battle misnamed Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill would have been more accurate)
Significance of this battle: n While colonists did not win this, it proved to them they could stand up to the British Red Coats.
OLIVE BRANCH PETITION n n n By July 1775, the Second Continental Congress was readying for war, though still hoping for peace Most delegates deeply loyal to King George III July 8 – Olive Branch Petition sent to King who flatly refused it
Wednesday, Feb. 15 th n n n CNN (and 1 st finish “Sons” Compare the fight Breakdown the Declaration Notes Interview Questions Timelines? Vocab?
INDEPENDENCE MINDED n n HUGE BEST SELLER, “COMMON SENSE” 1776 Public opinion shifted toward Independence Why? Enlightenment ideas (John Locke’s Social Contract, and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense)
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE n n On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress voted unanimously that the American Colonies were free and they adopted the Declaration of Independence The Colonists had declared their independence– they would now have to fight for it JEFFERSON, ADAMS, & FRANKLIN
THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE – SECTION 2 n n n Colonists divided between Loyalists and Patriots New York City early site of battles Colonial troops retreat, then surprise British troops at Saratoga – Turning Point!!
Movie clip-Declaration n https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v= nrvp. Zx. Mf. Ka. U
Thursday, Feb. 16 th n n n CNN Quiz-match up Revolution events~! Finish war notes-Treaty of Paris Compare Treaty of Paris ’ 63 & ’ 83 Begin Episode 2 of “Sons of Liberty”
Saratoga-NY n n Fall of 1777, battle of Saratoga, NY. Two key battles here. Sept 19 th-a British victory led by General Burgoyne over Gates and Arnold, but a costly win. A second one, October 8 th, led by Burgoyne who attacked Americans at Bemis Heights. This time, he lost!
Saratoga, cont. n This Turning Point victory, convinced France to recognize the cause of the Colonials and help them out!
Battle of Saratoga – 1777 n n Feb. 1778 France and America formed an alliance France declared war on Britain the next month
WINNING THE WAR n n With French military leader Marquis de Lafayette’s help, Colonial troops became effective fighters May 1780, British troops successfully take Charles Town, S. C. However, it was the last major victory for the British as General Cornwallis finally surrendered at Yorkstown, Va. on October 18, 1781 The Americans victory shocked the world Cornwallis surrenders
Other key war points: n n n Minutemen. Valley Forge-winter of ‘ 77 -’ 78 -rough time because. Leader of Continentals was who again? _________
TREATY OF PARIS n n n Peace talks began in Paris in 1782 American negotiating team included John Jay, John Adams, and Ben Franklin Treaty signed in September of 1783 and officially recognized the independence of the United States and set boundaries
Friday, Feb. *CNN *FINISH ‘SONS’ EPISODE 2 *FINISH TIMELINES th 17 1 st Bell 1 st Block 2 ND Chance Breakfast 2 nd Block 3 rd Block 4 th Block Dismissal 7: 05 7: 15 -8: 07 -8: 14 -9: 06 9: 1110: 03 10: 0811: 00
Monday, Feb. 20 th n n CNN Warm up question: “How did the colonials organize any order during the Revolutionary War? ” What did they do? How did they stay together? ? ? Please answer on a sheet of paper and be willing to share. Notes Articles of Confederation activity
CONFEDERATION AND THE CONSTITUTION – SECTION 3 n n After the Revolution, many favored a Republic Some supported a strong federal government (Federalists) while others favored states rights (Anti. Federalists)
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION (Our First National Constitution!) n n n The Second Continental Congress issued a set of laws called the Articles of Confederation in 1781(had been drafted in 1777) Gave states one vote each in Congress regardless of population of state Split power between National Government and States
Pause for Aof. C chart work n n Get into groups of 3, and grab an ‘Americans’ book from the book shelf. Work in your groups to complete chart on the Aof C. (This is to be completed by the end of class) Once this is done, color the left side of the cartoons and note which power is lacking based on the image. We will do the other side in a few days.
Tuesday, Feb. 21 st n n CNN Notes Articles to Convention Begin Constitutional webquest Begin Episode 3
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation: Settling Western Lands n n The Land Ordinance of 1785, stated that land in the west was to be surveyed using a grid system to establish 6 mile blocks The Northwest Ordinance assisted in the orderly expansion of the United States, it outlined a plan for applying for statehood to western territories • Population of 60, 000 could become a state
Land Ordinance of 1785 Each township is 6 miles long and 6 miles wide AND divided into 36 one mile square sections numbered from 1 to 36 starting in the top right corner and snaking down to 36 as illustrated below.
Northwest Territory n The Northwest Territory was east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. The states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin would be formed from this area.
Settling Western lands n n The Northwest Ordinance provides an orderly settlement process in the West It promised: • • no slavery education freedom of religion trial by jury
WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLE OF CONFEDERATION n n n n Congress could not collect taxes Each state had one vote regardless of population No executive branch No national court system Nine of thirteen states needed to agree to pass any law Lacked national unity Weak Central Gov’t
SHAY’S REBELLION n n n An event that highlighted the weakness of the Central (National) government was Shay’s Rebellion Farmers in western Massachusetts rose up in protest over increased taxes Daniel Shay led 1, 200 farmers toward the arsenal in Springfield The event caused alarm throughout the republic GW said we needed a government that could pervade the whole union. 1786
Constitutional Webquest n n Go to my webpage and ‘Documents’ section Open up the webquest document and the links should work throughout instructions to complete your paperwork.
Wednesday, Feb. 22 nd-NO PHONES OR EARBUDS AT ALL! FIRST OFFENSE-CONTROL ROOM! n n n CNN QUIZ 3 UNIT 3 NOTES-CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION EPISODE 3 “SONS” WEBQUEST WORK, IF TIME, AND GIVE OUT STUDY GUIDES
Constitutional Convention n n May 1787 in Philly 12/13 states present. Missing Rhode Island 55 Delegates Plan to revise Articles, but decide to re-write a new government. Big issues: Representation, Slavery, Economics
CREATING A NEW GOVERNMENT n n “Compromise” n The delegates at the Constitutional Convention realized the need to strengthen the central government They soon decided to create an entirely new Constitution instead of amending the Articles Compromise was the order of the day
VIRGINIA VS. NEW JERSEY PLANS n n Virginia Plan: Bicameral Legislation based on state population New Jersey Plan: Unicameral Legislation based on one state = one vote
GREAT COMPROMISE n n After a deadlocked that dragged on & on, Roger Sherman(Conn. ) finally suggested the Great Compromise which satisfied both big & small states Bicameral Congress with House of Reps based on population (VA Plan) and Senate based on one state = one
THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE n n Next difficult issue: Slavery Southern states wanted slaves included in the population figures used to determine Representatives Northern states which had few slaves, disagreed Compromise was to count each slave as 3/5 ths of a person
DIVISION OF POWERS n n n Next issue: Should the National government or the states hold power? Who shall be sovereign? Delegates choose to split power Federalism system developed Federal government had delegated, or enumerated powers (Coin, trade, war, etc. ) States had reserved powers (education)
SEPARATION OF POWERS
Thursday, Feb. 23 rd n n n Warm up/review of Compromises-get into groups of 3, get a book, go to chapter 5, sections 2 & 3 and get it done! CNN Finish Warm-up Wrap up Constitution notes Try to finish webquest Review!! (We will finish “Sons” on Monday!)
RATIFYING THE CONSTITUTION n n n The Constitutional Convention adjourned in September of 1787 Nine of thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution Supporters of the Constitution were Federalists. Those opposed were Anti. Federalist
THE FEDERALIST PAPERS n n Led by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, Federalist believed that while the Constitution was not perfect, it was far superior to the Articles of Confederation They favored a strong central government James Madison “Father of the Constitution”
ANTI-FEDERALIST n n Lee penned his views in the widely read, Letters from the Federal Farmers The Anti-Federalist view was that the Constitution did not guarantee the rights of the people of the states, it didn’t secure liberty! Led by Patrick Henry, George Mason, and Richard Henry Lee, the Anti. Federalists wanted a Bill of Rights to off-set the strong central government
ADOPTION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS n n To satisfy the Anti. Federalists, a Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to guarantee individual rights The Bill of Rights was ratified in December of 1791 three years after the Constitution was ratified First Ten Amendments
OLDEST LIVING CONSTITUTION n n The U. S. Constitution is the oldest written national constitution in the world Elastic Clause key to flexibility Also ability to change, or “amend” the Constitution helps preserve it 27 Amendments have been added
Friday, Feb. 24 th n n CNN Review Ratification Quizlet Live “Sons”
UNIT 2 NOTEBOOK AMERICAN HISTORY I 1. UNIT SCHEDULE AND COMPLETE VOCABULARY 2. GUIDED NOTES 1 3. GUIDED NOTES 2 4. GUIDED NOTES 3 5. REVOLUTION STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES 6. GUIDED NOTES 4 7. GUIDED NOTES 5 8. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION CHART 9. US CONSTITUTION WEBQUEST 10. COMPROMISE REVIEW CHARTS 11. SONS OF LIBERTY VIEWING GUIDE 12. STUDY GUIDE 13. ANY OTHER NOTES/MISC. PAPERWORK THAT YOU MAY HAVE TAKEN