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Three Points to Remember n Active Networks Are Cool n Active Networks Can Be Three Points to Remember n Active Networks Are Cool n Active Networks Can Be At Least As Secure As Legacy Networks ; ) n Data and Algorithm Are Mutable Active Networks Introduction Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 1

Motivation for Active Networking n n n Faster Hardware Not Fully Utilized Enables More Motivation for Active Networking n n n Faster Hardware Not Fully Utilized Enables More Flexible Network De-couples Protocol From Transport Minimizes Requirements for Global Agreement Enables On-the-fly Experimentation Enables Faster Deployment of New Services • • http: //www. darpa. mil/ato/programs/activenetworks/actnet. htm Email List: activenets_wire@ittc. ukans. edu Introduction Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 2

Active Networking: A Natural Evolution Traditional Packet Network Header Data Adaptive Monitoring, And Predictive Active Networking: A Natural Evolution Traditional Packet Network Header Data Adaptive Monitoring, And Predictive Control Devices Become Network-Aware Network-aware and Devices Smart Active Network Header Code Data Custom Code Injected By Applications/devices Makes Network Intelligent Introduction Reduces Protocol Deployment Time From Years to Months Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 3

Change Is Inevitable Internet Protocol • • • Active and Programmable Networks Fossilized: Resistant Change Is Inevitable Internet Protocol • • • Active and Programmable Networks Fossilized: Resistant to Change • Built for Change Layers of Complexity O(4000) RFCs • Reduced Complexity Inability to Customize Quickly or Efficiently • Rapid, Efficient Customization Lack of Security Paradigm • Security Paradigm Built-in Downward Side of the Innovation Curve • Upward Innovation Path Introduction Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 4

Integrated Versus Discrete Approaches n Discrete Approach n n Programs (P) Injected Into Active Integrated Versus Discrete Approaches n Discrete Approach n n Programs (P) Injected Into Active Nodes Separately From Passive Data (D) P D Integrated Approach n Programs Integrated Into Every Packet Along With Passive Data Introduction DP DP Active Network Node Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 5

Section 1 Active Network Framework Section 1 Active Network Framework

Legacy Co-Existence Host Active Router Legacy Router Active Router ip_active Cut-through Sect. I: Framework Legacy Co-Existence Host Active Router Legacy Router Active Router ip_active Cut-through Sect. I: Framework Host Cut-through Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 7

Active Network Framework AAAA AA AA n Active Application (AA) n EE 1 EE Active Network Framework AAAA AA AA n Active Application (AA) n EE 1 EE 2 n Execution Environment (EE) n Node. OS Hardware n The active network application Analogous to a Unix shell in which to execute a packet Node Operating System (Node. OS) n Sect. I: Framework Operating System support for Execution Environments Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 8

Active Network Framework n Primary Focus Is Communication and Not Computation n Packet Is Active Network Framework n Primary Focus Is Communication and Not Computation n Packet Is Unit of Multiplexing n No Assumptions About Underlying Forwarding Technologies Sect. I: Framework Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 9

Active Network Framework EE 1 . . . EE 2 . . . Execution Active Network Framework EE 1 . . . EE 2 . . . Execution Environment IPv 6 Security Enforcement Engine . . . Channels Management EE Store Node. OS Policy db Active Network Working Group Version 1. 0, Ken Calvert ed. Active Network Framework. http: //www. cc. gatech. edu/projects/canes/arch-0 -9. ps, August 31 1998. Version 0. 9. ", citeseer. nj. nec. com/group 98 architectural. html. Sect. I: Framework Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 10

Framework Considerations (I) n End Systems (ES) and Intermediate Systems (IS) n n No Framework Considerations (I) n End Systems (ES) and Intermediate Systems (IS) n n No Architectural Differences Between EEs and ISs. Execution Environment (EE) and Active Application (AA) n AA Implements an End-to-end Service Executed Within an EE Sect. I: Framework Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 11

Framework Considerations (III) n Node Operating System (Node. OS) Primary Role Is Mediator of Framework Considerations (III) n Node Operating System (Node. OS) Primary Role Is Mediator of Node Resources to the EEs n Security n All Requests to the Node. OS Are Verified Based Upon Credentials Sufficient to Verify Authorized Access n EEs Must Trust Node. OS and Can Add Stricter Policies n Node. OS May Trust Some EEs More Than Others n Sect. I: Framework Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 13

Active Network Framework EE 1 IP|UDP|ANEP UDP|IP ANEP|IP IP|UDP EE 2 UDP|IP IP|ANEP IP Active Network Framework EE 1 IP|UDP|ANEP UDP|IP ANEP|IP IP|UDP EE 2 UDP|IP IP|ANEP IP Packet Input Channel Classification Processing IPv 4 EE 3 EE Processing sched ANEP|UDP|IP (Cut-through) sched classify IP sched IP|UDP|ANEP IP Output Channel Scheduling and Processing Transmission Active Network Working Group Version 1. 0, Ken Calvert ed. Active Network Framework. http: //www. cc. gatech. edu/projects/canes/arch-0 -9. ps, August 31 1998. Version 0. 9. ", citeseer. nj. nec. com/group 98 architectural. html. Sect. I: Framework Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 14

Hardware Reference Model output ports input ports Switch Fabric Passive input ports Active EE Hardware Reference Model output ports input ports Switch Fabric Passive input ports Active EE EE EE output ports Switch Fabric Active Network Working Group Version 1. 0, Ken Calvert ed. Active Network Framework. http: //www. cc. gatech. edu/projects/canes/arch-0 -9. ps, August 31 1998. Version 0. 9. ", citeseer. nj. nec. com/group 98 architectural. html. Sect. I: Framework Copyright 2002 Stephen F. Bush 15