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Thirteen Colonies 1775 Britain has defeated France in the Seven Year’s War. New France was now a British Colony.
Who lived in the Thirteen Colonies? In the 1600’s, British colonists had been sent to the Thirteen Colonies to settle and produce raw materials that would add wealth to Great Britain. Others went to gain religious or political freedom. 1755 Populations - New France: about 70 000 - Thirteen Colonies: about 2. 5 million - Each colony was different but were divided into 3 groups based on location.
Thirteen Colonies The three locations were: a) New England b) Middle Colonies c) Southern Colonies
New England Most came from England Scotland. First settled by religious groups whose beliefs were not supported by England. Economy: wheat farming & fur trade. Seaport towns prospering; made living from the sea or as craftspeople and merchants.
Typical New England Family
The Middle Colonies Variety of religions & nationalities compared to other colonies (Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Scots, Irish, etc. Most were farmers; “breadbasket” of New World. Shipments of produce from crops, sold to Britain and West Indies.
The Southern Colonies Most colonists from England, others from Scots, French, & Germans. Agricultural: tobacco, sugar & rice HUGE farms called plantations. Plantations owned by small, powerful group. Many labourers needed, few willing to work for low wages when they could have their own small farms. This resulted in slavery.
The Southern Colonies… Slavery: a system where by a person was owned and controlled by another. Slaves had no civil rights. They could be bought and sold as property, families were often separated, and children of slaves were born into slavery. Plantation owners used slaves from Africa as workers.
The Southern Colonies… Slavery was legal in most of Europe, NA, and elsewhere. Not completely abolished (to legally end) in the states, colonies, and territories of NA, until 1865.
Government Two levels: - handles local affairs (community) - handles colonial affairs (colonial)
Community Government Handles day-to-day business; town meeting Decide on how much they should be taxed, discuss town problems, elect town officers. Town officers did not make the rules, just administered and enforced them. Citizens elect people who represent them in their Legislative Assembly (decision- making body) Each voter has a voice in the government, but only a small group actually makes the decisions.
Community Government What example of community government can you think of that exists here at school? Explain.
Colonial Government Each of the Thirteen Colonies had a form of representative government. In Virginia, House of Burgesses: First representative assembly in North America. The Governor invited each community to send two representatives to the Legislative Assembly. This assembly could pass laws, so long as they did not go against the laws of Britain. Colonial laws could be vetoed by the Governor. Vetoed: right of power to forbid or reject.
Do the Math Two representatives for each of the Thirteen Colonies attend the Legislative Assembly at the House of Burgesses. How many representatives, including the Governor, attend the assembly?
Colonial Government Each colony established a system of government similar to that of Virginia In most cases, the government consisted of - A representative of the British government - A council of men who helped the governor - Representative assembly which made the laws
Government * Both the Governor and Council were appointed by the King of Britain Governor (represents laws of Britain) Council of men (helped the Governor) Governor of the Thirteen Colonies Representatives of each colony Citizens
Who Could Vote? Free adult males Women who owned property WHO COULD NOT VOTE? - Slaves - Most women - Men who owned small properties or did not pay a certain amount of taxes *Many could not make the journey to vote from their isolated pioneer farms
Colonial Government Like a Rep. Gov’t - People voted for representatives who acted for them in a Legislative Assembly - Representatives made laws Unlike a Rep. Gov’t - Only a small group of people were eligible to vote - Laws passed by the representative assemblies could be vetoed by the governor
The Thirteen Colonies Protest Seven Year’s War was expensive for Britain and so was maintaining their army Answer: TAXES to help pay national debt Colonists point of view: no need to maintain army, already conquered QE & Louisburg. “We are NOT paying taxes!” say the Colonists.
Taxes Owing As colonists, you must pay taxes on the following: - Tea - Sugar - Newspapers - Lead - Silk
Taxation without Representation Colonists argument: “We are not paying taxes the British government because we are not allowed to elect representatives to speak for us in the British parliament. ”
Events Leading up to the American Revolution 1764 Sugar Act 1765 Stamp Act 1767 Townshend Acts 1773 Tea Act 1774 Intolerable Acts
1764 Sugar Act Taxes put on imported goods such as molasses and sugar Some colonists boycotted sugar Boycotted: refused to trade with a country or company or to buy its products.
1765 Stamp Act All legal documents and newspapers had to be stamped (cost $0. 01 – several $’s) Angry speeches made at assemblies Merchants boycotted British goods Tax collectors were terrorized Governor Hutchison’s home is Massachusetts was wrecked by a mob 1766 - Stamp Act was withdrawn
1767 Townshends Acts Taxes placed on glass, tea, silk, paper, paint and lead Sale of British goods fell almost two-thirds 1770, taxes were dropped on everything but tea
1773 Tea Act East India Co. given the sole right to sell tea in North America Shipments from East India were refused at harbours of New York and Philadelphia Boston Tea Party: 40 -50 people from Boston, disguised as Natives, dumped 3 boatloads of tea from British ships into the harbour
1774 Intolerable Acts No shipping to/from Boston until dumped tea was paid for Public meetings = forbidden 4000 British troops stationed in the area (1 soldier/ 4 Bostonians)
1774 Intolerable Acts … The Quebec Act gave control of Quebec (the largest piece of land in NA) to the tiny, Frenchspeaking population. Prevented the colonists from expanding westward Colonists boycotted British goods Secretly began a collection of arms & ammunition Raise an army, 122 000 men, two-thirds “Minutemen” (ready to fight last minute) Sept. 1774, first Continental Congress was held
The American Revolution 1755 A. k. a War of Independence Protests broke into armed conflict Desperate times call for desperate measures Other two major British colonies (Nova Scotia & Quebec), despite having the same complaints, did not choose violent protest Chose to remain part of the British Empire than fight with the Thirteen Colonies for British Independence
Loyalty Despite hardships endured by people in the colonies of Quebec & Nova Scotia, they remained loyal to Britain by NOT joining revolutionaries of the Thirteen Colonies.
Conflicting Messages General George Washington, who was later to become the first president of the United States, tried to convince colonists to join the revolution! Bishop Briand of Quebec reminded the people of Quebec of their duty to the British King.
Quebec Invasion General Richard Montgomery and his men travelled up the Richelieu River, captured Montreal and continued to Quebec City. Guy Carleton, Governor of Quebec City, escaped disguised as a French trapper.
Quebec Invasion … General Benedict Arnold and his troops travelled overland. Dense forests, foul swamps. Ran out of food; forced to eat candles and roasted moccasins. Starvation, disease, and desertion. Only he and half of his 1200 men joined Montgomery at Quebec City.
Quebec Invasion … Camped outside walled fortress. Cold winter and smallpox. Attacked New Year’s Eve during a strong snowstorm. 200 revolutionaries (Americans) killed, including Montgomery. Called off the attack. Remained camped outside the city for the winter.
Quebec Invasion … May 1776, British navy arrived with reinforcements. Revolutionaries (Americans) forced to go home. Invasion failed!
Nova Scotia Americans did not attempt to invade NS Isolated from New England, no violent protests or pre-revolutionary activities Many Nova Scotians were Americans. Either they or their parents had been born in Thirteen Colonies. Most would not join the Americans in rebelling against British rule.