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Third WMO Workshop On the Impact of Various Observing Systems on NWP Alpbach March 2004 THE GLOBAL AMDAR SYSTEM By J. Stickland, Technical Coordinator WMO AMDAR Panel
Data Requirements Desirable Horizontal Spatial and Temporal Density: 1 profile on 250 km grid at 3 hourly intervals BASIC Data
Data Requirements (cont. ) Additional Data
WHAT DOES AMDAR PROVIDE? Ascent part 1 Ascent part 2 Level flight phase Trigger Level 2 Descent part 1 Descent part 2 Typically every 7 -10 min Trigger Level 1 Pressure Based Triggering Ascent Part 1: 5 or 10 h. Pa intervals for first 100 h. Pa Ascent Part 2: 25 or 50 h. Pa intervals above first 100 h. Pa Enroute: Descent Part 1: 25 or 50 h. Pa intervals from TOD to last 100 h. Pa Descent Part 2: 5 or 10 h. Pa intervals for last 100 h. Pa Time Based Triggering 3 to 20 second intervals (default 6) for 30 to 200 seconds (default 90) 20 to 60 second intervals (default 20) for 490 to 1050 seconds (default 510) 1 to 60 minute intervals (default 7) 20 to 300 second intervals (default 40) from top of descent to surface.
Mandatory and Optional Reported Elements Element Aircraft identifier Phase of flight Latitude Longitude Day & time of observation Pressure altitude Static air temperature Wind direction Wind speed Maximum wind Roll & pitch angle flag Humidity Turbulence Icing Mandatory/Optional O M M M O O Requires Additional Onboard Processing * *
24 Hour Global Coverage
10 Countries Producing AMDAR Observations Oceania Australia Nth America New Zealand Africa Netherlands South Africa UK US Europe Namibia France Sweden Germany Note: 5 European providers are supported by 18 EUMETNET countries 15 Airlines Qantas United KLM SAA Air New Zealand American BA Air Namibia North West Air France Delta SAS Fed Ex Lufthansa UPS
Countries Testing New AMDAR Programs * Canada (Air Nova, extending to other regionals and Air Canada) * Hong Kong China (Cathay Pacific) * China * Repub. of Korea (Korean Air) * Saudi Arabia (Saudia) * Japan (JAL, ANA, +) Countries Developing, Planning or Considering New AMDAR Programs * Southern Africa Region * Egypt * Ireland (Air Lingus) * Chile (Lan Chile) * India * Portugal (TAP) * Argentina (Aerolineas) * Russian Federation * Spain (Iberia) * Brazil * Poland (LOT) * Austria (Lauda) * United Arab Emirates (Emirates) * Hungary (Malev) * Switzerland * Oman (Oman Air, Gulf Air) * Ukraine * Iceland (Iceland Air) * Morocco (RAM) * Finland (Finnair) * Italy
Targeted Observations The use of AMDAR equipped foreign aircraft operating into remote airports to provide observation profiles and over-flight data. Data are provided by the host airline/NMS on the GTS through a fully automated control system. Operational Scenarios: 1. Contributing routine observations to data sparse areas; 2. Supporting upper air programs of other NMSs with routine data; 3. Supporting additional operational requirements for additional data, eg. special synoptic or research events. Countries Providing Targeted Observations Australia, US, Europe (E-AMDAR)
Collaborative Targeted Programs Collaborative programs of targeted observations between NMSs consist of 2 models: 1. Formal or informal agreements between data provider and recipient NMSs or regions that may include the recipient reimbursing the provider for marginal operational costs. Examples include: ASECNA group (E-AMDAR) Canada (E-AMDAR) South Africa (E-AMDAR, Australia) SW Pacific and SE Asia (Australia, US) Middle East (E-AMDAR) Hong Kong (Australia, US)
2. Providers contribute data as part of their own programs or through commitment to the WMO WWW Programme. Examples include: Africa (E-AMDAR) Caribbean, Central America & Gulf of Mexico (US, E-AMDAR) Eastern Europe and Russian Fed. (E-AMDAR) South America (E-AMDAR, US) Global (selective: US, Australia, E-AMDAR)
E-AMDAR Targeting into Middle East, Eastern Europe & Independent States Blue - Routine program Red - Targeted Program
Data Targeting Potential Airports Served by E-AMDAR * Information compiled from data available on E-ADOS. Figures for 3, 6 and 12 hourly airports are for the EUCOS area.
Network Optimisation: The automated control of collecting AMDAR data - • through selection by phase of flight • at appropriate temporal and spatial density • to minimise data redundancy • to improve cost effectiveness. Techniques: • ground based system through uplinking using scheduled flight and/or real time aircraft operations information • onboard software control using flight phase, lat/long boxes, airport lists, time windows; Applications: • Regional • Global potential
E-AMDAR Optimisation Reduction of 37% in Lufthansa observations following automated optimisation
Optimised E-AMDAR Data
Optimised E-AMDAR Data AMDAR NETWORK PERFORMANCE Month Average number of airports with 3 hourly profiles or better 6 hourly profiles 12 hourly profiles Less frequently than 12 hourly Oct 2003* 35 27 28 14 Average number of airports Covered per day 104 Average number of obs per day. Average number of profiles per day 22, 758** 778** Dec 2002 27 21 28 26 102 23, 424 636 Jan 2002 25 19 25 42 111 25, 916 785 Jan 2001 16 18 31 58 123 25, 446 729 May 2000 14 8 25 61 108 21, 770 621 Feb 2000 10 10 18 50 88 12, 657 422 Definitions: 3 hourly profiles – at least one profile each and every 3 hourly time period between 09 Zm and 21 Z 6 hourly profiles – at least one profile each and every 6 hourly time period between 06 Zm and 24 Z 12 hourly profiles – at least one profile each and every 12 hourly time period between 00 Zm and 24 Z * Information compiled from data available on E-ADOS. Figures for 3, 6 and 12 hourly airports are for the EUCOS area.
AMDAR Data Monitoring and Control Monitoring Capability Level 1 Airlines Feedback Level 2 Remedial Action National/Regional AMDAR Centres Acquisition & Optimisation Focal Points TC WMO AMDAR Panel TC Fault Investigation Level 3 National/Regional Daily Monitoring Centres Reports Monthly Global Monitoring Reports Centres
Data Fault Reporting and Remedial Action • Monitoring Centre - detects systematic fault; - advises relevant national or regional Focal Point or, if unsure which region/country is involved, the AMDAR Panel TC • Panel TC (as required) contacts relevant Focal Point; • Focal Point - conducts preliminary investigation; - determines relevant airline; - arranges for inhibiting data distribution on GTS; - requests remedial action by airline who advise expected fix date; - provides feedback to the initiating monitoring centre and as appropriate, to the Panel TC and other monitoring centres; - continues monitoring data or requests airline to cease transmissions
• Airline - takes remedial action; - advises Focal Point when data are again expected to be acceptable. • Focal Point - continues to monitor data quality until acceptable again; - releases data on the GTS for operational use; - advises monitoring centres
Data Quality Processing Level 1 - Onboard Aircraft: • Sensor buddy checks; • Smoothing filter to improve resolution of quantised observations and to reduce impact of outlyers; • Range and rate of change checks; Level 2 - Data Acquisition System: • Format checks on incoming message; • Range and rate of change checks on all elements; • Checks following encoding in AMDAR FM 42 or FM 94 BUFR; • Bulletin preparation and transmission on GTS; • Use of manual and automatic data quality flags to inhibit data distribution
Level 3 - National, Regional & Global Centres: • As part of the assimilation process, all of the above plus a wide range of additional sophisticated checks. International Monitoring Standards: WMO has established a standard set of monitoring and rejection criteria for operational AMDAR data that will be implemented by all monitoring centres
Frequency distribution of the mean temperature difference (OBS–Background) KNMI QEV Report - April - June 2003
Frequency distribution of the mean wind speed difference (OBS–Background) KNMI QEV Report - April - June 2003
Frequency distribution of the mean temperature difference (OBS–Background) KNMI QEV Report - April - June 2003
Frequency distribution of the mean of the absolute wind direction difference (|OBS–Background|) KNMI QEV Report - April - June 2003
“New” Observations 1. Humidity/Water Vapour 5 candidate sensors are in varying stages of development: (1) US – WVSSII (Spectralabs and UCAR) uses proven laser diode technology matched with a new air intake device. Purchase and installation costs are estimated to be US$24 k. Operational evaluation trials are due to commence in the 2 nd quarter of 2004 on 35 UPS B 757 s. Other countries including Australia and the E-AMDAR group are also planning to assist with certification and evaluation on Airbus aircraft. (2) US – TAMDAR (ODS now AIRDAT)) system has a multi-sensor package that includes a humidity sensor for use in the lower to mid troposphere. Operational evaluation trials of 60 sensors will commence on Saab 340 aircraft of regional airline Mesaba in the US Great Lakes region beginning in April, 2004. Additional evaluation trials are being planned in Canada, France and Australia. (3) UK – Cambridge University has developed 2 sensors. The laser diode version will be evaluated in collaboration with the UK Met Office on the BAe 146 research aircraft. Plans for commercial production have been considered.
(4) Germany – DWD is planning to adapt the capacitative sensor used by the European MOZAIC program on a small number of Airbus A 340 s to make it suitable for AMDAR aircraft. (5) Russian Federation – (Central Aerological Observatory) has developed a rapid response Aircraft Condensation Hygrometer (ACH) – an infrared diode cooled mirror device for tropospheric and stratospheric research programs. Adaptation to commercial aviation is being considered.
2. Turbulence • Operational reporting of turbulence in AMDAR commenced in 1985 on Australian aircraft (Derived Equivalent Vertical Gust Velocity (DEVG)), and subsequently on aircraft from New Zealand, UK, Netherlands and France. Used operationally for analysis verification and in some forecasting offices including the London WAFC. • Deviation from normal acceleration (delta g) is reported by some US aircraft. • AIREPS use ICAO turbulence categories • More recently, the US has developed and is evaluating Eddy Dissipation Rate (EDR). This has been adopted by ICAO for automated met reports. • Verification of critical EDR turbulence criteria is under way. • Operational systems are being developed in the US for the aviation industry based on EDR and investigations have begun to assimilate data for NWP.
3. Icing • Various technologies are being developed and evaluated; • Measure ice/no-ice conditions and in some cases, ice accretion; • Operational evaluation trials have commenced in the US and Canada has prepared plans for system testing; • Aimed initially to improve aviation weather services; • May have potential to provide liquid water content and super-cooled large droplet information in the future.
Future Directions • Encourage and assist more countries, particularly those in data sparse areas to implement AMDAR programs of targeted observations and if possible their own operational systems on local aircraft • More lower flying regional aircraft will become operational (15 k - 20 k ft) • New sensors will become operational over the next few years • Encourage the development of regional programs to minimise duplication of effort and to increase cost effectiveness • Continue development of regional and global data monitoring and control systems • Increase in education and training programs • Continue publicising AMDAR to all countries so that they may be aware of the availability of data and its operational usefulness • Further integration of AMDAR into the GOS END