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There Have Always Been Questions, Issues, & Problems Among Brethren • Is circumcision essential There Have Always Been Questions, Issues, & Problems Among Brethren • Is circumcision essential to salvation (Acts 15)? • From among “yourselves” – perverse things (Acts 20: 30) • Doctrine of no resurrection (1 Cor. 15: 12) • Colossian Heresy (Col. 2) • Some will depart giving heed to error (1 Tim. 4: 1 -3) • Doctrine that 2 nd Coming is imminent (1 Thess) • Judaism (Hebrews, etc. )

Roy E. Cogdill 1930’s & 1940’s • During / shortly after the “Premillennialism” controversy Roy E. Cogdill 1930’s & 1940’s • During / shortly after the “Premillennialism” controversy • Many churches (rejected the false doctrine) • Also didn’t tolerate the preaching against it • Not one of them stood – 50’s /60’s

During The Restoration Movement • Pointing men back to the Bible: “Where the Bible During The Restoration Movement • Pointing men back to the Bible: “Where the Bible speaks, we speak; where it is silent, we are silent. ” • Called for men to lay aside opinions and unite upon the Scriptures • Soon two major mindsets developed: 1. Church can do only what is positively authorized 2. Church can do anything not specifically forbidden • Division was inevitable!

Churches of Christ Divided In mid 1800 s q Issues: ü Missionary Society (1849) Churches of Christ Divided In mid 1800 s q Issues: ü Missionary Society (1849) ü Instrumental Music (1859) q Result: ü Formation of Christian Church (1900) ü Later: Disciples of Christ (liberal)

Churches of Christ Divided In mid 1900 s q Issues: ü Sponsoring Church (Hearld Churches of Christ Divided In mid 1900 s q Issues: ü Sponsoring Church (Hearld of Truth) ü Orphan Homes ü Colleges in Church Budget ü Social Gospel (Recreation) q Result: ü Split among churches 1955 -1965 ü Institutional churches of Christ

Divisions Within The Church of Christ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Missionary Society Divisions Within The Church of Christ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Missionary Society (1849) Instrumental Music (1859) Colleges in Church Budget (1938) Orphan Homes (1950’s) Sponsoring Church (1950’s) Social Gospel (1960’s) History is a vast early warning system. ~Norman Cousins

Divisions Within The Church of Christ Orphan Homes Divisions Within The Church of Christ Orphan Homes

Orphan Homes • Most noted of all the differences • Carried the most emotion Orphan Homes • Most noted of all the differences • Carried the most emotion • Most misunderstood of the issues

Orphan Homes I. History Behind It Orphan Homes I. History Behind It

I. History Behind It A. Orphan homes started long before real division 1. 2. I. History Behind It A. Orphan homes started long before real division 1. 2. 3. 4. Tennessee Orphan Home (Spring Hill, TN) – 1909 Potter Orphan Home (Bowling Green, KY) – 1914 Boles Home (Quinlan, TX) – 1927 Tipton Home (Tipton, OK) - 1928

I. History Behind It A. Orphan homes started long before real division B. Opposition I. History Behind It A. Orphan homes started long before real division B. Opposition 30’s – 40’s 1. 2. 3. Like other innovations – slow to catch on Sound brethren fought it as did in 1849 -ff Guy N. Woods – Opposed it

Guy N. Woods Guy N. Woods "The ship of Zion has floundered more than once on the sandbar of institutionalism. The tendency to organize is a characteristic of the age. On theory that the end justifies the means, brethren have now scrupled to form organizations in the church to do the work the church itself was designed to do. All such organizations usurp the work of the church, and are unnecessary and sinful" (Abilene Christian College Lectures, 1939)

Guy N. Woods Guy N. Woods "There is no place for charitable organizations in the work of the New Testament church. It is the only charitable organization that the Lord authorizes, or that is needed to do the work the Lord expects his people to do" (The Annual Lesson Commentary for December 15, 1946)

I. History Behind It A. Orphan homes started long before real division B. Opposition I. History Behind It A. Orphan homes started long before real division B. Opposition 30’s – 40’s C. Hardeman shifted the issue in 1947

N. B. Hardeman College Supported by Church Shifted to Orphan Home Supported by Church N. B. Hardeman College Supported by Church Shifted to Orphan Home Supported by Church “The right to contribute to one is the right to contribute to the other…The same principle that permits one permits the other. They must stand or fall together. ” (Gospel Advocate, 1947, p. 844)

I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. Orphan homes started long before real I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. Orphan homes started long before real division Opposition 30’s – 40’s Hardeman shifted the issue in 1947 Debates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1954: Holt-Totty Debate (Indianapolis, IN) 1955: Harper-Tant Debate (Lufkin, TX) – April & November 1956: Porter-Woods Debate (Indianapolis, IN) 1957: Porter-Woods Debate (Paragould, AR) 1957: Cogdill-Woods Debate (Birmingham, AL) 1957: Porter-Deaver Debate (Dumas, TX) 1959: Wallace-Holt Debate (Florence, AL) 1961: Grider-Woods Debate (Louisville, KY) 1962: Sutton-Woods Debate (Peoria, IL)

I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. E. Orphan homes started long before I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. E. Orphan homes started long before real division Opposition 30’s – 40’s Hardeman shifted the issue in 1947 Debates Journals published on both sides

Journals – Favored Orphan Homes Gospel Advocate Firm Foundation 20 th Century Christian Chronicle Journals – Favored Orphan Homes Gospel Advocate Firm Foundation 20 th Century Christian Chronicle B. C. Goodpasture Gospel Advocate Reuel Lemmons Firm Foundation

Two Different Types of Orphan Homes Under Elderships Under Board Maude Carpenter (Wichita, KS) Two Different Types of Orphan Homes Under Elderships Under Board Maude Carpenter (Wichita, KS) Tennessee Orphan Home (Spring Hill, TN) Tipton Orphan Home (Tipton, OK) Sunny Glenn (San Benito, TX) Lubbock Childrens Home (Lubbock, TX) Boles Home (Quinlan, TX) Potter Orphan Home (Bowling Green, KY) Child-Haven (Cullman, AL)

Journals – Opposed Orphan Homes Gospel Guardian Roy E. Cogdill Gospel Guardian Yater Tant Journals – Opposed Orphan Homes Gospel Guardian Roy E. Cogdill Gospel Guardian Yater Tant Gospel Guardian H. E. Phillips Searching the Scriptures Cecil Willis Truth Magazine Searching the Scriptures Preceptor

I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. E. F. Orphan homes started long I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. E. F. Orphan homes started long before real division Opposition 30’s – 40’s Hardeman shifted the issue in 1947 Debates Journals published on both sides Churches divided 1955 -1965 1. Historians estimate 80/20 split 2. Usually small group pull off and start a new work 3. Exceptions: Louisville, Athens, Tampa

I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Orphan homes started I. History Behind It A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Orphan homes started long before real division Opposition 30’s – 40’s Hardeman shifted the issue in 1947 Debates Journals published on both sides Churches divided 1955 -1965 Things got ugly & bitter

Things Got Ugly & Bitter • Yellow Tag Of Quarantine – B. C. Goodpasture, Things Got Ugly & Bitter • Yellow Tag Of Quarantine – B. C. Goodpasture, Gospel Advocate 1954 • Robert Jackson – knife pulled on him (Taylor Blvd) • Rufus Clifford – spat upon • Ads: “No Anti need apply” • Charges: “Orphan haters” / “Let orphan starve…” • Some “locked out” of buildings where were members

So… Who really left what? “The mainstream churches of Christ, time and again, characterized So… Who really left what? “The mainstream churches of Christ, time and again, characterized those who opposed institutionalism as unfaithful to the heritage. The truth is that the dissenters stood squarely in one set of the footprints in the 19 th century churches of Christ. And by the time the battle over institutions was complete, it was the mainstream, not the dissenters, that had removed itself almost entirely from its 19 th century roots. ” Reviving the Ancient Faith Richard Hughes, Pepperdine University

Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue

II. The Issue Is Not: 1. Should the needy be cared for? 2. Is II. The Issue Is Not: 1. Should the needy be cared for? 2. Is the church obligated? 3. A matter of how (modes, means, methods) 4. Systematic arrangement 5. A matter of a “place” being maintained Is: 1. Can churches build and maintain benevolent organizations through which to do their work? 2. A matter of a separate organization doing the work of the church

Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes

III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes A. No Authority III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes A. No Authority

How Authority Is Established Acts 15 Command / Statement Approved Example Necessary Inference VV. How Authority Is Established Acts 15 Command / Statement Approved Example Necessary Inference VV. 13 -21 – James appealed to direct statement from Amos 9 V. 12 – Paul & Barnabas appealed to example of their work & miracles VV. 7 -11 – Peter appealed to events at Cornelius’ house – infers…

Church Support of Orphan Homes Command / Statement one N Approved Example one N Church Support of Orphan Homes Command / Statement one N Approved Example one N Necessary Inference one N

III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes A. No Authority B. Parallel to the III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes A. No Authority B. Parallel to the Missionary Society

The Missionary Society Local Church $ $ $ Local Church Missionary Society Support Preachers The Missionary Society Local Church $ $ $ Local Church Missionary Society Support Preachers $ A Separate Organization Between The Church And The Work

The Benevolent Society Local Church $ $ $ Local Church Benevolent Society “Orphan Home” The Benevolent Society Local Church $ $ $ Local Church Benevolent Society “Orphan Home” Care of Needy $ A Separate Organization Between The Church And The Work

III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes A. No Authority B. Parallel to the III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes A. No Authority B. Parallel to the Missionary Society C. Church Can do its Own Work

Church Took Care Of Its Own Acts 6: 1 -6 FACTS: • Widow – Church Took Care Of Its Own Acts 6: 1 -6 FACTS: • Widow – neglected in ministration (v. 1) • Congregation selected 7 men (v. 3) • Apostles appointed them (v. 3) • The 7 men were over the business of caring for the widows (v. 3) Happened: • Local church taking care of its own needy Didn’t Do: • Set up a separate organization between church & caring for the needy

Church Can Relieve 1 Timothy 5: 16 Relieve Church Can Relieve 1 Timothy 5: 16 Relieve

Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes IV. Limited Benevolence

IV. Limited Benevolence q A Secondary Issue: Could the church (out of its treasury) IV. Limited Benevolence q A Secondary Issue: Could the church (out of its treasury) help those who are non-Christians? q Was not the dividing issue – but an issue

Who Can The Church Help? Saints Non-Saints Acts 2: 44 -45 Acts 4: 32 Who Can The Church Help? Saints Non-Saints Acts 2: 44 -45 Acts 4: 32 -35 Acts 6: 1 -7 Acts 11: 27 -30 Rom. 15: 25 -31 1 Cor. 16: 1 -3 2 Cor. 8: 1 -4 2 Cor. 9: 1 -13 1 Tim. 5: 16 ? ? ? ? ?

Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes IV. Limited Benevolence V. Arguments Made to Justify

V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” 1. Passage addresses individual – not church • Context: “anyone” v. 23; “he” vv. 24, 25 • V. 27 – “oneself” 2. If is church – no organization between church and the orphans 3. Notice the shifting taking place Shifted to Benev. Soc.

V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” B. “Gal. 6: 10 says to good to all men” 1. Passage addresses individual – not church

1 Brethren, if a man is overtaken in any trespass, you who are spiritual 1 Brethren, if a man is overtaken in any trespass, you who are spiritual restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness, considering yourself lest you also be tempted. 2 Bear one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. 3 For if anyone thinks himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceives himself. 4 But let each one examine his own work, and then he will have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another. 5 For each one shall bear his own load. 6 Let him who is taught the word share in all good things with him who teaches. 7 Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, that he will also reap. 8 For he who sows to his flesh will of the flesh reap corruption, but he who sows to the Spirit will of the Spirit reap everlasting life. 9 And let us not grow weary while doing good, for in due season we shall reap if we do not lose heart. 10 Therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to those who are of the household of faith.

10 Therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to 10 Therefore, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to those who are of the household of faith. 11 See with what large letters I have written to you with my own hand! 12 As many as desire to make a good showing in the flesh, these would compel you to be circumcised, only that they may not suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.

V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” B. “Gal. 6: 10 says to good to all men” 1. Passage addresses individual – not church 2. If is church – no organization between church and the orphans

V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” V. Arguments Made to Justify A. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” B. “Gal. 6: 10 says to good to all men” C. “Luke 10 – Samaritan gave to organization” 1. 2. 3. Passage addresses individual – not church Merely bought a service (v. 35) Not: $ Benevolent Organization Buy service Innkeeper

There Is A Difference Buying A Service Contribution Radio Station Newspaper Internet Host TV There Is A Difference Buying A Service Contribution Radio Station Newspaper Internet Host TV Station Sign Company Hospital Publishing Co.

V. Arguments Made to Justify A. B. C. D. “Jas. 1: 27 says to V. Arguments Made to Justify A. B. C. D. “Jas. 1: 27 says to visit the fatherless” “Gal. 6: 10 says to good to all men” “Luke 10 – Samaritan gave to organization” “Church can do what individual can do”

A Difference Individual “If any believing man or woman has widows, let them relieve A Difference Individual “If any believing man or woman has widows, let them relieve them…” (1 Tim. 5: 16) Church “. . . and do not let the church be burdened, that it may relieve those who are really widows” (1 Tim. 5: 16)

A Difference Individual Church Get Money Buy & Sell (Jas. 4: 13) Freewill Contribution A Difference Individual Church Get Money Buy & Sell (Jas. 4: 13) Freewill Contribution (1 Cor. 16: 1 -2)

Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes I. History Behind It II. The Issue III. Problems With Support of Orphan Homes IV. Limited Benevolence V. Arguments Made to Justify