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There are 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, and 6 levels in the Residence. There also 412 doors, 147 windows, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3 elevators. At various times in history, the White House has been known as the "President's Palace, " the "President's House, " and the "Executive Mansion. " President Theodore Roosevelt officially gave the White House its current name in 1901. Presidential Firsts while in office. . . President James Polk (1845 -49) was the first President to have his photograph taken. . . President Theodore Roosevelt (1901 -09) was not only the first President to ride in an automobile, but also the first President to travel outside the country when he visited Panama. . . President Franklin Roosevelt (1933 -45) was the first President to ride in an airplane. With five full-time chefs, the White House kitchen is able to serve dinner to as many as 140 guests and hors d'oeuvres to more than 1, 000. The White House requires 570 gallons of paint to cover its outside surface. For recreation, the White House has a variety of facilities available to its residents, including a tennis court, jogging track, swimming pool, movie theater, and bowling lane. Chapter Fourteen The Presidency 1
Presidential and Parliamentary Systems • Presidents may be outsiders (not holding nat’l office); prime ministers are always insiders, chosen by the members of the majority party in parliament. • Presidents have no guaranteed majority in the legislature; prime ministers always have a majority. • Divided government: one party controls the White House and another controls one or both houses of Congress. • See 6 examples on p. 365 2
Presidential and Parliamentary Systems • Very rarely is there a unified government: same party controls both the White House and Congress. • Americans say they don’t like divided gov’t b/c it causes partisan bickering, political paralysis, and policy gridlock. • However, it is not clear whether or not divided gov’t alone produces gridlock or whether it is a bad thing or not. 3
Evolution of the Presidency • Defining the chief executive was one of the most difficult tasks for the founding fathers: • Concerned about state authority being compromised. • Concerned that president would use corrupt political practices to remain in power. • Biggest concerns related to how the president was elected, and his relationship with Congress. 5
Electoral College • Almost all states use a winner-take-all system • If no candidate won a majority, the House would decide the election • The Electoral College ultimately worked differently than expected, because the Founders did not anticipate the role of political parties • See Blue Box on pgs. 371 -372 6
The First Presidents • The office was legitimated by men active in the independence movement and in founding politics. • Minimal activism of early government contributed to lessening the fear of the presidency. • Relations with Congress were reserved: few vetoes; no advice from Congress to the president. • See pgs. 368 -370 7
Powers of the President • Found in Article II of Constitution • Potential for power found in vague clauses of the Constitution—e. g. , power as commander in chief, duty to “take care that laws be faithfully executed” (executive power) • Two types of powers: those he can exercise in his own right and those which require consent of Senate or Congress as a whole. • Greatest source of power lies in politics and public opinion. 8 • See pgs. 373 -374
The Power to Persuade • Often uses his nat’l constituency and ceremonial duties to enlarge his power, but must do so quickly b/c the second half of his term is devoted to running for re-election. • President’s persuasive powers are aimed at three audiences: • Fellow politicians and leaders • Party activists and officeholders outside Washington • The “public” 9
Popularity and Influence • Presidents try to transform popularity into congressional support for their programs. • Evidence of Congressional members riding the coattails of President’s popularity has declined. • Popularity is affected by factors beyond anyone’s control – consider Bush’s approval ratings following the September 11 th attacks (p. 385) 10
Figure 14. 1 Presidential Popularity 11
White House Office • Rule of propinquity: power is wielded by people who are in the room when a decision is made. • White House Office, the Executive Office, and the Cabinet • Pyramid structure: most assistants report through hierarchy to chief of staff, who then reports to president. • Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, Bush, Clinton (late in his administration) 12
White House Office • Circular structure: cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president. • Carter (early in his administration) • Ad hoc structure: task forces, committees, and informal groups deal directly with president. • Clinton (early in his administration) • See p. 375 -376 13
Executive Office of President (EOP) • Agencies that report directly to the president and perform staff services for him, but are not located in the White House. • Top positions are usually appointed by president, and must be confirmed by Senate. • Main agencies include: OMB, DNI, CEA, OPM. • Out of all the agencies the OMB is the most important (p. 377) • See other federal agencies on p. 380 14
The Cabinet • Not explicitly mentioned in Constitution. • Presidents have many more appointments to make than do prime ministers, due to competition created by the separation of power. • Presidential control over departments remains uncertain—secretaries become advocates for their departments. • President does have to appoint people that know about the subject area. For example, Sec. of Labor must be acceptable to the AFLCIO, Sec. of Agriculture must appeal to 15 farmers.
Table 14. 1: The Cabinet Departments Cabinet Firsts: • Frances Perkins-first woman • Condoleeza Rice-first African American woman • Robert Weaver-first African American • Lauro Cavazos-first Hispanic • Norman Mineta-first Asian • Elaine Chao-first Asian woman 16
Presidential Character • Eisenhower: orderly, military style leadership, delegated authority to staff, disliked being pinned down. • Kennedy: bold, articulate, amusing leader; improviser who bypassed traditional lines of authority. • Nixon: expertise in foreign policy; disliked personal confrontation; tried to centralize power in the White House. • Ford: people-person, like circular structure, often appeared disorganized; pardoned 17 Nixon.
Presidential Character • Carter: outsider, wide-range of interests, detail-oriented to a fault. • Reagan: set policy priorities and then gave staff wide latitude; leader of public opinion, called the “Great Communicator. ” • George H. W. Bush: hands-on manager, extensive federal gov’t experience, made decisions based on personal contacts. • Clinton: good communicator; pursued liberal/centrist policies. • George W. Bush: tightly run White House; agenda became dominated by foreign affairs 18 following the September 11 th attacks.
The Veto Power • Veto message-sent within ten days of the bill’s passage, sets forth reasons for not signing the bill. • Pocket veto-bill is not signed ten days before Congress adjourns. • A bill that is not signed within ten days while Congress is still in session becomes a law automatically, w/o president’s approval. • Congress rarely overrides vetoes (2/3 vote). • President does not hold line-item veto power. • See p. 388 -389 19
Executive Privilege • Constitution does not require president to divulge private communications b/t himself and advisers. • Therefore, presidents have acted as though they have the privilege of confidentiality. • For nearly 200 years there was no reason to dispute this claim. • However, actions by JFK, Nixon, and Clinton have caused this claim to come under investigation. • See pgs. 389 -390 20
Impoundment • Presidents have the power to refuse to spend money appropriated by Congress. • The Constitution is unclear about whether the president must spend money Congress appropriates. • It does say, however, that the president cannot spend money Congress has not appropriated. 21
Signing Statements • Many times the president will issue statements along with signing a bill into law. • These signing statements may express the president’s views of the bill, tell the executive branch how to carry out the new law, or declare some part of the bill unconstitutional. • Oftentimes compared to a line-item veto. 22
The President’s Program • Resources in developing a program include interest groups, aides and campaign advisers, federal departments and agencies, and various specialists. • Presidents may choose to have a policy on almost everything (Carter & Clinton) or choose several themes. • Constraints include public and congressional reactions, limited time and attention, and unexpected crises. 23
Presidential Transition • Only fourteen of forty-one presidents have served two full terms (George W. Bush became the 15 th when he finished his full 2 nd term) • Eight vice presidents have taken office upon the president’s death. • 22 nd Amendment (1951)-limits president to serve two (4 -year) terms. 24
The Vice President • Eight times a vice president has become president b/c of the president’s death. • Tyler, Fillmore, A. Johnson, Arthur, T. Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman, L. B. Johnson • Prior to 2000, only five vice presidents won the presidency in an election without having first entered the office as a result of their president’s death. • Jefferson, Adams, van Buren, Nixon, H. W. Bush • The vice president presides over Senate and 25 votes in case of tie.
The 25 th Amendment (1967) • Allows vice president to serve as acting president if president is disabled. • Illness is decided by president, by vice president and cabinet, or by two-thirds vote of Congress. • The new vice president must be confirmed by a majority vote of both houses. • If VP resigns, dies, or succeeds president, president appoints a new VP. • Succession to president: • VP, Speaker of House, president pro tempore, Sec State, Sec Treasury, Sec Defense, etc. 26
Impeachment • Indictment by the House, conviction by the Senate. • Presidential examples: Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon (pre-empted by resignation), Bill Clinton. • Neither Johnson nor Clinton was convicted by the Senate. • See pgs. 397 -398 27
Constraints on the President • Both the president and the Congress are more constrained today due to: • Complexity of issues • Scrutiny of the media • Greater number and power of interest groups 28
Landmark Cases • U. S. v. Nixon (1974)-though the president is entitled to receive confidential advice, he can be required to reveal material related to a criminal prosecution. • Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982)-the president may not be sued while in office. • Clinton v. Jones (1997)-the president may be sued for actions taken before he became president. 29