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Theories of International Relations n n n Realism Idealism (Liberalism) Constructivism Theories of International Relations n n n Realism Idealism (Liberalism) Constructivism

Realism I n n Power: the ability to influence others Irrelevance of morality and Realism I n n Power: the ability to influence others Irrelevance of morality and ethics and law n n n Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Irrelevance of domestic political systems Why is power the only thing that matters? Human nature n Anarchic world: no rules n

Realism II n n All nations are self-reliant To preserve peace use Balance of Realism II n n All nations are self-reliant To preserve peace use Balance of Power US vs. USSR in Cold War n US—China—Japan in East Asia n n Unipolarity cannot last n Nations will balance against US power

England’s Balancing Act England Russia France Prussia/Germany Austria-Hungary England’s Balancing Act England Russia France Prussia/Germany Austria-Hungary

The Cold War Balance of Power 1945 -1990 Israel Ethiopia Taiwan S. Korea S. The Cold War Balance of Power 1945 -1990 Israel Ethiopia Taiwan S. Korea S. Viet Nam W. Berlin W. Germany Syria/Egypt Somalia China N. Korea N. Viet Nam E. Berlin E. Germany Britain/France/Japan Poland/Czech US USSR

Unipolar World EU Japan Russia China India US Unipolar World EU Japan Russia China India US

Power? Power?

US: Weak Neighbors, Big Oceans US: Weak Neighbors, Big Oceans

Power Power

Power? Power?

Power: Information Power: Information

Power: Political Unity/Stability Power: Political Unity/Stability

Power? Shanghai, China Power? Shanghai, China

Power? Jaipur, India Power? Jaipur, India

Power? n Thailand Algeria South Korea Power? n Thailand Algeria South Korea

Power? Power?

Idealism/Liberalism I n n n Power is not the only thing that matters States Idealism/Liberalism I n n n Power is not the only thing that matters States have common interests and common values Trade is the key common interest

Idealism/Liberalism II n n n Global Marketplace Interdependence Desire for rules Desire for predictability Idealism/Liberalism II n n n Global Marketplace Interdependence Desire for rules Desire for predictability and stability International system is based on laws (Treaties) and institutions (UN, WTO) International law

UN General Assembly, New York UN General Assembly, New York

International Court of Justice, The Hague, Netherlands International Court of Justice, The Hague, Netherlands

WTO, Geneva WTO, Geneva

International Law n n Sovereignty Voluntary Choosing cooperation over rivalry Multilateral Treaties Depository International Law n n Sovereignty Voluntary Choosing cooperation over rivalry Multilateral Treaties Depository

Constructivism I n n n Nation-states are not all alike Political culture shapes foreign Constructivism I n n n Nation-states are not all alike Political culture shapes foreign policy Form of government shapes foreign policy History shapes foreign policy Domestic political trends and debates shape foreign policy

Constructivism II n n n States have identity State identity influences the way states Constructivism II n n n States have identity State identity influences the way states interact with each other Examples: China sensitivity to any policies of other states that threaten its unity and sovereignty n US desire to transform the world n

Russian fear of invasion Russian fear of invasion

China 21 st Century China 21 st Century

China: Qing Dynasty 1644 -1911 China: Qing Dynasty 1644 -1911

China: Colonized China: Colonized

US: Woodrow Wilson, 1917 n “The world must be made safe for democracy. Its US: Woodrow Wilson, 1917 n “The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them. “

US: GW Bush, 2005 n “And we have declared our own intention: America will US: GW Bush, 2005 n “And we have declared our own intention: America will stand with the allies of freedom to support democratic movements in the Middle East and beyond, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. “