Скачать презентацию Theme 5 Social Science Historical Materialism Readings to Скачать презентацию Theme 5 Social Science Historical Materialism Readings to

classics-5.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 14

Theme 5. Social Science: Historical Materialism Readings to class: ØMarx K. The German Ideology, Theme 5. Social Science: Historical Materialism Readings to class: ØMarx K. The German Ideology, pp. 1 -66 ØHabermas J. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Cambridge (Mass. ): MIT Press, 1987, Lecture III, pp. 51 -74

Karl Marx (1818 -1883) n Social science in ‘Paris Manuscripts’ (1844), ‘Theses on Feuerbach’ Karl Marx (1818 -1883) n Social science in ‘Paris Manuscripts’ (1844), ‘Theses on Feuerbach’ (1845), ‘The German Ideology’ (1846) n Political economy in ‘The Capital’ (1867) n Revolutionary ideology in ‘The Manifesto of Communist Party’ (1848)

Project of Social Science n n Critique of post-Hegelian philosophy of history: idealistic explanations Project of Social Science n n Critique of post-Hegelian philosophy of history: idealistic explanations of historical process through spiritual factors (absolute idea, self-consciousness etc. ) are misleading speculations Positivist attitude: “Where speculation ends – in real life – there real, positive science begins: the representation of the practical activity, of the practical process of development of men” (The German Ideology) Materialism: the base and driving force of human history is production of means of subsistence; producing their means of subsistence, men are producing their actual mode of life and form of expressing their life Activist attitude: “Philosophers only explained the World in different ways while the point is to change it” (11 th thesis on Feuerbach)

Concept of Labor n n n The labor is an essential function of human Concept of Labor n n n The labor is an essential function of human being: activity & creativity vs. employment & work The labor is basically social relationship Production of material conditions of life is simultaneously production of society ‘relations of production’ are social relations arising in the production process Human essence is realized and developed in activity and sociality

Concept of Alienation n n Current society is characterized by alienation of labor The Concept of Alienation n n Current society is characterized by alienation of labor The properly human activity is experienced as enforced, physically and mentally exhausting ‘job’ The natural alienation presupposes the human being invests his(her) energy and intellect in products of activity, so alienating him(her)self into objects and therefore appropriating and humanizing the nature Under conditions of division of labor the product does not belongs to its producer and therefore the more human being invests of him(her)self in the production the more he(she) loses of humanity Alienation of humanity into objects results in fetishisms: ü commodity fetishism, ü religious fetishism, ü society fetishism n Human activities and relations become objective reality more powerful than its creators

Social Classes n n n n Division of labor and alienation of labor result Social Classes n n n n Division of labor and alienation of labor result in the private property relationship Property relations are basis of division of people into social classes Social class is not some group of people but set of positions in relations among owners of means of production and those who do not have such resources Class struggle is the only form of social relationship in the society based on the private property Ideology is the world-view determined by position in the class and by experience of class struggle Dominant forms of culture express the material interests of the dominant class while the interests of oppressed classes are represented by marginal forms of culture Alienation of labor leads to alienation among people

Idea of Communism n n n The insufficient individual productivity always provoked people to Idea of Communism n n n The insufficient individual productivity always provoked people to establish and maintain division of labor and therefore to reproduce alienation The level of development of productive forces is increasing permanently and at the stage of industrial capitalism the abolition of alienation becomes possible Proletariat as the class totally alienated from current society and from property is the potential force of radical transformation of human existence on the basis of communist principles ‘Crude communism’ is the community having abolished private property and organizing and controlling people’s life ‘Truly communism’ is the process of humanization of activities and social relations through overcoming division of labor and all forms of alienation “Communism is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established, an ideal to which reality have to adjust itself. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. ” (The German Ideology)

Theory of Formations n n Society is the system of all human relations reproducing Theory of Formations n n Society is the system of all human relations reproducing the structure of property relations Relations of production are the real basis (infrastructure) of institutions and forms of consciousness (super-structure) Basis and super-structure can be in correspondence (stable socio-economic formation) or in contradiction (social revolution as formation change) History is a process of development and change of socioeconomic formations: ü Asiatic, Ancient, Feudal, Bourgeois (Marx) ü Primitive communal, Slave-owning, Feudal, Capitalist, Communist (Engels, Stalin)

Social Revolution n n n Productive forces (technologies, resources) are in progress permanently, relations Social Revolution n n n Productive forces (technologies, resources) are in progress permanently, relations of production are fixed by property relations and maintained by political order and dominant ideology New technologies demand new organizational forms socially presented in activities and mode of life of new social groups excluded from established class system When contradiction between new productive forces and established relations of production becomes the conflict social revolution begins ‘Social revolution’ is the broad concept including technological revolution, political revolution, cultural revolution Struggle between old dominant class and new classes social results in the replacement of old institutions by new structures New basis gets new superstructure after political revolutions and introduction of new juridical and political order Next social revolution can begin when new relations of production lose their ability to stimulate development of productive forces and become the barrier to development

Historical Materialism as a Theory of European Revolutions of 1848 n European revolutions of Historical Materialism as a Theory of European Revolutions of 1848 n European revolutions of 1848 exemplify victorious struggle of bourgeoisie as a group driven by ‘material interests’ and radical shift from the old regime to new social order n Logic of Marxian concept of history follows the logic of historical process in that period

Historical Materialism as Radical Bourgeois World-View n The well grounded theory of the industrial Historical Materialism as Radical Bourgeois World-View n The well grounded theory of the industrial capitalism development was generalized and presented as theory of the whole human history n Marx in his own way had interpreted key conceptual problem ‘order vs. progress’: social order is considered to be a system of relationships based on mode of material production and social progress is viewed as a revolution driven by struggle among social classes n Authentic Marxian model of socio-economic formation and social revolution can explain so called socialist / communist revolutions and societies as the specific forms of capitalism n Concepts of formation and revolution express specificity and properties of bourgeois mode of life, so Marxism can be qualified as radical bourgeois world-view

Historical Materialism vs. Scientific Socialism n F. Engels (1820 -1895) with ‘Anti-Dühring’ (1878) and Historical Materialism vs. Scientific Socialism n F. Engels (1820 -1895) with ‘Anti-Dühring’ (1878) and ‘Dialectics of the Nature (1883) developed Marxism as all-embracing system of positive knowledge n Scientific socialism is the bourgeois utopia formulated in terms borrowed from historical materialism, but this utopia contradicts to theory developed by Marx: ü Abolition of individual private property could not create the basis of new formation because the state / public property was only another form of private property ü Proletariat as exploited class could not be revolutionary force and concept of dictatorship of proletariat was nonsense ü Social revolution could be only the shift from one formation to another with another property rights, class differentiation and class struggle, exploitation and alienation

‘Young’ Marx vs. ‘Mature’ Marx n In the 1920 s the early manuscripts of ‘Young’ Marx vs. ‘Mature’ Marx n In the 1920 s the early manuscripts of Marx were published and the debates about ‘authentic’ Marx became constant part of the Marxian theorizing n Orthodox Marxism is oriented to economic and political works written after 1847 and points out theory of surplus value and revolutionary role of the class conflict n Neo-Marxism is oriented to works written before 1848 and pretends to reconstruct Marx’s initial ideas of praxis and emancipation of humankind

Top Ten of Marx n n n n n 11 th thesis on Feuerbach Top Ten of Marx n n n n n 11 th thesis on Feuerbach Alienation Social Revolution Class Struggle Basis and Superstructure Critique of Ideology Formations Materialism Surplus Value Communism