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Theme 5. POPULATION AND LABOUR RESOURCES OF UKRAINE Essence of population and its role Theme 5. POPULATION AND LABOUR RESOURCES OF UKRAINE Essence of population and its role in the national economy 2. Natural increase of population and migratory processes 3. Features of formation and settlement of rural and urban population 4. Able to work and economically active population 1.

1. Population’s role in the national economy Population is a historically formed group of 1. Population’s role in the national economy Population is a historically formed group of people living on a definite territory.

 FISHERMAN HUNTER POTTER FARMER FISHERMAN HUNTER POTTER FARMER FISHERMAN HUNTER MARKET POTTER HUNTER FISHERMAN HUNTER POTTER FARMER FISHERMAN HUNTER POTTER FARMER FISHERMAN HUNTER MARKET POTTER HUNTER

Demography is a social science about the population. Demography is a social science about the population.

Indexes of demographic characteristics of population: quantity of population l dynamics of population l Indexes of demographic characteristics of population: quantity of population l dynamics of population l sex-and-age structure. l

Depopulation is absolute decrease of quantity of population of territories or countries when the Depopulation is absolute decrease of quantity of population of territories or countries when the quantity of following generations is lower than the quantity of previous ones.

According to the State Committee of Statistics the total quantity of population of Ukraine According to the State Committee of Statistics the total quantity of population of Ukraine was 48 457 000 (December, 2001) 45 634 000 (January, 2012)

Changes in allocation of population (1989 vs 2001) Population, thousand people Oblast’s 1989 2001 Changes in allocation of population (1989 vs 2001) Population, thousand people Oblast’s 1989 2001 ARC 2063, 6 2033, 7 Vinnytsya 1932, 6 1772, 4 Dnipropetrovs’k 3881, 2 3567, 6 Donets’k 5332, 4 4841, 1 Zhytomyr 1545, 4 1389, 5 Zoporizhya 2081, 8 1929, 2 Kirovograd 1239, 4 1133, 1 Sumy 1432, 7 1299, 7 Chernihiv 1415, 9 1245, 3 City of Kyiv 2602, 8 2611, 3

Density of population is a relative measure which determines the quantity of habitants per Density of population is a relative measure which determines the quantity of habitants per a unit of area.

The lowest density is in the North-West and the South of Ukraine – less The lowest density is in the North-West and the South of Ukraine – less than 60 pers. /кm². In Chernihiv oblast’– 39 pers. /кm².

The highest density is in the East of Ukraine – more than 90 pers. The highest density is in the East of Ukraine – more than 90 pers. /кm². In Donets’k oblast’– 183 pers. /кm².

Sex structure of Ukrainian population: Male – 22 441 000 persons (46, 3%), Female Sex structure of Ukrainian population: Male – 22 441 000 persons (46, 3%), Female – 26 016 000 persons (53, 7%).

The population of Ukraine is multinational. Representatives of over 130 nationalities live on the The population of Ukraine is multinational. Representatives of over 130 nationalities live on the territory of the country.

National composition of population in Ukraine: 1 – Ukrainians 37 541 700 тыс. чел, National composition of population in Ukraine: 1 – Ukrainians 37 541 700 тыс. чел, (77, 8%), 2 – Russians 8 334 100 чел. (17, 3%), 3 – Byelorussians (275 800), 4 – Moldavians (258 600), 5 – Crimean Tatars (248 200), 6 – Bulgarians (204 600), 7 – Hungarians (156 600), 8 – Romanians (151 000), 9 – Polish (144 100), 10 – Jews (103 600).

The most multinational oblast’s: ARC; Donets’k; Zaporizhya; Odessa The most multinational oblast’s: ARC; Donets’k; Zaporizhya; Odessa

National composition of population in Dnipropetrovs’k oblast’: 70% - Ukrainians; 25% - Russians. Over National composition of population in Dnipropetrovs’k oblast’: 70% - Ukrainians; 25% - Russians. Over 130 nationalities

According to UN’ report UKRAINE is a dying country! FORECAST: by 2050 the population According to UN’ report UKRAINE is a dying country! FORECAST: by 2050 the population of Ukraine will be 27 mln. persons

Since 1 January, 2009 the population has increased in: - Kyiv obl. ; Volyn’ Since 1 January, 2009 the population has increased in: - Kyiv obl. ; Volyn’ obl. ; Rivne obl. ; Zakarpattya obl. ; Ivano-Frankivs’k obl. the population has decreased in: Donets’k obl. (-22 000); - Kharkiv obl. (-15 5000); - Dnipropetrovs’k obl. ( -13 000); - Luhans’k obl. (-12 500) -

l Now more than 9 mln. Ukrainians live outside Ukraine, among them more than l Now more than 9 mln. Ukrainians live outside Ukraine, among them more than 7 mln. in the former USSR republics. l Even if the birth-rate increases to the highest level in Europe (2 children per a woman) and the death-rate reduces to the lowest level in the world (life expectancy – up to 80 years), the quantity of population of Ukraine will diminish during the nearest decade.

The population of Ukraine on 1 September, 2009 was 46 016 000 persons which The population of Ukraine on 1 September, 2009 was 46 016 000 persons which is 127 500 persons lower than on 1 January, 2009

2. Natural increase of population and migratory processes Reproduction of population is a process 2. Natural increase of population and migratory processes Reproduction of population is a process of continuous renewal of generations of people in their historical conditionality.

Natural increase of population is difference between the quantity of born and deceased people Natural increase of population is difference between the quantity of born and deceased people on a definite territory within a definite period of time (it is calculated per 1000 habitants for a year).

The «oldest» population is in Winnytsya, Poltava, Sumy, Cherkassy and Chernihiv oblast’s. The «youngest» The «oldest» population is in Winnytsya, Poltava, Sumy, Cherkassy and Chernihiv oblast’s. The «youngest» population is in Zakarpattya, Rivne oblast’s and the city of Kiev.

Migrations of population are moving of people on territories caused by the change of Migrations of population are moving of people on territories caused by the change of permanent place of residence or work and resulting in the mechanical increase of population.

Types of migrations: l economic l political l religious l humanitarian l seasonal l Types of migrations: l economic l political l religious l humanitarian l seasonal l temporary

Depending on the character of population’s moving they distinguish: l external migrations l internal Depending on the character of population’s moving they distinguish: l external migrations l internal migrations A particular role belongs to “pendulum” migration of labour force – moving from the place of residence to the place of work and back.

Reasons of negative influence of permanent migration on the territory of Ukraine: 1. Most Reasons of negative influence of permanent migration on the territory of Ukraine: 1. Most emigrants are young people under the age of 35. 2. Most immigrants are retired. 3. Level of education of emigrants, as a rule, is much higher than the one of immigrants.

3. Features of formation and settlement of rural and urban population l Settlement – 3. Features of formation and settlement of rural and urban population l Settlement – allocation of population within a territory and forms of its territorial organization as a system of settlements. l They distinguish rural and urban settlements.

Settlement of population Urban settlement City Rural settlement Grouped Conurbation – some compactly located Settlement of population Urban settlement City Rural settlement Grouped Conurbation – some compactly located cities Dispersed City Agglomeration Megapolis Mixed

Agglomeration is a territorial formation which: l appears on the base of a large Agglomeration is a territorial formation which: l appears on the base of a large city; l has a high degree of territorial concentration of different industries; l influences significantly the environment; l has the high level of the economy complexity and territorial integration of its elements.

Megapolis is the largest form of settlement which appeared because of confluence of a Megapolis is the largest form of settlement which appeared because of confluence of a number of smaller neighbouring agglomerations.

The urbanized population’s features: l high density of network and intensity of city settlements; The urbanized population’s features: l high density of network and intensity of city settlements; l high saturation and close relations between population; l variety of choice and high density of contacts.

on 5 December, 2001 there were officially registered: l 454 cities, l 889 – on 5 December, 2001 there were officially registered: l 454 cities, l 889 – towns, l 28616 villages. l l l Among other cities: 46 – with the population 100 000 persons and over, 9 – with the population more than 500 000 pers. , 5 – with the population more than 1 000 pers. , .

4. Able to work and economically active population Labour resources are a part of 4. Able to work and economically active population Labour resources are a part of population who attained the age allowing them to work which is determined by the legislation in every country.

Labour resources in Ukraine include the able to work population: l men in the Labour resources in Ukraine include the able to work population: l men in the age of 16 - 60 years old l women in the age of 16 - 55 years old l working pensioners and teenagers younger 16.

The percentage distribution of age groups of permanent population of Ukraine: l “able-to-work” age The percentage distribution of age groups of permanent population of Ukraine: l “able-to-work” age - 60, 3% l junior than “able-to-work” age - 15, 2% l senior than “able-to-work” age - 24, 5%.

Economically active population includes: l l l l workers and employees independent workers; unpaid Economically active population includes: l l l l workers and employees independent workers; unpaid members of families of the “able-towork” age; seasonal and occasional workers temporally non-working (vacation, illness); students combining work with studies in the part-time mode; people who are being retrained.

Unemployment is an economic phenomenon when a part of economically active population do not Unemployment is an economic phenomenon when a part of economically active population do not have the possibility to apply their labour force.

Types of unemployment: l Forced l Voluntary l Registered l Marginal l Seasonal l Types of unemployment: l Forced l Voluntary l Registered l Marginal l Seasonal l Institutional l Frictional l Structural l Cyclic

The sum of frictional and structural unemployment rates makes the natural unemployment rate which The sum of frictional and structural unemployment rates makes the natural unemployment rate which depends on a number of factors and reaches 4 -6%.

The rate of unemployment among economically active population in the “able-to-work” age (2012) l The rate of unemployment among economically active population in the “able-to-work” age (2012) l Ukraine - 7, 9% (WLO 15 -70); 1, 7 % (official)

Country Latest 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Algeria 10. 00 10. 20 11. 30 Country Latest 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Algeria 10. 00 10. 20 11. 30 11. 80 Angola 25. 00 Austria 4. 30 4. 20 4. 70 4. 20 4. 00 Bosnia and Herzegovina 43. 80 43. 83 42. 75 42. 67 40. 63 42. 86 Bulgaria 12. 30 11. 40 11. 20 7. 90 5. 00 6. 10 China 4. 10 4. 30 4. 20 4. 00 Euro Area 11. 30 10. 40 10. 00 9. 80 8. 20 7. 40 France 10. 20 9. 80 9. 70 10. 00 8. 10 7. 90 Germany 6. 80 6. 60 7. 40 8. 10 7. 70 8. 40 Greece 24. 40 20. 70 14. 20 10. 30 7. 90 8. 07 Israel 7. 00 5. 40 6. 60 7. 30 6. 50 6. 69 Latvia 16. 10 15. 00 17. 20 20. 10 10. 10 5. 40 Poland 12. 40 12. 50 12. 30 11. 90 9. 50 11. 20 Russia 5. 40 6. 10 7. 20 8. 20 7. 80 6. 10 Ukraine 9. 10 8. 60 8. 80 9. 60 6. 90

Opportunities for population’s employment in Ukraine Development of : l private entrepreneurship, l small Opportunities for population’s employment in Ukraine Development of : l private entrepreneurship, l small business, l sphere of services, l farming, l all market infrastructure.