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Theme 12: the Origin, essence and Islam doctrines. 1. Islam occurrence. Its doctrine and the basic essence. 2. A life and Mohammed's activity. The beginning of its prophetical activity. The Mecca and Meccanian periods in Islam. 3. The basic directions and Islam currents. 4. The basic sources of Islam. The Koran and Hadisses.
Islam - monotheistic, the third and the latest date for the emergence of a world religion
The word "Islam" has several meanings, literally translated as "submission" laws of Allah, "acceptance" teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAS). In the terminology of Islamic sharia - is a complete, absolute monotheism, submission to Allah, to his orders and prohibitions, removal of polytheism (shirk). Adherents of Islam are called Muslims.
Muslim communities exist in more than 120 countries, according to various sources are from 1. 2 to 1. 5 billion people (more than 18% of the world population). In the 35 countries of the Muslims is a large part of the population, and in 29 countries, the followers of Islam are a powerful minority. In 28 countries, Islam is recognized state or official religion. It is expected that by 2025, Muslims will make up 31%. Islam is the second largest religion in the world (after Christianity).
Muslim population by percentage worldwide
Arabia is far from Europe, just as between Asia and Africa. While neighbors - Persia, Byzantium and Egypt had glimpses of civilization and Arabia stood in isolation, cut off the desert. In Mecca, the religious center was formed of all the Arabs: in particular the Kaba shrine sacred images were collected, and ritual objects of different Arab tribes. The Arabs were energetic and courageous people who have all the humane qualities of people, intact social progress of time. They were bold and fearless, loved freedom and political independence. Prerequisites for the birth of Islam Along with this, there also negative aspects of their life murders and robberies were part of everyday life, and depravity knew no bounds. In the IV century in Arabia began the decline of caravan trade, as trade routes shifted to the east in Tasmanian Iran. It has violated the economic balance, holding eyelids. Increased need for land, intensified clashes between tribes. Began to feel the need for unification.
Islam originated in Arabia in the VII century BC Prophet Afflatus Muhammad (SAS) about 570 a year - June 8, 632 Koran The last messenger of God, after the envoys will not be until the Last Judgment
Muhammad (SAS) was born in 570 in Mecca Of the tribe of Qurush Mother Father Abdullah sheltered Abdulmuttalib After the death of parents Sheltered Abdulmuttalib Then his uncle Abu Talib Amine
Young Muhammad (SAS) was different from an early age perilous and honesty. When he began to deal in, the people loved him, and out of respect for piety, honesty, justice, and judgment bestowed the honorary name of Al-Amin (trustworthy). At 16, he became a member of the establishment in Mecca "Union honest" whose aim was to protect the rights of merchants.
Prophet Muhammad (SAS) Joined the work sooner First, sheep, and braid the Meccans Later engaged in trade
In 40 years at Mount Hire to the Prophet Muhammad (SAS) Came An angel Jabrail He began to choke him and say: "Read!" "Read! In the name of thy Lord who created man from a clot. Read! And thy Lord is generous, who taught Kalama has taught man that which he did not know " "O Muhammad, you are the Messenger of Allah, and I Hebraic!"
First, students and followers of Muhammad (SAS) His wife Khadija Freedman Zeid ibn al. Harith Ali
The need to help neighbor On the necessity of obedience to God On the omnipotence of God The closeness of the Day of Judgment, to which we must have time to be cleansed of sin Muhammad (SAS) Preached
When the number of followers of Muhammad (SAS) has reached 40, he decided to start a public sermon, called Quraish and said that is the messenger of Allah and invites all to worship the one God. Although Allah belongs to the pantheon of Arabian gods, the Quraish did not believe Muhammad (SAS) and followed him. The people of Mecca reacted to his new work is negative and even tried to kill him, believing dangerous rebel
Start public sermon referred to as 610, The Muslim historical tradition preserved the story of how a few notable Quraish invited Muhammad (SAS) and invited him to become the leader of all the tribes of Arabia, if he wants power, and promises him riches if he wants it. After the rejection of Muhammad (SAS) perturbed Quraish demanded visible proof of his prophethood. They wished that he covered Arabia midst of the stall, held by her rivers, like the waters of Syria and Iraq. But Muhammad (SAS) said that miracles are only the power of God, and he is only the messenger.
Periods of Islam Mecca period Medina period
Periods of Islam Mecca period 610 Muhammad (SAS) has begun the opening sermon At the end of the year more than 615 100 Muslims went to Ethiopia In Mecca, was declared a boycott of the entire family to Muhammad Hashemites lasted 2 -3 years
Medina Period In 619 g uncle Abu Talib died, then his wife Khadija The head of the genus naufal announced that Muhammad took under his wing September 24 622 Muhammad (SAS) and his followers migrated to Yathrib
Medina period In 622 g of place Hijra (migration) Mr. Yathrib became known as Madinat al-nabi "city of the Prophet" Here was built the first mosque (Juma) Muhammad (SAS) is recognized spiritual leader, the deputy of Allah
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Saudi Arabia, is the 2 nd most sacred Mosque in Islam.
The struggle for Islam Battle of the Hip (March 624 The Battle of Uhud (March 625) Battle of the Ditch (March 627)
Medina period Set Hudeybiyskoe 10 -year truce between the Muslims and the Meccans Muslims were allowed for the next year to visit Mecca as pilgrims Arabian tribes related to Mecca, were allowed to enter into an alliance with Muhammad. The Meccans were able to smooth trade with Syria.
Medina period In December, 629 in Mecca, an agreement has been violated ceasefire and non-aggression, when the Quraish attacked Medina allied with the tribe. January 12, troops of 630 Muslims went to Mecca without hindrance. After the conquest of Mecca was conquered Taif.
The main business of the life of Muhammad - the creation of new, original religion. All his preaching activity was aimed at this objective. According to Muslim tradition, he receives revelation came from God, and often God spoke to him from his face, and then Muhammad conveyed these words to people. Muhammad's contemporaries claimed that he led a modest life, content with only the most necessary, fair, gentle, forgiving, patient, characterized by unparalleled generosity and magnanimity, courage and bravery.
Islam - (from Arabic) "submission", "obedience", "submission", "obedience. " The very notion of Islam in Arabic means entrusting themselves to God, ie, the total submission to the will of Allah. God - in Arabic God, the Creator, the Creator and organizer of all things.
According to the precepts of Islam, the nature of God is incomprehensible to the human mind. Iman Porokhova in comments to the canonical Qur'an describes Allah "starting element of all things, the primary source of all life and in His absolute perfection has no substance. . . ". Allah has made all things out of nothing and gave it a measure.
But Allah, the other gods do not exist, and the only object in the service and worship is only one. Allah forbids serving false gods. Serving God elevates man, freeing him from the bondage and worship of mythical images, nature or other people. Paganism, superstition, worship elements and mythical characters - the gravest sins to God, he forgives only with sincere repentance.
The concept of "Islam" is closely intertwined and inextricably linked to the concept of "faith" (iman). Under the general name "Pillars of Faith" means the ideological foundations of religion. In Islamic doctrine, there are six basic postulates
Pillars of Faith: 1. Belief in God - God the creator of all things. 2. Belief in angels a) Gabriel - the angel of revelation. b) Israfil - Angel who blow the day of resurrection. c) Malik guardian angel of Hell. d) Munkar and Nakeer - 2 angels who will ask questions of each person after death. e) Harut and Marut - the angels message to the people of Babylon, to test them for Veri. e) Israel - guardian angel of death paradise. g) Iblis - Angel disobey Allah.
3. The belief in the scriptures. Sacred scripture Allah hath revealed: a). Zabur (Psalms) - Daud (David). b). Tauro (Torah) - Moussa (Moiseyu). a. ) Injil (Evagelie) - 'Eesa (Jesus). g). Karan - Muhammad (SAS).
4. The belief in the prophets. In all there are 124 000 messengers, although the Qur'an mentions only 28. 9 prophets are considered "persistent: Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Dawood (Dawood), Yaqub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joseph), Ayub (Job), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus), Muhammad (SAS) - the last prophet, the "seal of the prophets" - which Allah revealed the Quran.
Prophecy is a blessing of Allah and His mercy, that He may have who will. The study of the lives of various messengers suggests three signs by which you can learn blemish: 1. He is the best in their community for their moral and intellectual qualities. 2. In order to prove that he is not an impostor, he assisted in the form of various miracles. 3. Every prophet states clearly that all perceive them is not its own, and comes from God and is for the benefit of mankind.
1. Formula confession - Shahada (Arabic - certificate) There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad - the Messenger of Allah (La ilaha illa lcrystals, Muhammadur rasullulah). Hadith of Anas ibn Malik says: "What would be the servant of God nor testified that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad - the Messenger of Allah, do it with sincerity in my heart, the Lord will surely remove him from Hell. "
2. Prayer (in Arabic - al-salad, Persian. - Namaz) - awareness of God and communion with him. "Read what you brought home from the Scriptures, and to pray. Verily, prayer prevents from filth and reprehensible. But remember God - is much more important, and Allah knows what you do. "(Surah 29. Spider, verse 45. ).
For every person who converted to Islam, the prayer is obligatory if he is healthy and able to make it. Prayer - Prayer is the main ritual by which God will judge the piety of his work after the resurrection. Prayer in Islam is divided into: 1. Obligatory (Fard and vozhib) 2. Endorses (sunna) 3. Additional (nafilya)
Mandatory conditions for prayer: 1. Ritual purity - if the person is in the desecration; 2. Clean place; 3. Qibla - the person should face towards Makkah (the Kaaba); 4. Intention - a person must be the intention to pray; 5. Clothing - people should be dressed in clean clothes, which corresponds to the Sharia. 6. Sobriety (though prayer man used the haram is not accepted, it is not exempt from the prayer).
3. Payment cleaning donations - Zakat - obligatory annual tax to the poor, the needy, and the development of projects that contribute to the spread of Islam and the true knowledge of it, etc. Once a year, a wealthy Muslim must pay cleansing donation, the amount of which is determined by the type of property and the amount of his income. With incomes paid zakat of 2. 5%. With gold and silver paid 2. 5%, if the weight of gold reached 84. 8 g, and silver 591
4. Fasting in the month of Ramadan - Eid "Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed for those who were before you" (Sura 2, "Al-Baqarah", 183) Every Muslim is required once a year for 30 days in a month to keep the post, which is to refrain from eating, drinking, sexual intercourse, and anything that may violate godly behavior. Fasting is from the rising of the dawn till sunset.
5. Pilgrimage to the Kaba - Hajj "Those people who have the ability, for the sake of Allah must make a pilgrimage to the main temple" (Sura 3, "Al - Imran ', 97) Allah ordered Muslims once in a lifetime pilgrimage to the main temple of God in Mecca. Make it in the first decade of the last month of the Muslim calendar - Dhul-Hijjah. Since not every person in physical or material state can perform the Hajj, it is not strictly necessary for all.
The Kaaba during Hajj
These five pillars are the foundation on which to build a life of Muslims. Islam seeks to create a virtuous person, healthy family and harmonious society. Every Muslim must always be cleaned and improve spiritually, morally and physically, striving to become a perfect person. Muslims should refrain from actions that could corrupt and destroy a person. Even during hours when the religious ceremonies, the followers of Islam should avoid anything that may cause damage to the body and soul: a bad (in terms of Sharia) of food, drinks or bad habits. Is excluded from the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Prohibited from gambling.
Moral norms prescribed by Islam, are very numerous. The following is a list of some of the norms of morality that Muslims should be respected: - Truth (al-Sidky). - Reliability and loyalty (Al Amana). - Sincerity (al-Ikhlas). - Politeness, courtesy and other rules of conversation and argument (adab al-hadith). - Expulsion of anger, hatred, envy, and other vices of the heart (salyamat al-Sadr).
Moral and physical strength (al-kuvva). - Tolerance and forgiveness (al-Hilmi and alsafh). - Modesty (al-Haya). - The dignity and self-esteem (because of al-). - Search for wisdom and knowledge, the desire for self-education and intellectual self (al-'ilm). - The desire to devote all his time and his life to good deeds (Al-Hirsi ala al-VAKT).
- Bounty (Al-Jude wal-karam). - Patience (as-sabr). - Prudent management of your assets (al. Iqtisadi). - Communication, kindness to others (attaaruf). - A passion for cleanliness and beauty (annazafa vattadzhmmul). - Aversion to evil and sin (tadzhannub al aatam wal shubuhat).
Koran - the holy book of Islam. According to the teachings of Islam, the Quran is the direct, eternal and uncreated word of God. The Quran was revealed by God to the seventh heaven, the angel Gabriel and then transferred it to the Prophet Muhammad through the parts of Revelation in the past 23 years of his prophetic activity (oyaty first opened about the year 610, and the final revelation is dated AD 632 - the last year of the life of the Prophet). Quran is Amanat for all Muslims.
The word "Quran" comes from the Arabic Kyra ("read aloud by heart"). The Quran consists of 114 surahs (chapters) and 6616 verses (verses). Qur'an was revealed not only the Arabs, but the rest of humanity - "We have sent you, Muhammad, the messenger but as a mercy to all peoples of all worlds. "
In size verses are very different from each other, ranging from the longest - Sura 2, verse 282 in which, to the shortest 103 rd, 108 th, 110 th, each of which has only three verses. A major exception to this principle is the opening sura Fatiha, which contains seven poems and an introduction to the entire text of revelation:
Initially, the Qur'an memorized by heart. After the battle of Al-Yamamy in 633, and his tragic death in her many companions of the Prophet Omar ibn al-Khattab, who later became the second caliph, Abu Bakr said, that there is a real danger of losing the text of the Holy Quran, which is stored in the memory of faithful Muslims only scattered and fragmentary fragments.
Abu Bakr recognized hazard, and entrusted the task of collecting the revelations to Zayd ibn Tabitha, who, as the chief scribe of the Prophet Muhammad frequently dictated the revelation in her lifetime. In the time of the third Caliph Uthman training last authenticity of the text of the Qur'an was completed in 651. Since then, it remains unchanged.
Quran - a religious book that provides the basis of Muslim law, both religious and civil. The Qur'an encourages people to equality, brotherhood, peace, good works. Particular focus is paid to the generosity, hospitality, courage, patience, kindness, breadth of soul, humanity, generosity, forgiveness, honesty, loyalty and devotion to the people
The first translation of the Koran into Latin was made on behalf of the abbot of the monastery Ktyuni Peter the Venerable (1092 - 1165). Another early Latin translation, associated with the name Mark of Toledo, was performed at the beginning of the XIII century. Overall, early Latin translations were the arrangements of the Qur'anic text, and the main task of the authors was to refute the claims of adherents of Islam in the possession of God sent down the Scripture.
In general, the priority in the study of the Qur'anic text in the XIX century. owned by German Orientalists. In the 70 -ies. XIX c. saw the light of the first Russian translation of the Quran, made from the original source. D. H. Boguslawski (1871) and GS Sabdukova (1878). At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. Prominent Russian Arabists - VV Bartold, A. Schmidt, RF Girgas, AE Crimea - worked fruitfully in koranistiki. A novel approach to the translation of the Quran related to the name of academician IJKrachkovsky, who made a rough translation in the 20's. XX c. , And finished the comments to it until his death.
President R. Uz. Islam Karimov, "I believe that Islam is not a fanatical religion. A person familiar with the Koran, he knows that in this divine book preached humanism, peace, calm, courteous attitude to other religions. . . I am sure that Islam frees man from sin. . . "
Other religious book of Muslims is Sunnah - a collection of stories about the life of Prophet Muhammad (SAS). After the death of the Prophet Mohammad (SAS) were oral traditions about his life and work - Hadith. They formed the main content of the Sunnah.
Pillars of the Sunnah - Hadith (arnovost, news story) is a message from the life of Prophet Muhammad, the legend of his words or actions, involving different religious and legal aspects of the life of the Muslim community. Hadeeth includes two parts: its isnaad (Arabian support) - list of those who communicate to each other the news of the Prophet until his written fixation and badwords (Arabian text) that contains specific information. According to Muslim tradition isnaad is a proof of the truth of what happened to the prophet Muhammad, as the reliance on tradition, on the opinion of authority in Islam is leading.
Belief in Allah Belief in angels Belief in the Scriptures Belief in the Prophets (messengers) of God's Belief in predestination "Pillars of Faith" Belief in the Day of Judgment
Prayer (Namaz) Confession of Faith (Shahada) Закят Fasting (sawm) hajj «Pillars of Islam» Belief in Allah
Muslim Holidays Eid ul - Fitr holiday Kurban Bairam, the great feast of sacrifice
is a direct, eternal and uncreated Word of God holy book of Islam bestowed by God on the Seventh Heaven angel Gabriel conveyed to the Prophet Muhammad in installments (CAC) Amanat is for all Muslims Koran
chronologically released Mecca (90 verses) focuses on the doctrines of prophecy, eschatology, spiritual, and ethical issues Medina (24 verses) more space given to the social, economic issues, rights issues, family relations, tells the story of the ancient prophets, etc.
the brotherhood the equality to civilian life The Qur'an encourages people to To good deeds
The second source of faith after the Quran is Islam Sunnah (Arabian custom, example) example of a life's journey the Messenger of Allah as a reference and guide for the life of the Muslim community as a whole and every Muslim in particular.
Abu Muhammad ibn Ismail Abdullo al-Bukhari (194 (810) 256 (870)). Imam Muslim ibn al-Hazhzhozh (206 (819) -261 (874)). Iso Imam Muhammad ibn al. Termizi Iso (206 (824) -279 (892)). Imam Ahmad al-Naso (215 (830) -303 (915)). Imam Abu Dovud Sulaimon Sizhistoni (202 (817) Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Abdullo Mozhzha (209 (824) -273 (886)).
Currents in Islam The Sunnis (92. 5%) The Shiites (7. 5%)
Shiism Ismailis dzhafaraty zayidity
Sunni Islam - the main branch of Islam, which arose in the 8 -12 centuries in the UAE. Sunni Islam rejects the idea of a special nature, Ali (Ali himself denied it too), and his right to the Imamate, and the idea of mediation between God and man. Sunnis - "men of truth. "
Sunnis recognize the first four caliphs - Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali legitimate successors of Muhammad (SAS). Recognize along with the Koran many traditions (Sunnah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAS) (Hadith al-Bukhari and Muslim).
1. Hanafis. * Appeared in the century in Iran. Founder - Muslim theologian Abu Hanifa, Ibn Nu'mon Sobit (699 -767). 2. Maliki - madhhab based Malik ibn Anas (713 -795). This madhhab preferred standards of early Islam. 3. Shafi - the followers of Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi'i (767 -820). 4. Hanbalis - the followers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780 -833).
Shiites (Arabic band side) - those who hold toward Ali, son in law of the Prophet Muhammad. She appeared in the middle of the 7 th century. Shiism being dogmatic religious doctrine, fought against the power of the caliphs. Shiites recognize the authority of Ali and the 12 imams of his generation.
Many Muslim women do not show their hair in public.
The interior of the Great Mosque of Córdoba, one of the finest examples of Ummayad architecture in Spain.
The Taj Mahal was built by Muslim rulers of the Mughal Empire in Agra, India.
The Sultan Ahmet Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey