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The Will of God in Massachusetts I. Apples and Oranges: New England the Chesapeake The Will of God in Massachusetts I. Apples and Oranges: New England the Chesapeake II. English Calvinism III. The Puritan Community: the “Visible Saints” IV. The Tension Within Terms: Calvinism “Election” Visible Saints “Modell of Christian Charity John Winthrop

Themes: 1) The Puritans believed themselves always subject to the unalterable and foreordained will Themes: 1) The Puritans believed themselves always subject to the unalterable and foreordained will of God. 2) This gave them their sense of community and their arrogance. It was also the cause of their deepest insecurities. 3) This had a long-term effect on American religion.

English Calvinism English Calvinism

John (Jean) Calvin, 1509 -1564 John (Jean) Calvin, 1509 -1564

T. U. L. I. P. T. U. L. I. P.

Geneva Bible, 1560 (first printed in England 1575) Geneva Bible, 1560 (first printed in England 1575)

King James Bible, 1611 King James Bible, 1611

Puritans at Work Puritans at Work

John Donne, 1572 -1631 John Donne, 1572 -1631

The Puritan Community: Settlement The Puritan Community: Settlement

Puritan Migration Puritan Migration

John Winthrop, 1587/8 – 1649 Governor of Massachusetts 13 times John Winthrop, 1587/8 – 1649 Governor of Massachusetts 13 times

The Puritans’ Arrival The Puritans’ Arrival

Main Towns of New England, ca. 1650 Main Towns of New England, ca. 1650

The Puritan Community: Maintaining the “City On a Hill” The Puritan Community: Maintaining the “City On a Hill”

Harvard, 1636 Harvard, 1636

John Harvard, 1607 -1638 John Harvard, 1607 -1638

Bay Psalm Book, first book published in North America, 1640 Bay Psalm Book, first book published in North America, 1640

Bay Psalm Book Bay Psalm Book

“Old Ship” Meeting House, Hingham, MA, 1681 “Old Ship” Meeting House, Hingham, MA, 1681

The Sermon: The Most Common Form of Puritan Intellectual Activity The Sermon: The Most Common Form of Puritan Intellectual Activity

Portrait of Increase Mather (1639 -1723) Pastor, North Church and President of Harvard Portrait of Increase Mather (1639 -1723) Pastor, North Church and President of Harvard

Richard Mather, 1596 -1669 Arrived in Boston, 1635. Minister in Dorchester until his death. Richard Mather, 1596 -1669 Arrived in Boston, 1635. Minister in Dorchester until his death.

Cotton Mather, 1663 -1728 Cotton Mather, 1663 -1728

The Will of God and the Indians The Will of God and the Indians

The Puritans’ Arrival: They Landed in a Place Depleted by Disease The Puritans’ Arrival: They Landed in a Place Depleted by Disease

Seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Indian village surrounded by a stockade. Indian village surrounded by a stockade.

Pequot Massacre, 1637 Pequot Massacre, 1637

Massacre of the Pequots at Mystic, May 26, 1637. Only 14 out of 600 Massacre of the Pequots at Mystic, May 26, 1637. Only 14 out of 600 -700 survived.

The Failure of the Puritan Community I. The Consciousness of Sin - The Spiritual The Failure of the Puritan Community I. The Consciousness of Sin - The Spiritual Journal of John Barnard (1654 -1732) II. The Impossibility of a City on a Hill 1) The Presence of Sin: The True and False Principles of Trade (1639) 2) Compromises with the World: a) The Halfway Covenant b) Sumptuary Laws III. Land, Class and Community

Terms: John Barnard Sumptuary Laws “Spiritual Milk for American Babes” (1646) True & False Terms: John Barnard Sumptuary Laws “Spiritual Milk for American Babes” (1646) True & False Principles of Trade (1639) Halfway Covenant (1662)

Themes: 1) Puritans lived with tremendous inner tension. The consciousness of sin always battled Themes: 1) Puritans lived with tremendous inner tension. The consciousness of sin always battled with the aspiration toward grace. 2) Their perfect community was doomed to failure. Human imperfections and growing social tensions made it impossible to sustain.

The Tension Within The Tension Within

John Cotton, Spiritual Milk for American Babes (1646) reflects the inner anxieties of Puritanism John Cotton, Spiritual Milk for American Babes (1646) reflects the inner anxieties of Puritanism

John Cotton, 15851652 John Cotton, 15851652

The Spiritual Journal of John Barnard The Spiritual Journal of John Barnard

Cotton Mather, 1663 -1728 Cotton Mather, 1663 -1728

His worthiness to receive the Lord’s Supper was a prime concern of Cotton Mather’s His worthiness to receive the Lord’s Supper was a prime concern of Cotton Mather’s parishioner John Barnard (16541732)

The Impossibility of Puritan Community The Impossibility of Puritan Community

"forced worship stinks in God's nostrils“ – Roger Williams arrived in Massachusetts in 1631 and was in exile in Rhode Island by 1636

True & False Principles True & False Principles

Solomon Stoddard’s House, Northampton Stoddard was a major supporter of the Halfway Covenant Solomon Stoddard’s House, Northampton Stoddard was a major supporter of the Halfway Covenant

Sumptuary Laws Attempted to Control How Puritans Dressed Sumptuary Laws Attempted to Control How Puritans Dressed

Community and Land Within a few generations competition for land undermined the early sense Community and Land Within a few generations competition for land undermined the early sense of community.

The Savage Family, a 1779 painting by the New England painter Edward Savage The Savage Family, a 1779 painting by the New England painter Edward Savage