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The War for Independence or The Revolutionary War
SWBAT. . . 1. Describe the differences between the battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill and how they impacted the early part of the War for Independence (the Revolutionary War). 2. Explain three reasons why the pamphlet Common Sense caused colonists to consider independence. 3. Explain how the Declaration of Independence justifies separation from Great Britain’s authority.
Patrick Henry Give me Liberty or give me Death! • March 23, 1775 • Speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses • Purpose:
The Battle of Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775
Planned British March gto n Le xin Concord Approx. 20 miles Boston
Lexington April 19, 1775 • Minutemen. • Confrontation
The British March onto Concord
Skirmish at North Bridge
Flight to Boston • Disaster • Reinforcements • Final Results
The Siege of Boston Begins • What are the Americans missing that would fully encircle the British? Bunker and Breed’s Hill
¼ mile Battle of Bunker / Breed’s Hill
• APR 1775 Siege of Boston begins. • May 1775 Fort Ticonderoga captured with over 50 cannons
300 Miles without Roads! Henry Knox leaves Boston 17 DEC 1775 and returns on 24 JAN 1776
The End of the Siege of Boston • Fort Ticonderoga captured May “ 75. • George Washington named Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. • Winter “ 75 / “ 76 Henry Knox moves cannon 300 miles from Ticonderoga to Boston. • Jan “ 76 Common Sense • March “ 76 cannon placed on Dorchester Heights. • The British evacuate Boston by April 1776. • The war moves to NY.
Society in every state is a blessing, but Government, even in its best state, is a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one. Common Sense Thomas Paine January 1776
Events Preceding • Lex & Concord battle April 1775. • 2 nd Continental Congress meets May 1775 appoint Washington as Commander-in-Chief. • Fort Ticonderoga captured. • Battle of Bunker Hill June 1775. • GW takes command, siege of Boston. • Many still hoping to reestablish good relations with the King – The Olive Branch Petition sent July 1775, neg response Jan 1776. • Battles in Canada fail.
Common Sense published • Released on January 10, 1776 the same day that the King’s response to the Olive Branch Petition received in Philadelphia, “the colonies are in open rebellion. ” • Written to convince Americans to declare Independence, it was America’s “destiny. ” • Logical arguments used. • By June 1776 over 500, 000 copies sold.
Thomas Paine says, “I have heard it asserted by some, that as America hath flourished under her former connection with GB, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument. ” You say. . . • Some have said America prospered being related to England must stay in relationship to continue prospering, I think this is a false hypothesis.
Thomas Paine says, “We have boasted the protection of GB without considering that her motive was interest, not attachment; and that she did not protect us from our enemies on our account, but from her enemies on her own account” You say. . .
Thomas Paine says, “But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families. ” You say. . .
Thomas Paine says, “I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation, to show a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with GB. I repeat the challenge; not a single advantage is derived. ” You say. . .
Thomas Paine says, “Small islands, not capable of protecting themselves, are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something absurd, in suppposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island. In no instance hath nature made the satellite larger than its primary planet. ” You say. . .
Thomas Paine says, “Nothing but independence. . . Can keep the peace of the continent. . A government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power. ” You say. . .
Summer of 1776 • British occupy New York • Washington moves army to New York. • July 4, 1776 The Declaration of Independence released to the public
The Declaration of Indpendence • Handouts – work through vocabulary – Put first three paragraphs into student’s own words – Illustrate the abuses
Summer of 1776 • Summer/fall 1776 battles in New York go badly for the Americans. • Dec 1776 Continental Army retreats to Pennsylvania.
Handicap the War refer to p. 115 Green, p. 127 Red, and handouts.
The Crossing, video worksheet. doc
The Rest of the Rev War
The Campaigns of 1777 • The British move towards Philadelphia • Battle of Brandywine Sept 11, 1777 • Philadelphia occupied by British Sept 26, 1777 • Battle of Germantown October 4 1777
Turning Point – Saratoga • Br Burgoyne surrenders to AM Gates October 1777 • This gives the French confidence to declare alliance (takes many months to arrange)
Winter Quarters at Valley Forge Baron von Steuben
Winter Quarters at Valley Forge • 12/19/1777 Am troops enter Valley Forge • Squalid conditions, sparse food • late February of Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Stuebe aka Baron von Steuben • “They entered a mob, they left as an army!” • Battle at Monmouth, June 28, 1778
The War Moves South • Cornwallis captures Charles Town, SC, with 5500 Am soldiers, Gates retreats • GW sends Greene to take command • In NC, several battles stall the British, Cornwallis retreats to Yorktown
Yorktown, Set-up • GW moves his northern army towards Yorktown coordinating with the French. • A French Navy group from the Caribbean arrived to blockade Yorktown. • 8, 800 Americans, 7, 800 French and 6, 000 British
Yorktown • October 9, 1781 the Siege Begins • Cornwallis waited for reinforcements but they never came • Oct 19, 1781 Cornwallis surrenders
The War Ends • The Treaty of Paris is signed Sep. 3, 1783 • Word reaches America October, 1783 • Page 139, What were the points of the treaty?
New Boundaries of US of A Ceded by Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris 1783 Claimed by Spain Disputed Territory