- Количество слайдов: 26
The United States The Colonized Become Colonizers John Green: Crash Course in Imperialism
Opening Questions • Define imperialism: – The economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker nations. • Why do countries try to take over other countries or influence their policies? – – Obtain overseas markets Naval Bases Power/Prestige Resources • Is it morally justified for a country that fought for its independence from a foreign ruler embark on colonizing themselves?
Opener: Watch Video Clip &… John Green: Crash Course in Imperialism • • List 4 examples of American Imperialism. List 3 things you found interesting. List 2 questions you have after viewing the video. Record 1 reason you agree/disagree with American imperial actions at the beginning of the 20 th century. Share-Out Activity: • Elbow Partner, Small Group, Cross-town Buddy • Record 3 things you learned from your peers
Factors Contributing to US Imperialism • Industrialization – Trade/Commerce/Resources – Technological advances—spur western dominance • Industry Spurs Desire Overseas Markets – Open New Markets for goods; access to resources • Desire Overseas Naval Base – Naval Superiority • “White Man’s Burden”/Manifest Destiny – Whites’ belief: “superior” race; must Christianize the uncivilized world – Destiny to spread west (into Pacific) • Competition—prestige/power…who were we competing with?
Alfred T. Mahan Influences of Sea Power on History • Why does Mahan support a modern Navy? – Control the oceans, control the globe – Bolsters American strength – To protect merchant ships/trade/investments – Establish military bases, overseas, to operate from
The Great White Fleet • What was it? – New U. S. Naval Fleet • What was the goal of this expedition? – Intimidate the rest of the world – Signal to Japan and others—U. S. plans to protect Asian interests
Annexing Hawaii • Why Hawaii? – Need port to refuel and resupply in Pacific – Provide a Naval Base • Role of Sugar Planters – Mc. Kinley Tariff: 1890 • Hurts Hawaiin sugar farmers… why? – Hurt by subsidies given to American sugar farmers – American sugar interests, backed by army…Overthrow the Queen • Push for annexation, Why? – Finally Annexed in 1898
Diplomacy in Latin America • Goals: – Get L. A. to buy American goods, not European • What does this have to do with industrialization? – Access to raw materials – Shorter trade/naval route from the Atlantic to the Pacific – Keep Europeans out of the Western Hemisphere • Control L. A. debt to European nations – Pan-Americanism: • Belief that the U. S. and Latin America should “work together”
U. S. Growing Stakes in Latin America • U. S. Massive Economic Stake in L. America – Agriculture, commodities, mining, oil, govt. securities – 1880 s-1914 (start of WWI), U. S. investment ↑ • Cuba: 7 x • C. America: 4 x • Mexico: over $1. 1 billion • Investment in L. America esp. spurred by U. S. economic recession in 1893…why? • 1898 -1934 U. S. would intervene in L. America 34 times…what was primary motivation for most?
• Causes: Spanish-American War – U. S. Desire to remove European influence…Spain last European power in the W. Hemisphere – U. S. Economic Investment in Cuba (esp. Sugar) – Cuban Civil War Threatens Destruction of U. S. Property – Yellow Journalism • Joseph Pulitzer/William Randolph Hearst • Journalism based on sensationalism, mass exaggerations, and often falsehoods • Sells more newspapers…but also good for propaganda • Report on Spanish atrocities – What was the goal? – USS Maine explodes – Jingoism: • Extreme Patriotism → Aggressive Foreign Policy
Spanish-American War "Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!" “You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war. ”—William Randolph Hearst to his photographer in Cuba
Spanish American War-Impact • Result: American Victory & an Empire is Built – Annex Puerto Rico – U. S. Turns back on Teller Amendment… – Platt Amendment (Cuba) • US Naval Base in Cuba (Guantanamo) • U. S. has right to intervene to protect and keep order • Cuba must minimize its debt to Europe • Blocks treaties w/ other states
U. S. Empire: Expansion in the Pacific • Spanish American War Pacific Acquisitions – Buy the Philippines – Annex Guam • Annex Wake Islands • U. S. Acquires Samoan Islands – Sign Treaty of Berlin w/ Germany
An American Empire
School Begins: 1/25/1899
Anti-Imperialist League • Anti-Imperialist League – Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie – Arguments: • Imperialism violation of America’s values/foundations – Declaration of Independence – Constitution • Defies concept of popular sovereignty – Government can only rule with people’s consent • Racism: Some fear overseas colonies will lead to “nonwhite immigration to the U. S. ” – Actions in the Philippines and Cuba were in direct conflict with ideals
Philippine American War Background Reading
America’s Problem in the Philippines • America Viewed as the “New Spanish” • Filipino demands for independence ignored • Feb. , 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo sparks Filipino guerilla war for independence from America. – Rebellion crushed in 1901 – 4, 200 American deaths – 525, 000 -600, 000 Filipino casualties • Filipinos continue push for independence – Received following WWII (1946)
Trading One Oppressive Government for Another? The Philippines
“Opening the Door” to Asia • US Sec. of State, John Hay, gets U. S. involved in China’s lucrative trade • Open Door Policy (1899) – U. S. , France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Russia, Japan divide China into spheres of influence…opens China’s vast markets to U. S. goods • China weak and taken advantage of by foreigners – Mao Zedong closes off China to the West (1949) • Rising tensions/competition between US and Japan – Japan gains Manchuria
Japan Rising • Introduced to Western Military Technology— 1853, Matthew Perry’s expedition • Meiji Restoration – Japanese Industrial Revolution – By 1890, Modern Military Powerhouse • Create imperial empire – Defeat Russians (1905): Russo-Japanese War • Japan a force to be reckoned with in Asia… lone wolf in world dominated by western powers
Philippines Annexation Debate Prep • Directions: You and Your Partner Must… – Conduct background research on the American annexation of the Philippines and the Philippine Insurrection (1899 -1902) • Take Notes on causes, major events, and effects of the Philippine Insurrection – Know your character and their position on the Philippines annexation, inside out! (In addition to reading the historical figure’s resume provided to you, conduct additional research using the sources at the end of the resume). – Write a half page position paper stating your character’s name, position, and at least 3 specific reasons (with evidence) that your person supported/opposed annexation of the Philippines. – Come up with 3, high-level, critical thinking questions to pose to your classmates during the debate, next class. • Each student must turn in their own position paper and reflective questions, next class.